Tom F D Farrow

Tom F D Farrow
The University of Sheffield | Sheffield · Department of Neuroscience

BSc.(Hons), PhD.

About

78
Publications
17,534
Reads
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4,223
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2013 - present
The University of Sheffield
Position
  • Senior Lecturer in Neuroimaging
February 2002 - January 2003
Westmead Millennium Institute, Univesity of Sydney, Australia
Position
  • Visiting Royal Society Overseas Fellow
July 1999 - September 2013
The University of Sheffield
Position
  • Senior Lecturer in Psychiatric Neuroimaging

Publications

Publications (78)
Article
Full-text available
Background: The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing with the ageing population. The development of low cost non-invasive diagnostic aids for AD is a research priority. This pilot study investigated whether an approach based on a novel dynamic quantitative parametric EEG method could detect abnormalities in people with AD. Methods:...
Article
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We sought to establish the effects on cognitive performance and autonomic arousal of a multi-electrode transcutaneous electrical sensory stimulator compared with single-electrode stimulation. Progressing from a feasibility study (n = 10) to a repeated-measures, within-subject study (n = 67), healthy, right-handed participants (34 male, mean age 28...
Article
Finding robust brain substrates of mood disorders is an important target for research. The degree to which major depression and bipolar disorder are associated with common and/or distinct patterns of volumetric changes is nevertheless unclear. Furthermore the extant literature is heterogeneous with respect to the nature of these changes. We report...
Article
Several studies have investigated the neural basis of effortful emotion regulation (ER) but the neural basis of automatic ER has been less comprehensively explored. The present study investigated the neural basis of automatic ER supported by ‘implementation intentions’. 40 healthy participants underwent fMRI while viewing emotion-eliciting images a...
Article
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The neural basis of progress monitoring has received relatively little attention compared to other sub-processes that are involved in goal directed behavior such as motor control and response inhibition. Studies of error-monitoring have identified the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as a structure that is sensitive to conflict detection, an...
Article
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The neural basis of progress monitoring has received relatively little attention compared to other sub-processes that are involved in goal directed behavior such as motor control and response inhibition. Studies of error-monitoring have identified the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as a structure that is sensitive to conflict detection, an...
Article
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Studies investigating the neurophysiological basis of intrapersonal emotion regulation (control of one's own emotional experience) report that the frontal cortex exerts a modulatory effect on limbic structures such as the amygdala and insula. However, no imaging study to date has examined the neurophysiological processes involved in interpersonal e...
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Emotion regulation (ER) is vital to everyday functioning. However, the effortful nature of many forms of ER may lead to regulation being inefficient and potentially ineffective. The present research examined whether structured practice could increase the efficiency of ER. During three training sessions, comprising a total of 150 training trials, pa...
Article
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Gravitational forces may lead to local changes in subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer thickness, which has important implications for neurophysiological modulation and recording techniques. This study examines the effect of gravitational pull associated with different head positions on the distribution of subarachnoid CSF using structural...
Article
Subjective assessment of emotional valence is typically associated with both brain activity and autonomic arousal. Accurately assessing emotional salience is particularly important when perceiving threat. We sought to characterize the neural correlates of the interaction between behavioral and autonomic responses to potentially threatening visual a...
Article
Several neuroimaging studies have reported structural brain differences in bipolar disorder using automated methods. While these studies have several advantages over those using region of interest techniques, no study has yet estimated a summary effect size or tested for between-study heterogeneity. We sought to address this issue using meta-analyt...
Article
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Subjective assessment of emotional valence is typically associated with both brain activity and autonomic arousal. Accurately assessing emotional salience is particularly important when perceiving threat. We sought to characterize the neural correlates of the interaction between behavioral and autonomic responses to potentially threatening visual a...
Article
The perception and judgement of social hierarchies forms an integral part of social cognition. Hierarchical judgements can be either self-referential or allocentric (pertaining to two or more external agents). In psychiatric conditions such as dissocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the impact of hierarchies may be problematic. We sought...
Article
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In the executive model of deception, the telling of a lie necessitates the inhibition of a veridical prepotent response (the truth), and such inhibition incurs a temporal penalty, manifest as a longer response time. If memory processes are engaged in generating such truths, then memory function should affect truthful and deceptive response times. T...
