Todd Kincaid

Todd Kincaid
GeoHydros, LLC · Groundwater and Geologic Modeling

PhD

About

54
Publications
13,529
Reads
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133
Citations
Citations since 2016
8 Research Items
51 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022024681012
2016201720182019202020212022024681012
2016201720182019202020212022024681012
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Education
August 1994 - June 1999
University of Wyoming
Field of study
  • Karst Hydrogeology
June 1991 - June 1994
University of Florida
Field of study
  • Hydrogeology
August 1987 - June 1991
University of Florida
Field of study
  • Geology

Publications

Publications (54)
Data
GeoHydros developed a regional‐scale hybrid groundwater flow model that for north Florida to simulate groundwater flow through the Wakulla, Spring Creek, St. Marks, and Wacissa springsheds. Developing this model was the fundamental goal of the Woodville Karst Plain hydrogeologic research project that we and the FGS were engaged in between 2002 and...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Underwater investigations focused on visual inspections of the target areas as well as CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) profiling. Two dive teams were fielded in each area. Each team conducted transect surveys along multiple depth contours leveraging diver propulsion vehicles to cover as much ground as possible, double tanks or rebreather...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Two dives were conducted on October 1, 2020 within approximately 200m of shore off the coast of Mangalia adjacent to Saturn Beach. Eight spring vents in the Mangalia survey area were observed, recorded and characterized. Prolific growth of white bacteria was observed at all spring vents and smaller quantities of bacteria were observed to be coverin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A 3D numerical groundwater flow model is being used to help design and implement a leakage mitigation effort and address related potential failure modes at the Lower Baker Dam in Skagit County Washington. Model outputs are being used to identify the magnitudes and distribution of pressure heads and groundwater velocities throughout the rock mass an...
Technical Report
Full-text available
GeoHydros, LLC was contracted by the Marina Coast Water District to review the 2016 version of the North Marina Groundwater Model (NMGWM) with specific regard to the findings derived from that model and reported in Section 4.4 and Appendix E2 of the CalAm Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project Draft EIR/EIS dated January 2017 and used as the basis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
GeoHydros completed a steady-state, dual-permeability, 3D numerical model of groundwater flow through the western Santa Fe River basin in north-central Florida for the Coca-Cola Company. The model was constructed using FEFLOW™ and successfully simulated groundwater flow through karstic conduits embedded in a permeable matrix. Springs, swallets, map...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to calculate recharge to the surficial aquifer system (SAS) and the upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) in 13 UFA groundwater basins in north-central Florida that cover all or parts of four numerical groundwater models: the North Florida Model (NFM), the North-Central Florida model (NCF), and Northeast Florida model (NEF), an...
Technical Report
Full-text available
GeoHydros, LLC was contracted by Coastal Ocean Association of Science and Technology (COAST) to evaluate the number and location of active OSTDS within the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) and the Wakulla-St. Marks River drainage basins and to construct a groundwater flow and nitrogen transport model for the region of southern Brevard County which drains...
Technical Report
Full-text available
GeoHydros was originally contracted by Ginnie Springs Outdoors, Inc. to evaluate a regional-scale steady-state equivalent porous media groundwater flow model of north Florida that was developed for the Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD) in 2008 by the SDII Global Corporation (NFM-08) and compare the results of that model to the result...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Groundwater capture zones were defined for 22 major spring basins (springsheds) and the City of Gainesville's municipal well field in north-central Florida corresponding to low-water and high-water years: 2002 and 2005 respectively. To foster as much consistency as possible, the maps were generated from potentiometric surfaces derived from datasets...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to develop a map delineating zones of comparable recharge to the Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) in and around the City of Tallahassee (COT), Florida. Previous studies that addressed recharge did so in either a qualitative manner or in a manner that resulted in broad overly general delineations and magnitude estimations....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A new hydrostratigraphic framework model (HFM) has been developed for the Pahute Mesa region of the Nevada National Security Site. The model encompasses an area of more than 2,700 km2 to a depth of more than 9 km. It includes 53 hydrostratigraphic units, 33 normal faults, 11 transverse faults, 2 detachment faults, 1 thrust fault, and 7 calderas. Th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Computer simulations of complex geologic environments are often performed with dedicated solids modeling software as opposed to conceptual modeling packages bundled with groundwater modeling programs. This approach results in more sophisticated framework models and better visualizations, however, translating the resulting framework into flow modeli...