Tom Beresford

Tom Beresford
TEAGASC - The Agriculture and Food Development Authority · Department of Food Bioscience

Doctor of Philosophy (Microbiology)

About

128
Publications
26,391
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
6,677
Citations
Citations since 2017
16 Research Items
2897 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
Introduction
Tom Beresford currently works at the Department of Food Bioscience, TEAGASC - The Agriculture and Food Development Authority. Tom does research in Biotechnology, Molecular Biology and Microbiology. Their most recent publication is 'Irish Cheddar cheese increases glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion in vitro but bioactivity is lost during gut transit'.

Publications

Publications (128)
Article
Full-text available
Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are responsible for converting lactose to lactic acid during cheese manufacturing and, as a result, play a critical role in defining the attributes of the final product. There is great interest in isolating novel starter LAB strains to provide alternatives to existing industry cultures or to help enhance the quali...
Article
Izmir Brined Tulum (IBT) Cheese is a traditional semi hard cheese produced in the Aegean region of Türkiye. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates from IBT cheese samples taken during manufacture and from mature IBT cheeses were investigated for their acid producing capability with the aim of detecting LAB strains responsible for acid production in IB...
Article
Previously, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus DPC7102 and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei DPC7150 isolated from commercial Irish Cheddar cheeses were shown to exhibit probiotic traits in vitro. The objective of this study was to investigate how these strains survive in cheese and to explore whether a cheese or fermented milk matrix provided protection duri...
Article
Full-text available
Fermented foods have been a part of human diet for almost 10,000 years, and their level of diversity in the 21st century is substantial. The health benefits of fermented foods have been intensively investigated; identification of bioactive peptides and microbial metabolites in fermented foods that can positively affect human health has consolidated...
Article
The influence of new chlorine‐free milking equipment cleaning protocols was compared with that of traditional chlorine‐based protocols from the perspective of the microbiological quality and chlorine‐related residues in bovine bulk tank milk. Commercial dairy farms using different cleaning protocols were identified, and bulk tank milk from these fa...
Article
The Irish dairy sector is recognised for its very significant contribution to the national economic status; it is now worth ∼€5 billion annually and represents the largest food and drink export category, which, in turn, represents one of the four largest manufacturing industries in the country. Given anticipated further growth in global demand for...
Article
This study was undertaken to assess the potential of Non-Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria (NSLAB) from Cheddar cheese to survive gastric transit and display probiotic-related traits including bile salt hydrolase activity, the ability to adhere to the gut epithelium and inhibition of enteropathogen binding. Populations of NSLAB, up to 10⁷ CFU/g per chee...
Article
Full-text available
Obesity is the main cause of metabolic syndrome, a condition of which includes hypercholesterolemia. Reduced dietary fat absorption through inhibition of pancreatic lipase and/or hydrolysis of bile salts may provoke weight loss and cholesterol reduction. In this study, the potential anti-obesity properties of milk fermented with lactic acid bacteri...
Article
Full-text available
The lipase inhibitory activity method described here was developed to identify potential anti-obesity properties in milk fermented with different strains of lactic acid bacteria via inhibition of pancreatic lipase and a subsequent decrease in fat digestion and absorption in the gut. The method is based on the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl octanoate b...
Article
Full-text available
Consuming fermented foods has been reported to result in improvements in a range of health parameters. These positive effects can be exerted by a combination of the live microorganisms that the fermented foods contain, as well as the bioactive components released into the foods as by-products of the fermentation process. In many instances, and part...
Article
One of the main causes of obesity is an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. One approach to facilitate weight loss is to decrease absorption of energy-rich nutrients by inhibition of pancreatic lipase. A spectrophotometric method was developed to evaluate the potential of milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria to inhibit pancreatic l...
Article
Background: Dairy fat consumed as cheese has different effects on blood lipids than that consumed as butter. It is unknown whether the effect is specific to fat interaction with other cheese nutrients (calcium, casein proteins), or to the cheese matrix itself. Objective: We aimed to test the effect of 6 wk daily consumption of ∼40 g dairy fat, e...
