Tom Vander Beken

Tom Vander Beken
Ghent University | UGhent · Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy

Professor

About

265
Publications
42,655
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1,317
Citations

Publications

Publications (265)
Article
This study demonstrates how temporal summary statistics can be a guiding tool for big data analyses to unravel temporal patterns of crime and police presence. Simple indicator statistics were used to identify temporal clusters of crimes and police presence, and to investigate potential links between the two. The methodology was applied on an anonym...
Article
Full-text available
Research Question What were the spatiotemporal patterns of police patrol in a major European city across the pre-COVID year of 2019, how did these patterns change over time, and to what extent did the concentrations of patrol correspond to concentrations of crimes? Data We analyzed more than 77 million GPS signals from 130 police patrol cars showi...
Article
Establishing police demand is important to optimally allocate scarce police resources in space and time. To contribute to the existing knowledge on the optimization of policing and crime prevention strategies worldwide, we examine the spatiotemporal pattern of calls for service (CFS), with a focus on the urgency of the calls (as measured by the pol...
Preprint
Background. Stigmas and taboos surrounding male sexual violence, stating that men cannot be sexually victimized and would not experience many adverse effect as a result, continue to shroud the issue of male sexual victimization (SV). Male victims, therefore, remain under recognized in research, policy and treatment provisions. Furthermore, knowledg...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Some (minority) groups (MGs) are more vulnerable to sexual violence (SV) exposure than others. Othering-based stress (OBS) may mediate the relationship between minority identification and SV. This study aims to assess the prevalence of SV in different MGs to explore the relationship between minority identification and SV, to investigat...
Preprint
Background: Some (minority) groups (MGs) are more vulnerable to sexual violence (SV) exposure than others. Othering-based stress (OBS) may mediate the relationship between minority identification and SV. This study aims to assess the prevalence of SV in different MGs, to explore the relationship between minority identification and SV, to investigat...
Preprint
Background: Previous studies report vast mental health problems in sexual minorities. Representative national proportion estimates on self-identifying LGB+ persons are missing in Belgium. Lacking data collection regarding sexual orientation in either census or governmental survey data limits our understanding of the true population sizes of differe...
Article
Match manipulation, as one of the most common types of sports fraud, constitutes a significant threat to the integrity of sport and those involved. This paper aims to provide an image of the legal and regulatory framework currently in place to tackle match manipulation in sport against the background of the topics dealt with by the Council of Europ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Previous studies report vast mental health problems in sexual minority people. Representative national proportion estimates on self-identifying LGB+ persons are missing in Belgium. Lacking data collection regarding sexual orientation in either census or governmental survey data limits our understanding of the true population sizes of dif...
Book
Full-text available
After release in early 2009 of an initial set of two volumes in the GofS Research Paper Series, the editorial board is proud to issue a set of two more volumes, compris�ing papers (again all reviewed by international peers, the list of which is set out in the appendix) clustered around two well-profiled research axes. Volume 3 provides new empir...
Article
Full-text available
We systematically review the effectiveness of police presence. In doing so, we investigate concepts of police presence and differences between reported effects. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and protocols, we systematically identify and review eligible studies on police presence. Fu...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 impacts the daily lives of millions of people. This radical change in our daily activities affected many aspects of life, but acted as well as a natural experiment for research into the spatial distribution of 911 calls. We analyse the impact of the COVID-19 measures on the spatial pattern of police interventions. Crime is not uniformly di...
Preprint
Background: Applicants for international protection (AIPs) may be more frequently exposed to sexual violence (SV) than Belgian citizens. Having an overview of the prevalence of SV and help-seeking behavior [HSB] upon SV is crucial to develop prevention strategies and care paths focusing on providing adequate care to AIP SV victims in Belgium. Metho...
Preprint
COVID-19 impacts the daily lives of millions of people. This radical change in our daily activities affected many aspects of life, but acted as well as a natural experiment for research into the spatial distribution of 911 calls. We analyse the impact of the COVID-19 measures on the spatial pattern of police interventions. Crime is not uniformly di...
Preprint
Background: Migrants, applicants for international protection and refugees (MAR) have been identified as vulnerable for sexual violence (SV) victimization. Since many European countries, including Belgium, have been confronted with high migratory pressure, it is important to develop prevention strategies and care paths for MARs affected by SV. Know...
