Todd K Shackelford

Todd K Shackelford
Oakland University · Department of Psychology

PhD, Psychology

About

483
Publications
514,564
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Introduction
Distinguished Professor and Chair Department of Psychology Oakland University Publications available at: www.ToddKShackelford.com
Additional affiliations
August 1996 - August 1997
University of Texas at Austin
Position
  • Graduate student and instructor

Publications

Publications (483)
Article
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Objectives: The phrase "level of sperm competition" is used only vaguely in the primate literature. There is also little distinction between the important elements of frequency and intensity of sperm competition, largely because the two current forms of measurement (socio-sexual system and relative testes size) are both proxies which allow neither...
Article
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Sperm competition theory can be used to generate the hypothesis that men alter the quality of their ejaculates as a function of sperm competition risk. Using a repeated-measures experimental design, we investigated whether men produce a higher-quality ejaculate when primed with cues to sperm competition (i.e., imagined partner infidelity), relative...
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Research in evolutionary psychology, and life history theory in particular, has yielded important insights into the developmental processes that underpin variation in growth, psychological functioning, and behavioral outcomes across individuals. Yet, there are methodological concerns that limit the ability to draw causal inferences about human deve...
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Traditional attachment theory posits that attachment in infancy and early childhood is the result of intergenerational transmission of attachment from parents to offspring. Verhage et al. (2016) present meta-analytic evidence addressing the intergenerational transmission of attachment between caregivers and young children. In this commentary, we ar...
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A man whose romantic partner is sexually unfaithful is at risk of sperm competition and cuckoldry—unwitting investment in offspring to whom he is genetically unrelated. Men, therefore, may have evolved mechanisms to solve the adaptive problems of sperm competition and cuckoldry. The current research investigates another potential anti-cuckoldry tac...
Article
At a time when pandemics such as the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) spread rapidly, the deployment of online education is essential. However, to successfully leverage online education in such times, it is important to investigate learners’ motivations and beliefs about online education and associated barriers as well as the role of religious and soci...
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Mate poaching is "behavior intended to attract someone who is already in a romantic relationship." We investigated actor and partner effects of the five-factor personality traits and the dark triad traits on several mate poaching experiences. We used actor-partner interdependence modeling with data secured from both members of 187 heterosexual marr...
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Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been shown to be associated with several negative aspects of intimate relationships. Our goal for the present research was to examine whether ED was associated with men’s use of sexual coercion in their intimate relationships (which may include the use of physical coercion, psychological manipulation, or emotional mani...
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There has been much debate around the ultimate explanation of cultural displays such as music and art. There are two main competing hypotheses for the function of music: sexual selection or byproduct of the complexity of the human brain. Although there is evidence that playing music increases male attractiveness, the sexual selection explanation ma...
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Background There is a vast literature on the negative associations between spanking in childhood and various psychosocial developmental outcomes; yet, control for potential genetic confounds is rare. Objectives The current research aimed to provide probable ranges of estimates of the degree to which genetic and nonshared environmental covariation...
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The purposes of this exploratory, qualitative research are to (a) examine the parental role in providing materials to facilitate learning and play for children with physical disabilities, and (b) identify the difficulties expressed by parents that affect the support provided to their children with physical disabilities. We conducted semi-structured...
Article
We investigated whether women (n = 223) higher in the Dark Triad traits (narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism) are subjected to greater cost-inflicting mate retention behaviors by their long-term romantic partners, and we considered women's desire for marriage as a moderator. We found that women higher in narcissism reported lower levels of ve...
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Mate retention behaviors are associated with several aspects of romantic relationships, but different categories of mate retention behaviors have divergent associations with relationship satisfaction. The present studies examined whether sexual communal strength – which refers to the motivation to meet the sexual needs of one’s partner – mediated t...
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This exploratory research investigates knowledge and beliefs about developmental dyslexia (DD) among public primary school teachers in Saudi Arabia. We explored links between several teacher-related socio-demographic variables (e.g., gender, teaching experience, self-evaluation of teaching children with DD) and knowledge and beliefs about DD. Saudi...
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Male physical formidability may reflect capacities to provision and protect, resource holding potential, and social status. Handgrip strength (HGS) is a robust measure of overall muscular strength and function that correlates positively with ratings of male facial attractiveness and dominance. Here, we examine strength, attractiveness, and aggressi...
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Males of some species use mate retention behavior and investment in ejaculate quality as anti-cuckoldry tactics concurrently while others do so in a compensatory fashion. Leivers, Rhodes, and Simmons (2014) reported that men who performed mate retention less frequently produced higher-quality ejaculates, suggesting that humans use these tactics com...
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Conceptually driven by life history theory, the current study investigated a hypothesized hierarchy of behaviors leading to men's perpetration of violence in intimate relationships. Using a series of hierarchical regressions, we tested a causal cascade model on data provided by 114 men in a committed romantic relationship. The results supported the...