Article
Full-text available
Appetite can be effectively reduced by targeting the production, secretion, circulation time or receptor of the enteric satiety hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The objective of this study was to investigate the potency of Irish Cheddar cheeses to modulate GLP-1 levels. Nine out of ten water-soluble extracts (WSEs) of representative Irish C...
Chapter
Microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast, and molds, are present in cheese throughout ripening. The majority contribute in a positive manner to the maturation process either directly through their metabolic activity or indirectly through release of enzymes into the cheese matrix through autolysis. The cheesemaker encourages growth of such organism...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pasture-based versus indoor total mixed ration (TMR) feeding systems on the chemical composition, quality characteristics, and sensory properties of full fat Cheddar cheeses. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian cows were divided into 3 groups (n = 18) for an entire lactation. G...
Article
In cheese, a negative oxidation-reduction (redox) potential is required for the stability of aroma, especially that associated with volatile sulphur compounds. To control the redox potential during ripening, redox agents were added to the salted curd of Cheddar cheese before pressing. The control cheese contained only salt, while different oxidisin...
Article
Full-text available
Pink discoloration in cheese is a defect affecting many cheeses throughout the world, leading to significant financial loss for the dairy industry. Despite decades of research, the cause of this defect has remained elusive. The advent of high-throughput, next-generation sequencing has revolutionized the field of food microbiology and, with respect...
Article
Full-text available
Milk produced in udder cells is sterile but due to its high nutrient content, it can be a good growth substrate for contaminating bacteria. The quality of milk is monitored via somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts, with prescribed regulatory limits to ensure quality and safety. Bacterial contaminants can cause disease, or spoilage of milk...
Article
Full-text available
Exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was previously shown to have promising hy-pocholesterolemic activity in the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E-deficient (apoE −/−) murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitabil-ity of reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses as functional (carrier) foods for del...
Article
Consumer demands for high quality, safe, nutritious and convenient meat products has provided important insights into the development of a host of processed meat products including fermented meats. It offers unique perspectives for the application of novel functional microbial cultures and promising emerging technologies in the manufacture of ferme...
Article
Full-text available
Sporeforming bacteria are a significant concern for the international dairy industry. Spores present in milk survive heat treatments and can persist during downstream processing. If they are present in sufficient numbers in dairy products they can cause spoilage or lead to illness as a result of toxin production. While many reviews have highlighted...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Water soluble extracts (WSE) of 52 commercial cheeses produced in Ireland were prepared and investigated for their insulinotropic effects in vitro. BRIN-BD11 cells were treated with basal levels of glucose (1.1 mM) for 40 minutes prior to stimulating with 16.7 mM glucose and the WSE (1 mg/mL) for 20 minutes. Out of 52, 16 Cheddar cheese WSE stimula...
Article
Full-text available
Washed (W) and nonwashed (NW) variants of standard (SCa) and reduced-calcium (RCa) Cheddar cheeses were made in triplicate, ripened for a 270-d period, and analyzed for composition and changes during maturation. Curd washing was applied to cheeses to give a target level of lactose plus lactic acid in cheese moisture of 3.9 g/100 g in the W cheese,...
Article
Here we review what is known about the microorganisms present in raw milk, including milk from cows, sheep, goats and humans. Milk, due to its high nutritional content, can support a rich microbiota. These microbes enter milk from a variety of sources and, once in milk, can play a number of roles, such as facilitating dairy fermentations (e.g. Lact...
Article
The microbial composition of raw and pasteurized milk is assessed on a daily basis. However, many such tests are culture-dependent, and, thus, bacteria that are present at subdominant levels, or that cannot be easily grown in the laboratory, may be overlooked. To address this potential bias, we have used several culture-independent techniques, incl...