Article
Full-text available
What is European criminology about? Through topic modelling, we investigate the content of 11,724 presentations held at the annual conferences of the European Society of Criminology, the largest and most influential professional association in Europe for those who are actively engaged in research, teaching, and/or practice in criminology, from 2001...
Preprint
This systematic review assesses the efficacy of quantitative police presence. The review also investigates concepts of police presence and differences between reported effects. PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines and protocols are used to systematically identify and review eligible studies on polic...
Preprint
Purpose Police patrol has undergone an evidence-based and data driven transition in the beginning of the 21st century. While crime patterns are well researched, patterns of police presence are not. Despite the abundance of available GPS data, little is known about the spatiotemporal patterns of police forces. Given the paucity of evidence on where...
Article
Objective Connectedness is placed at the heart of the recovery process in mental health care. However, in regard to persons labeled not criminally responsible (NCR), considerations of recovery and connectedness remain in the background. The aim of this study is to understand and explore how individuals labeled not criminally responsible experience...
Chapter
Full-text available
Globally, there are growing calls for Higher Education Institutions to become more civically engaged and socially relevant while increasing public interest in the impact of universities on their localities and regions. Engaged Learning facilitates students to apply theory to real-world contexts outside of the University and to co-produce knowledge...
Article
Scholars have established various risk factors that increase the risk of sexual victimization (SV) among college students. However, little research has focused on gender norm conformity as a risk factor of SV. Addressing this gap in the literature, we conducted a study with 322 men and 815 female university students. Over 51% of women and 23% of me...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: Sexual violence (SV) is a major public health problem, with negative socio-economic, physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health consequences. Migrants, applicants for international protection, and refugees (MARs) are vulnerable to SV. Since many European countries are seeing high migratory pressure, the development of prevent...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of the critical interpretive synthesis (CIS) to review quantitative and qualitative research, and to critically develop new theory, is increasingly recognized and evidenced by the increase in published CIS reviews. However, the flexibility embedded in the method hampers its implementation and exacerbates concerns about trustworthines...
Article
Sexual violence (SV) is an important public health issue with a potential major impact on victims and their peers, offspring and community. However, SV in older adults is under-researched. This paper aims to establish the prevalence and nature of SV in older adults in Europe, link this with existing policies and health care workers′ response to sex...
Preprint
What is European criminology about? Through topic modelling, we investigate the content of 11,724 presentations held at the annual conferences of the European Society of Criminology, the largest and most influential professional association in Europe for those who are actively engaged in research, teaching, and/or practice in criminology, from 2001...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sexual violence (SV) is an important public health issue with a potential major impact on victims and their peers, offspring and community. However, SV in older adults is under-researched. This paper aims to establish the prevalence and nature of SV in older adults in Europe, link this with existing policies and health care workers′ response to sex...
Preprint
Purpose: Research on routine police patrol has experienced little attention in criminology for the past four decades. Despite the fact that little is known about this mode of policing, a consensus seems to prevail regarding its ineffectiveness for crime deterrence and crime prevention. To emphasize this gap of research, this study systematically re...
Preprint
Scholars have established various risk factors that increase the risk of sexual victimization (SV) among college students. However, little research has focused on gender norm conformity as a risk factor of SV. Addressing this gap in the literature, we conducted a study with 322 men and 815 female university students. Over 51% of women and 23% of me...
Article
Full-text available
Police patrol is a complex process. While on patrol, police officers must balance many intersecting responsibilities. Most notably, police must proactively patrol and prevent offenders from committing crimes but must also reactively respond to real-time incidents. Efficient patrol strategies are crucial to manage scarce police resources and minimiz...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual violence (SV) is an important public health issue with a major impact on victims and their peers, offspring and community. However, SV in older adults is under-researched. This paper aims to establish the prevalence and nature of SV in older adults in Europe, link this with existing policies and health care workers' response to sexual health...
Preprint
Objectives: Drawing upon optimal foraging theory, we examine graffiti writers’ individual target preferences to establish the diversity in their target choices (henceforth called “target specialization”). Ecological research implies that the total population of writers can consist of target specialists, generalists, or both. Target preferences are...