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Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been shown to have a considerable impact on romantic relationships. The purpose of the present research was to examine whether the associations that ED had with men’s mate retention behaviors, partner-directed insults, partner-directed violence, and injuries inflicted on the partner were mediated by suspicious jealousy...
Chapter
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Science has become increasingly interdisciplinary, marked by rapid expansion of social science fields melding with “natural” sciences previously considered less relevant for the study of humans. Psychology, in particular, now depends heavily on insights from medicine, biology, sociology, genetics, and cognitive science, and has done so for years. B...
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Objective: Accuracy in assessing age from facial cues is important in social perception given reports of strong negative correlations between perceived age and assessments of health and attractiveness. In a multi-ethnic and multi-centre study, we previously documented similar patterns of female facial age assessments across ethnicities, influenced...
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We investigated the relationship between Brazilian women’s reported reasons for pretending orgasm, their performance of mate retention behaviors, and their relationship satisfaction. Additionally, we secured evidence of the validity and reliability of a Brazilian-Portuguese adaptation of the Reasons to Pretend Orgasm Inventory (RPOI). Participants...
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Attachment orientations of anxiety and avoidance are associated with many important romantic relationship outcomes. An evolutionary perspective has informed research on the associations between attachment orientations and mate retention behaviors, which individuals perform to retain their romantic partner and maintain their relationship. In the cur...
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We investigated how teachers could be encouraged to develop and enact inclusive practices in their communication with children who have speech, language, and communication needs (SLCN). This research was conducted in Saudi Arabia, where official policy and legislation state that inclusive education is to be supported. The present exploratory, quali...
Book
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"THE MOST IMPORTANT THEORY OF SUICIDE IN THE CURRENT LITERATURE" [Review by Riadh Abed, FRCPsych, Former (Founding) Chair of the Evolutionary Psychiatry Special Interest Group at the Royal College of Psychiatrists (UK)]. --- "This is an important book setting out ground-breaking ideas about the roots of suicide. I have read Cas Soper’s new book as...
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Dance is ubiquitous among humans and has received attention from several disciplines. Ethnographic documentation suggests that dance has a signaling function in social interaction. It can influence mate preferences and facilitate social bonds. Research has provided insights into the proximate mechanisms of dance, individually or when dancing with p...
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Humans extract and use information from the face in assessments of physical appearance. Previous research indicates high agreement about facial attractiveness within and between cultures. However, the use of a narrow age range for facial stimuli, limitations due to unidirectional cross-cultural comparisons, and technical challenges have prevented d...
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The successful implementation of inclusive education depends on many factors, among the most important of which are as teachers’ attitudes about and perspectives on inclusive education. The current study employed a qualitative research design to explore and identify factors that public school teachers identify as obstacles to successful inclusion o...
Preprint
Attachment orientations of anxiety and avoidance are associated with many important romantic relationship outcomes. An evolutionary perspective has informed research on the associations between attachment orientations and mate retention behaviors, which individuals perform to retain their romantic partner and maintain their relationship. In the cur...
Article
Full-text available
Research on attractiveness assessments of men’s dance has shown that raters derive and integrate information about male mating-related qualities into their attractiveness assessments, but prior studies have focused on lay assessors (i.e., individuals with no professional dance background) rather than dance experts. We recruited male and female Russ...
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Genetic quality may be expressed through many traits simultaneously, and this would suggest a phenotype-wide fitness factor. In humans, intelligence has been positively associated with several potential indicators of genetic quality, including ejaculate quality. We conducted a conceptual replication of one such study by investigating the relationsh...
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Reports an error in "Human status criteria: Sex differences and similarities across 14 nations" by David M. Buss, Patrick K. Durkee, Todd K. Shackelford, Brian F. Bowdle, David P. Schmitt, Gary L. Brase, Jae C. Choe and Irina Trofimova (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, May 28, 2020, np). In the article, the...
Article
Previous research investigated only the intrapersonal effects of personality traits on mate retention behaviors. The current study is the first to implement a dyadic perspective to explore interpersonal effects of personality traits on mate retention. We investigated actor and partner effects of the five-factor personality traits on mate retention...
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The empirical study of the role of sperm competition in the evolution of sexual traits has historically been problematic through the inability either to measure sperm competition levels directly in the present or to reconstruct changes in the evolutionary past. Here, we develop and test a procedure based on paternity data that potentially permits b...
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Research in nonhuman animals (including insects, birds, and primates) suggests a trade-off in males between investment in competitive traits and investment in ejaculate quality. Previous research reported a negative association between perceived strength and ejaculate quality, suggesting that this trade-off also applies to human males. We conducted...
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Male risk-taking behavior is associated with personality traits and correlates with hormone titers, notably for testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Yet, these influences may be stronger in some individuals due to context or profession in which risk-taking occurs. We examine this possibility by investigating relationships of personality, aggression,...
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Social status is a central and universal feature of our highly social species. Reproductively relevant resources, including food, territory, mating opportunities, powerful coalitional alliances, and group-provided health care, flow to those high in status and trickle only slowly to those low in status. Despite its importance and centrality to human...