Article
To understand high amount of production and detailed processing of antihypertensive peptides, Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP), in Lactobacillus helveticus CM4 fermented milk, whole genome sequence of the CM4 strain was completed and compared to previously reported whole genome sequence of L. helveticus DPC4571. It revealed 2,028,493 bp of D...
Article
In this study, the growth of chloramphenicol‐resistant bacteriocin‐sensitive indicator strain Lactobacillus casei DPC 2048CM was evaluated in Cheddar cheese made with bacteriocin‐producing Lactobacillus paracasei DPC 4715. No suppression of growth of the indicator strain was observed in the cheese during ripening, and no bacteriocin production by L...
Article
Cheddar cheese was manufactured in triplicate from mid-lactation milk and analysed over a 270-day ripening period. The curd was washed in the cheese vat to give target levels of lactose plus lactic acid in cheese moisture (LLAMc) in the final cheese of 5.3 (control), 4.5, 4.3 and 3.9% (w/w); these values correspond to the expected LLAMc levels in n...
Article
Full-text available
Here, high-throughput sequencing was employed to reveal the highly diverse bacterial populations present in 62 Irish artisanal cheeses and, in some cases, associated cheese rinds. Using this approach, we revealed the presence of several genera not previously associated with cheese, including Faecalibacterium, Prevotella, and Helcococcus and, for th...
Article
The exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris DPC6532 has been shown to improve yield and functionality of reduced fat cheese. The aim of this work was to characterise the EPS produced by this strain to elucidate its role in fermented milk. The EPS was isolated from fermented skim milk, purified, quantified and imaged u...
Article
  In this study, we compare seven different methods which have been designed or modified to extract total DNA from raw milk and raw milk cheese with a view to its subsequent use for the PCR of bacterial DNA.   Seven extraction methods were employed to extract total DNA from these foods, and their relative success with respect to the yield and purit...
Article
The exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris DPC6532 has been shown to improve yield and functionality of reduced fat cheese. The aim of this work was to characterise the EPS produced by this strain to elucidate its role in fermented milk. The EPS was isolated from fermented skim milk, purified, quantified and imaged u...
Article
The availability and application of culture-independent tools that enable a detailed investigation of the microbiota and microbial biodiversity of food systems has had a major impact on food microbiology. This review focuses on the application of DNA-based technologies, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), temporal temperature gr...
Article
Approximately 80% of the genome of the prolate-headed lactococcal bacteriophage c2 was cloned into shuttle vectors pSA3 and pFX3 in Escherichia coli and transferred to Lactococcus lactis. A 1.67-kilobase EcoRV fragment containing the gene for the phage lysin was identified and the position and orientation of the phage lysin gene in the physical map...
Chapter
Citrate, which is present in the milk at various levels depending on the species of mammals, can be metabolized by a range of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to the end products acetoin, diacetyl, acetaldehyde, acetate, and carbon dioxide. From a commercial perspective, citrate metabolism by Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar d...
Article
The strain Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571 has emerged as a promising flavor adjunct culture for Cheddar cheese given that it is consistently associated with improved flavor. The availability of the complete genome sequence of Lb. helveticus DPC4571 has enabled the search for the presence or absence of specific genes on the genome, in particular t...
Article
Full-text available
Fat-reduced cheeses often suffer from undesirable texture, flavor, and cooking properties. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by starter strains have been proposed as a mechanism to increase yield and to improve the texture and cooking properties of reduced-fat cheeses. The objective of this work was to assess the influence of an exopolysaccharide o...
Article
Full-text available
Lactobacillus helveticus is a versatile dairy bacterium found to possess heterogeneous genotypes depending on the ecosystem from which it was isolated. The recently published genome sequence showed the remarkable flexibility of its structure, demonstrated by a substantial level of insertion sequence (IS) element expansion in association with massiv...
Article
The species Lactobacillus helveticus is a commonly used thermophilic starter and/or adjunct culture for Swiss and Cheddar cheese manufacture. Its use is normally associated with flavour improvement which is known to be associated with culture traits such as rapid autolysis and high proteolytic activity. The genome of the commercial strain, DPC4571,...