Preprint
The importance of the Critical Interpretive Synthesis (CIS) to systematically review quantitative and qualitative research results, and to critically develop new theory is increasingly recognized, as evidenced by the recent increase in published review articles applying CIS. This paper seeks to determine the extent to which published CIS reviews ar...
Article
Full-text available
Missing data is pertinent to criminal networks due to the hidden nature of crime. Generally, researchers evaluate the impact of incomplete network data by extracting or adding nodes and/or edges from a known network. Statistics on this reduced or completed network are then compared with statistics from the known network. In this study, we integrate...
Article
Different stakeholders use forensic DNA databases for different purposes; for example, law enforcement agencies use them as an investigative tool to identify suspects, and criminologists use them to study the offending patterns of unidentified suspects. A number of researchers have already studied their effectiveness, but none has performed an over...
Book
Full-text available
This book is a representation of a multidisciplinary scientific research project as well as a social-artistic photo project. Both describe and depict the strengths of persons subjected to an internment mesasure and of their families. It also sheds light on the longing for a 'normal life' and on the difficulties to shape it.
Article
Recovery and desistance in mentally ill offenders can be more complicated than in respectively general psychiatric or offender populations due to factors and processes on individual, contextual and structural levels. In this paper we focus on a specific element of the interplay between the individual and the contextual level; the working alliance....
Article
Full-text available
Sexual victimization is typically presented as a gender-based problem involving a female victim and a male offender. Science, policy, and society focus on female victims at the expense of male victims. Male sexual victimization is thus understudied compared with female sexual victimization. By performing a critical interpretive synthesis of researc...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an interpretation of the evolution of criminal punishment and prisons in China from an historical perspective. The historical investigation reveals that the current ganhua and paternalistic or fatherly approaches to prison corrections are expressions of an underlying cultural tradition that is deep and abiding, but the existence...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: Sexual violence (SV) is a major public health problem, with negative socio-economic, physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health consequences. Migrants, applicants for international protection, and refugees (MARs) are vulnerable to SV. Since many European countries are seeing high migratory pressure, the development of prevent...
Preprint
Full-text available
1) Background: Sexual violence (SV) is a major public health issue with negative socio-economic and physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health consequences. Migrants, applicants for international protection and refugees (MAR) are identified as a vulnerable group for SV. Since many European countries have been confronted with high migratory pr...
Article
Studying the spatial behaviour of unknown offenders (i.e. undetected offenders) is difficult, because police recorded crime data do not contain information about these offenders. Recently, forensic DNA data has been used to study unknown offenders. However, DNA data are only a subset of the crimes committed by unknown offenders stored in police rec...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental research on residential properties’ vulnerability to burglary usually focuses either on the houses that have been burgled or on the streets in which they are located. This research explores both house and street level in a fixed-effects model and, using tangible CPTED measures, takes a wider perspective to assess vulnerability to burg...
Article
When studying offending behaviour, researchers primarily rely on police-recorded crime data, even though such data contain only detected crimes and known offenders. Using DNA data, which also contain information on unknown offenders, enables researchers to link offenders by identifying their presence at shared crime scenes. In this paper we combine...
Chapter
This chapter draws from a study of the role of prisons in Europe for which the research was undertaken by visiting prisons in six countries, as well as by reading, by observing and by listening to those who could say something about those prisons. The aim of the chapter is twofold. On the one hand, it wants to comment on the methodological choices...
Technical Report
Providing adequate health care is particularly complex for healthcare professionals who treat patients in correctional settings. The prison population is particularly vulnerable, both as regards their physical as their mental wellbeing, amongst others due to their social background. Moreover, prison populations contain a high prevalence of persons...
Article
Purpose Purpose: As a tribute to Eric Broekaert, this paper looks back at a 2004 paper he wrote on the integration of paradigms of care and reports on how this is reflected in an ongoing multidisciplinary study at Ghent University. Design/methodology/approach Method: In 2014 we began a research project to develop multidisciplinary strengths-base...
Article
Full-text available
DNA traces found at crime scenes and DNA records held in databases have already helped the police to solve numerous investigations into specific crimes. The police clearly benefit from the use of forensic science at an operational (i.e. case) level. This paper focuses on the use of forensic DNA at a strategic level: its use in the study of patterns...