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Debra Lieberman and Carlton Patrick, Objection: Disgust, Morality, and the Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018). 248 pages. ISBN: 9780190491291. Hardcover $27.95. - Yzar S. Wehbe, Todd K. Shackelford
Article
Peers and primary caregivers influence the development of religious beliefs during childhood and adolescence. However, previous research has not assessed whether childhood religious experiences with peers and primary caregivers are differently related to individual differences in adult religiosity. We investigated whether the frequency of childhood...
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Worldwide, 3.0–7.0 percent of school‐aged children meet criteria for a diagnosis of Attention‐Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In Saudi Arabia, ADHD appears to be more prevalent than the worldwide average, with estimates of 12.6–16.7 percent. Unfortunately, there is a relative dearth of research addressing ADHD and related training programs i...
Article
Several sex differences in sexual psychology and behavior have been documented across cultures and across historical periods. These differences have been investigated almost exclusively in young adult samples, however. Using data secured from an older adult sample of retirement center residents in Southeast Florida, USA (n = 186, M = 67.00 years),...
Article
We investigated sex differences in cognitive and moral appraisals of sexual infidelity using the case of General David Petraeus as an example. Because visual stimulation may impact psychological evaluations of other people's behavior, including infidelity, participants were randomly assigned to view either a photograph (n = 127) of General Petraeus...
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Across most of human history, infant and child mortality rates were very high, suggesting the death of a child was a challenge faced by many ancestral parents. Prolonged grief likely harmed grievers’ fitness, yet grief is ubiquitous and often protracted, thereby presenting a puzzle for evolutionary arguments. We integrate existing theories of grief...
Preprint
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A large body of work has investigated the associations between spanking and a wide range of psychosocial outcomes across development. A comparatively smaller subset of this literature, on a narrower range of psychosocial outcomes, has employed genetically-informative research designs capable of estimating the degree to which observed phenotypic eff...
Article
We developed and validated the Reasons for Disagreement in Romantic Relationships Scale (RDRRS). We conducted act nomination (Study 1), investigated the items’ component structure in a sample of newlywed couples (Study 2), and compared responses in the newlywed year to responses three years later (Study 3). First, we identified 82 reasons for disag...
Article
Some research has reported relationships between personality dimensions and ejaculate quality, but this research has methodological limitations. In the current study, we investigated the relationships between six major personality dimensions and ejaculate quality in a design that offered several methodological improvements over previous research. F...
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Disability laws in Saudi Arabia mandate that higher education institutions provide support for special needs learners in order to ensure educational opportunities equivalent to opportunities for their nondisabled peers. These institutions experience challenges, however, in providing the necessary support to undergraduate and postgraduate students w...
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Belief in supernatural agents is ubiquitous, as evidenced by its prevalence in religion, folklore, and cultural practices. It is theorized that, given recurrent ancestral risks of predation and frequent contact with other dangerous agents, mechanisms for agency detection may have evolved and play an important role in facilitating belief in supernat...
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In-group favoritism-a preference for members of one's group-may be evident in non-verbal behavior and may affect moral judgments. We recorded body orientation (towards vs. away from the conversation partner) in 139 dyadic conversations of male Russian alpinists (74 dyads) and members of the Special Forces (65 dyads) by scan sampling at a mountainee...
Article
Schmitt and Buss' (2001) seminal definition of poaching labelled it as “behavior intended to attract someone who is already in a romantic relationship.” Davies, Shackelford, and Hass' (2007) definition stated that to be considered a poach, the targeted individual's relationship must be exclusive and the pursuer must be aware of this at the time. Da...
Preprint
Previous research with North American samples indicates that men who more frequently insult their intimate partners are also more likely to coerce them sexually. We investigated the cross-cultural generality of associations between men's use of partner-directed insults and sexual coercion in Brazil, a South American country with rates of domestic v...
Article
Adult attachment anxiety shows consistent and robust associations with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and IPV victimization. Prior research, however, has not investigated whether this association would be robust to genetic covariation between the traits of interest. We expand the limited research regarding genetic influences on IPV by...
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Objectives Strategic Pluralism Theory contends that human mating strategies are calibrated toward short‐term (ST) or long‐term (LT) mating according to the expression of condition‐dependent traits and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Traits reflecting the effects of testosterone have been considered condition‐dependent traits...
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In industrialized societies, male gait provides information about physical strength. Male physical strength may be used by men and women to assess the fighting ability of rivals and the quality of potential mates, respectively. Women more than men discriminate between strong and weak walkers when assessing gait attractiveness. We presented videos o...
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Previous research indicates that the romantic attachment dimensions of anxiety and avoidance are associated with performance frequency of Benefit-Provisioning and Cost-Inflicting domains of mate retention. The current research aimed to replicate previous findings in a non-Western sample (Iran, Study 1), and to extend this research by investigating...
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Female sexual orientation has received less theoretical and empirical attention than male sexual orientation and few reviews are devoted to female sexual orientation. Moreover, research investigating female sexual orientation often underappreciates insights afforded by evolutionary theory. This review begins with an overview of the literature on fe...