Article
Full-text available
The recently sequenced genome of Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571 revealed a dairy organism with significant homology (75% of genes are homologous) to a probiotic bacteria Lb. acidophilus NCFM. This led us to hypothesise that a group of genes could be determined which could define an organism's niche. Taking 11 fully sequenced lactic acid bacteria...
Article
Some species of Staphylococcus found in dairy products can be important in the cheese ripening and particularly for the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheeses. Bacteriological analysis was carried out and the bacteria were enumerated by surface plating on PCA and on Baird Parker. Fifty-four Gram-positive, catalase positive isolates from the...
Article
Full-text available
A total of 468 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates from the interior of six traditional Pecorino Siciliano cheeses during ripening (1, 30 and 90 days) were characterized genotypically in order to assess the biodiversity within this wild microbial population. Two DNA-based technique, PCR and PFGE were used for genetic typing of isolates. Of the 468...
Article
Full-fat Cheddar cheese was high-pressure (HP)-treated (400 MPa for 10 min at room temperature) 1 day post-manufacture. HP treatment resulted in an almost 100-fold reduction in starter bacteria numbers and delayed growth of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB). HP treatment had little or no effect on primary proteolysis in cheese, consistent wi...
Article
Six leading brands of mature/vintage full-fat cheddar cheese were procured from retail stores in Ireland and the UK on six seperate occasions over a six-month period, and analysed for composition, proteolysis, lipolysis and sensory characteristics. The aim of the study was to assess the consistency of leading retail brands of vintage cheddar cheese...
Article
Full-text available
Six leading brands of mature/vintage full-fat Cheddar cheese were procured from retail stores in Ireland and the UK on six separate occasions over a six-month period, and analysed for composition, proteolysis, lipolysis and sensory characteristics. The aim of the study was to assess the consistency of leading retail brands of vintage Cheddar cheese...
Article
The effects a ropy-exopolysaccharide-producing culture (EPSC) on the rennet-coagulation properties of milk at various pH values (6.55-5.75) and syneresis of the resultant gels were examined. A ropy-EPSC was grown overnight in 10% reconstituted skim milk (RSM) and the resultant clotted culture was mixed with RSM at levels of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% E...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile genetic elements are major contributing factors to the generation of genetic diversity in prokaryotic organisms. For example, insertion sequence (IS) elements have been shown to specifically contribute to niche adaptation by promoting a variety of genetic rearrangements. The complete genome sequence of the cheese culture Lactobacillus helvet...
Article
Half-fat Cheddar cheese (∼15%, w/w, fat) was manufactured on three occasions from milk pasteurised at 72, 77, 82 or 87 °C for 26 s, and analysed over a 270 day ripening period. Increasing milk pasteurisation temperature significantly increased the levels of moisture (from ∼45% at 72 °C to 50% at 87 °C), total lactate, and D(−)-lactate in cheese ove...
Article
Insertion sequence (IS) elements were found to be associated with the truncation of predicted cellobiose transport, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and diacetyl reductase genes in the genome of Lactobacillus helveticus DPC 4571. The conservation of the IS elements in these different genomic locations among L. helveticus cheese isolates was determined by...
Article
With 2005 retail sales close to $4.8 million, cultured dairy products are driving the growth of dairy foods consumption. Starter cultures are of great industrial significance in that they play a vital role in the manufacturing, flavor, and texture development of fermented dairy foods. Furthermore, additional interest in starter bacteria has been ge...
Article
Ten commercial Cheddar cheeses of variable quality differing in fat content and age were subjected to compositional, proteolytic, lipolytic and sensory analyses. The compositional parameters of the full-fat cheeses were predominantly outside those typically associated with good-quality cheese. Sensory analysis discriminated the full-fat cheeses pre...