Article
In this study, we investigated brain mechanisms for the generation of subjective experience from objective sensory inputs. Our experimental construct was subjective tranquility. Tranquility is a mental state more likely to occur in the presence of objective sensory inputs that arise from natural features in the environment. We used functional magne...
Article
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The clock drawing (CD) task involves visual integration skills associated with parietal lobe function. Seven mild Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients and 11 healthy elderly controls (EC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while viewing a radial motion (RM) task. This RM task in EC activated the bilateral secondary visual...
Article
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Visuospatial impairments are known to occur in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesised that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response in task-related brain regions would be impaired in patients with AD during the task and that treatment with acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors would enhance activations in brain regions concerned with thi...
Article
The neural basis of visuospatial deficits in Alzheimer's disease is unclear. We wished to investigate the neural basis of visuospatial perception in patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with healthy elderly comparison subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve patients with AD and thirteen elderly comparison subjects...
Article
Of the few studies that have directly investigated the neuroanatomical correlates of delusions in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia, a number have paradoxically reported a positive correlation between delusion severity and regional grey matter volume. In order to explore this relationship, 31 patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) u...
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Limited behavioural repertoire impacts quality of life in chronic schizophrenia. We have previously shown that the amount of movement exhibited by patients with schizophrenia is positively correlated with the volume of left anterior cingulate cortex and that this quantity of movement can be increased by modafinil. However, increased movement in its...
Article
To identify factors significantly associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression at 3 months post-injury; to develop a generic model to predict the occurrence of PTSD, anxiety, and depression at 3 months post-injury; and to validate this model in a test data set of patients. Prospective cohort study. Participants wer...
Article
Behavioural and functional anatomical responses exhibited by humans support the hypothesis that deception involves the prefrontal executive. Functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (among other areas) is activated during lying, compared with telling the truth. However, despite some consistencies discer...
Article
This study explored the concurrent courses of the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological changes that occurred over the first 2-3 years of illness in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES). Fifty-two patients with FES underwent neuropsychological testing and a structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) scan within three months of their f...
Article
We aimed to investigate cerebellar structural abnormalities and their functional significance in patients with schizophrenia. Forty right-handed men with schizophrenia and 40 sex, age and handedness matched controls underwent a volumetric magnetic resonance scan with 1 mm3 isotropic spatial resolution. Cerebellar grey- and white-matter volumes were...
Article
Familiarity with a speaker's voice has been shown to enhance its auditory processing, implicating physiological effects at the level of the auditory cortex, although auditory cortical involvement has not previously been demonstrated. Eleven healthy right-handed male participants performed two tasks during blood oxygenation level-dependent functiona...
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While schizophrenia has long been considered a disorder of brain connectivity, few studies have investigated white matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, and even fewer studies have investigated whether there is progressive white matter pathology in the disease. The authors obtained a T1-weighted structural magnetic reso...
Article
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with widespread brain atrophy including structures subserving memory. We applied an improved structural detection methodology to examine the less well known progression of atrophy in early-stage AD. We sought to i) longitudinally study volumetric differences in patients with early-stage AD and healthy voluntee...
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Although there is substantial evidence indicating that patients with first-episode schizophrenia exhibit both anatomical and electrophysiological abnormalities, there has been little research investigating the relationship between these two indices. We acquired structural magnetic resonance images and resting electroencephalographic recordings from...
Article
Introduction Empathy, the ability or process ‘to identify with and understand another's situation, feelings and motives’ would initially appear an unlikely candidate for neuroimaging research. Being aware of, and interpreting, other's behaviour on an emotional level is likely to be recently evolved and hence a ‘high-level’ cognitive process. Such c...
Book
The lack of ability to emphathize is central to many psychiatric conditions. Empathy is affected by neurodevelopment, brain pathology and psychiatric illness. Empathy is both a state and a trait characteristic. Empathy is measurable by neuropsychological assessment and neuroimaging techniques. This book, first published in 2007, specifically focuse...