Chapter
Between May 2013 and November 2014, I had visited 15 prisons in the United Kingdom, Norway, France, the Netherlands, Italy and Azerbaijan. These prison visits were the backbone of a project inspired by the travels and work of John Howard (1726–1790). Anyone interested in prisons ought to know who John Howard was. His countless visits to institution...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides an in-depth study of the Act on Municipal Administrative Sanctions 1999 (MAS), which is the first major piece of legislation regulating antisocial behaviour in Belgium. MAS provides municipalities with an instrument to sanction antisocial behaviour and conduct perceived to disturb public order. The article uses Garland’s (2001...
Article
Het gelijkwaardigheidsbeginsel bepaalt dat gedetineerden dezelfde kwaliteitsvolle gezondheidszorg moeten genieten als de gezondheidszorg die in de vrije samenleving beschikbaar is. Wat een kwaliteitsvolle gezondheidszorg inhoudt staat onder meer neergeschreven in de Wet Patiëntenrechten. Uit de rechtspraak en de rapporten van nationale en internati...
Article
In 2015 bestelde het Federaal Kenniscentrum voor de Gezondheidszorg (KCE) een studie naar de organisatie van de gezondheidszorg in de Belgische gevangenissen. Het project had onder meer tot doel na te gaan in welke mate de huidige penitentiaire wetgeving de toepassing van de Wet Patiëntenrechten in de weg staat. Onderstaand artikel vat de belangrij...
Article
The recent focus on extending risk assessment and treatment in forensic mental health with protective factors relates to the increasing interest in strengths-based approaches in various professional disciplines: law (e.g. human rights), criminology (e.g. desistance), mental health care (e.g. recovery), forensic psychology (e.g. the Good Lives Model...
Chapter
I have an appointment at seven o’clock this morning at the Master’s Lodge of a Cambridge college. Christopher awaits me there and is keen that we escape the city before the onset of rush hour. It is still dark when I walk down his gravel path and ring the doorbell of his beautiful home. Christopher and Nicki, the Master, invite me to take a seat at...
Chapter
In discussions about prison and penal policy, Scandinavia has a special position. It is a part of the world where highly remarkable and even unique aspects are in evidence. It is said that few people are sent to prison in the first place there. In an age in which the urge to punish, and prison numbers, are swelling in almost every corner of the wor...
Chapter
For John Howard, Italy was anything but a faraway or unknown land. Although it is known that he was not good at Italian—we read of an argument with an interpreter he engaged for a visit in Venice (West 2011, 264)—he went to the country repeatedly and at key moments in his life. His first visit came as part of his grand tour of the Continent as a yo...
Chapter
After his lazaretto stay in Venice, Howard returned home from Italy in 1787. Back in Bedfordshire, he worked on his book on lazaretti and on his Tuscan Laws, and set out on another of his countless prison visiting rounds. Even before his books were published, however, he was itching to go off on longer journeys. This time, in fact, he wanted to tra...
Chapter
France was the first foreign country that Howard ever visited: he was still a teenager when he set out on his Grand Tour. Not much is known of that trip except that he was ill when he came back to Britain. The second time he set foot on Gallic soil, in his early twenties, is much better documented. Although Howard had not really begun his obsession...
Chapter
If there was one country that John Howard delighted in visiting again and again, it was the United Provinces of the Netherlands. When his second wife Henrietta died shortly after giving birth to their son in 1765, Howard was completely at a loss. He had no idea how to carry on with life or how to look after his newborn Jack. After a year and a half...
Book
Full-text available
De aanwijzingen nemen steeds meer toe: sterktegericht werken met mensen met een psychiatrische problematiek die strafbare feiten pleegden levert positieve resultaten op. Dit boek bundelt de beschikbare kennis en reikt handvatten aan om met deze aanpak in de praktijk aan de slag te gaan. Het bevat twee bijdragen van internationale experts: Fergus Mc...
Article
Taking care of a family member with a mental illness imposes a burden on various aspects of family life. This burden may be enhanced if the mentally ill individual has a criminal history. This paper aims to summarize the scientific literature dealing with the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders. We aim to explore th...
Chapter
Full-text available
Book
This book discusses the role of the prison in Europe across a divide of over 200 years. Inspired by the travels of the prison reformer John Howard (1726-1790), who visited prisons across Europe in the eighteenth century, it fundamentally reflects on centuries of the practice of locking people up as punishment. Howard travelled across Europe to visi...