Article
Full-text available
The use of viable or attenuated Lactobacillus helveticus DPC 4571 for use in enzyme-modified cheese production was assessed. Optimal heat shocking conditions for attenuation of DPC 4571 were found to be 69°C for 25 sec. Enzyme-modified cheese was produced from an emulsion of pre-hydrolysed rennet curd, water, and butter fat. This substrate was heat...
Article
The rapid release of intracellular enzymes due to autolysis of lactic acid bacteria in the cheese matrix has been shown to accelerate cheese ripening. The objective of this work was to investigate the evolution of the flavour precursors, individual free amino acids (FAAs), free fatty acids (FFAs) and volatile compounds that contribute to the sensor...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing adjunct starter cultures on the manufacture, composition and yield of half-fat cheddar cheeses (∼16%, w/w, fat) was examined. Four replicate trials were undertaken, in each of which three batches of cheese were manufactured using either a control starter culture alone (CTRL), control starter plus a ca...
Article
Full-text available
A detailed investigation was undertaken to determine the effects of four single starter strains, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 303, Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris HP, Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris AM2, and Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571 on the proteolytic, lipolytic and sensory characteristics of Cheddar cheese. Cheeses produced using the highly auto...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of free fatty acids (FFA) was monitored over 168 d of ripening in Cheddar cheeses manufactured from good quality raw milk (RM), thermized milk (TM; 65 degrees C x 15 s), and pasteurized milk (PM; 72 degrees C x 15 s). Heat treatment of the milk reduced the level and diversity of raw milk microflora and extensively or wholly inactivate...
Article
Full-text available
Cheddar cheeses containing half the normal amount of fat were made in triplicate, with the pH of curd at whey drainage being 5.85, 6.00, 6.15, or 6.30. The resulting cheeses were refrigerated at 4°C for 30 d and at 10°C thereafter, and were analyzed over a 36-wk period. Reducing the drainage pH resulted in significant reductions in the levels of mo...
Article
Changes in the composition and level of proteolysis in the internal portions of Pecorino Siciliano cheese were studied. At the end of ripening, the average moisture, fat and protein concentrations were 33.36, 30.9 and 27.73%, respectively, for winter-made cheese and 35.63, 30.2 and 27.56%, respectively, for spring-made cheese. The average level of...
Article
To assess the contribution of starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to lipolysis in Cheddar cheese, the evolution of free fatty acids (FFAs) was monitored in Cheddar cheeses manufactured from pasteurized milks with or without starter. Starter-free cheeses were acidified by a combination of lactic acid and glucono-delta-lactone. Starter cultures were f...
Article
Full-text available
Fast-ripened Cheddar cheeses for ingredient purposes were produced by addition of a dried enzyme-modified cheese (EMC; 0.25 and 1 g/100 g of milled curd) at the salting stage during a standard Cheddar cheese-making procedure. Populations of starter and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), levels of proteolysis and lipolysis, volatile analysis,...
Article
Cheddar cheeses were manufactured on a pilot scale (500 L vats) with three different Lactobacillus helveticus strains, which showed varying degrees of autolysis, added as adjuncts to the starter. Autolysis of adjunct strains was monitored by reduction in cell numbers, level of intracellular enzymes released into the cheese, and by the consequent ch...
Article
High-pressure (HP) processing has emerged as a commercially successful technology for food applications in recent years. Application of HP to foods can lead to modifications in the interactions between individual components in the food matrix, alteration of enzymatic activity and inactivation of microorganisms. HP treatment of milk and cheese has r...
Article
Cheddar cheese was manufactured using a standard procedure from early-, mid- and late-lactation (LL) milk from a spring calving herd. All cheeses were within acceptable quality thresholds, although some statistically significant compositional differences occurred. The rate of proteolysis over ripening was highest in cheeses made from LL milk and lo...
Article
The microbiological characteristics of Pecorino Siciliano raw ewe's milk cheese were studied. Six batches of cheeses, three made in winter and the others in spring, were examined during ripening. Analyses of the main microbial groups were conducted on the internal part of cheese, whereas micrococci/ staphylococci, halophilic bacteria, yeasts and mo...