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Avolition affects quality of life in chronic schizophrenia. We investigated the effect of modafinil upon unconstrained motor activity in 18 male patients. In a randomised crossover design study, wrist-worn actigraphic monitors were used to objectively record motor activity over a 20 h period. Patients' total activity was significantly greater when...
Article
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Difficulty with social interactions is a characteristic of schizophrenia. The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain activation changes during a social cognition paradigm in patients with schizophrenia during and after an acute episode and their association with social and executive function. In a longitudina...
Article
We have previously reported a greater than 50% prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in children within 2 weeks of first complicated early childhood convulsion, including significant hippocampal asymmetry unrelated to edema. In a 6-year follow-up study, 8 of the original 17 subjects were reimaged to determine any developments in hippocampal...
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Little is known about the structural brain changes that occur over the first few years of schizophrenia, or how these changes differ from those associated with healthy brain development in adolescence and early adulthood. In this study, we aimed to identify regional differences in grey matter (GM) volume between patients with first-episode schizoph...
Article
That auditory hallucinations are voices heard in the absence of external stimuli implies the existence of endogenous neural activity within the auditory cortex responsible for their perception. Further, auditory hallucinations occur across a range of healthy and disease states that include reduced arousal, hypnosis, drug intoxication, delirium, and...
Article
Full-text available
Avolition affects quality of life in chronic schizophrenia. We investigated the relationship between unconstrained motor activity and the volume of key executive brain regions in 16 male patients with schizophrenia. Wristworn actigraphy monitors were used to record motor activity over a 20 h period. Structural magnetic resonance imaging brain scans...
Article
We examined gray- and white-matter brain volumes in first episode psychosis (FEP) at initial presentation and at two-year follow-up. We predicted that FEP subjects would show longitudinal reductions in fronto-temporal gray- and white-matter volumes compared with controls. Furthermore, we expected groups to be differentiated by diagnosis-related red...
Article
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Lying and deception are common human activities and may occur in a wide variety of clinical contexts. These behaviours implicate higher neural systems within the brains of humans and other primates. Recent functional neuroimaging studies suggest that prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices are particularly engaged during certain forms of decepti...
Article
Previous functional neuroimaging studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have mainly focused on symptom-provocation paradigms in combat-related PTSD. We sought to elucidate the effect of non-combat-related PTSD on the physiology of social cognition. Thirteen patients with PTSD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while the...
Article
Several studies have investigated grey matter reductions in first episode schizophrenia (FES), but few have examined the relationship between grey matter reduction and clinical profile. A group of 31 patients with strictly defined FES and 30 healthy controls underwent T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Voxel-based morphometry in SPM...
Article
Previous structural magnetic resonance (MR) research in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has found smaller hippocampal volumes in patients compared with control subjects. These studies have mostly involved subjects who have had PTSD for a number of years, such as war veterans or adult survivors of childhood abuse. Patients with re...
Article
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An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhib...
Article
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A better understanding of the neural basis of social cognition including mindreading (or theory of mind) and empathy might help to explain some deficits in social functioning in people with schizophrenia. Our aim was to review neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies on social cognition, as they may shed light on the neural mechanisms of social...
Article
Full-text available
A necessary component of lying is the withholding of a truthful response. Hence, lying may be conceptualised as involving the inhibition of an initial, automatic response (the truth) while an alternative response (the lie) is generated. We investigated response times to visually and auditorially presented questions probing recent episodic memory, w...
Article
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy subjects to investigate the neural basis for spontaneous "willed" action. We hypothesised that such action involves prefrontal cortex (PFC) and supplementary motor area (SMA), in addition to primary motor cortex. Furthermore, we predicted that PFC and SMA would demonstrate similar temporal re...
Article
A necessary component of lying is the withholding of a truthful response. Hence, lying may be conceptualised as involving the inhibition of an initial, automatic response (the truth) while an alternative response (the lie) is generated. We investigated response times to visually and auditorially presented questions probing recent episodic memory, w...
Article
Full-text available
We used functional imaging of normal subjects to identify the neural substrate for the perception of voices in external auditory space. This fundamental process can be abnormal in psychosis, when voices that are not true external auditory objects (auditory verbal hallucinations) may appear to originate in external space. The perception of voices as...