Article
Phenotypic tests and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to confirm the classification of 41 isolates of Lactobacillus helveticus obtained from different sources. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA–PCR (RAPD–PCR) was applied to the differentiation of these isolates, which grouped into nine clusters at the 80% similarity level...
Article
Full-text available
Two novel insertion sequence elements, ISLhe1 and ISLhe15, were located upstream of the genes encoding the beta-galactosidase enzyme in Lactobacillus helveticus commercial starter strains. Strains with the IS982 family element, ISLhe1, demonstrated reduced beta-galactosidase activity compared to the L. helveticus type strain, whereas strains with t...
Article
A study was undertaken to determine the effects of high pressure (HP) treatment on the rheological and cooking properties and appearance of reduced-fat Mozzarella cheese (RFMC). RFMC of approx. 10.7% fat was manufactured at pilot-scale. A portion of the cheeses (HP) were tempered at 21 °C for 16 h on day 1, high pressure-treated at 400 MPa for 5 mi...
Article
The impact of elevated ripening temperatures of varying duration to accelerate ripening and flavour development in Cheddar cheese was investigated using multi-variate statistical analysis of biochemical and descriptive sensory data. Descriptive sensory analysis was carried out by 13 trained assessors, using a vocabulary of 21 terms, to quantitative...
Chapter
IntroductionStarter BacteriaGrowth of Starters During ManufactureGrowth of Starters During RipeningAutolysis of StartersSecondary FloraSmear-Ripened CheesesSalt and Acid ToleranceFactors Influencing Growth of Microorganisms in CheeseSpoilage of CheesePathogens of CheeseRaw Milk CheesesMicrobiological Analysis of CheeseFlavor Development During Ripe...
Chapter
A major diversity of microbial flora is associated with cheese ripening. This flora may result from deliberate addition or through adventitious colonisation. The application of molecular techniques to the study of cheese microbiology is providing a valuable insight into the behaviour of individual strains and populations during ripening. Further ch...
Article
In recent years, many dairy product manufacturers pasteurize milk at temperatures higher than 72°C, so as to reduce further the risk of survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. However, little information is available on the effect of these temperatures on cheese quality. Half-fat Cheddar cheeses (∼15%, w/w, fat) were manufactured fro...
Article
The rapid release of intracellular enzymes due to autolysis of lactic acid bacteria in the cheese matrix post-manufacture is thought to play a role in the acceleration of cheese ripening. To investigate this hypothesis Cheddar cheese was manufactured using three related starter systems which varied with respect to their autolytic properties. Starte...
Article
The effect of growth phase, growth medium and storage conditions on the peptidase activities of Lactobacillus helveticus DPC 4571 were examined. Cell free extracts (CFEs) were prepared from both mid-log and stationary phase cells grown in either 10% (w/v) reconstituted skim milk (RSM) or MRS pH 5.4 broth. In general, Lb. helveticus DPC 4571 was fou...
Article
The effects of high-pressure (HP) treatment conditions on proteolysis in Cheddar cheese ripening were investigated by response surface analysis. A second-order central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to study the influences of pressure and processing time in the range 70–400 MPa and 3.5–81.5 h, respectively, at 25 °C. Separate control sa...
Article
Cheese starters (Lactococcus lactis strains 303, 223, 227 and AM2) were subjected to high pressure (HP) in the range 100–400 MPa at 25°C for 20 min either in 0.1 m citrate buffer (pH 5.3), the same buffer containing 4.5% NaCl, or in cheese manufactured using each strain individually as a starter. Inactivation (total viable counts) and cell lysis (r...
Article
Six different culture systems, two controls (A and B) containing mesophilic starter lactococci and four experimental systems (C, D, E and F) containing mesophilic lactococci plus adjunct cultures (all of which contained Lactobacillus helveticus ), were compared for their effects on the quality of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese (175 g/kg fat). Adjunct c...