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report describes results from activities performed in 2011 and 2012 by GeoHydros, LLC for the Woodville Karst Plain Hydrologic Research Program, overseen by the University of West Florida and the Florida Geological Survey. The primary objective of the 2011-2012 activities was to revise the hybrid numerical groundwater flow model that GeoHydros...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hydrogeologic studies are commonly constrained by a localized interest or by political policies. Data collection and analysis are performed only within a few counties, a management district or a state even though the hydrogeologic system may extend to a much greater extent. The result of these localized studies can range from significant inconsiste...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Florida Department of Environmental Protection Springs Initiative Program and the Florida Geological Survey initiated collaborative groundwater tracing study in 2005 in order to delineate the direction and rate of groundwater flow passing beneath the City of Tallahassee’s wastewater spray field (Southeast Farm Wastewater Reuse Facility) and to id...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report describes results from activities performed in 2010 by GeoHydros, LLC and the Florida State University for the Woodville Karst Plain Hydrologic Research Program, overseen by the Florida Geological Survey. Specific activities described include: 1) Installation of a piezometer network in and around Shell Point to be sampled for water le...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a Triad case study in which 3D solids modeling and visualization techniques were used to rapidly analyze field data and guide daily data collection efforts. The process delineates data gaps in the 3D spatial trends of multiple geotechnical parameter values and automates output generation allowing model information to be conveye...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report describes results from activities performed in 2009 by H2H Associates for the Woodville Karst Plain Hydrologic Research Program, overseen by the Florida Geological Survey. The primary objectives of the 2009 activities were: 1) expand the hydrologic monitoring network; 2) update the online Data Portal; 3) Repeat the Lost Creek Tracer Tes...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In groundwater flow modeling, aquifer permeability is typically defined through model calibration. Since the pattern and size of conduits are part of a karstic permeability framework, those parameters should be constrainable through the same process given a sufficient density of measured conditions. H2H Associates has completed a dual-permeability...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The combination of diffuse and conduit flow regimes make karst aquifers extremely dynamic flow systems that are difficult to numerically simulate. It is typically assumed that the fundamental problems associated with simulating karst aquifer flow stem from inadequacies of the available modeling codes and incomplete knowledge of the conduit networks...
Conference Paper
Quantitative groundwater tracing involves the addition of a known quantity of conservative artificial tracer to a groundwater flow system and then measuring the mass of tracer recovered over time at down-gradient sampling locations. Generally accepted benefits of this characterization approach include a defensible delineation of groundwater flow pa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report describes results from activities performed in 2008 by H2H Associates for the Woodville Karst Plain Hydrologic Research Program, overseen by the Florida Geological Survey. The primary objectives of the 2009 activities were: 1) statistical analysis of hydraulic meter data to support statistical modeling; 2) continuation of hydrologic mon...
Technical Report
Full-text available
H2H Associates was contracted by Tarmac America to conduct a field survey of the Waccasassa Bay area west of the proposed King Road Mine (Quarry) aimed at documenting groundwater discharges. The purpose of the investigation was to qualitatively identify the location and approximate magnitude of any springs that exist along Gulf Coastal margin down-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Groundwater tracing and cave mapping conducted in the Woodville Karst Plain of north Florida have revealed an extensive dendritic network of saturated conduits, more than 70 km in total length, that convey water to Wakulla Spring from the northeast, north, northwest, and south. In some places, the conduits are known to connect to swallets and in ot...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Groundwater flow in the Santa Fe River Basin (SFRB) and the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP) in northern Florida is controlled by large volume karst conduits that transport groundwater and surface water to large discharge points such as Wakulla and Hornsby Springs. Tracer tests have confirmed that these conduits receive surface water input from sinking...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wakulla Spring is a first-magnitude spring fed by flow within a dendritic network of deep ( 85 m below the water table) karst tunnels and having many notable hydrologic features, including flashy discharge, constancy of water temperature (less than 1°C) and strong tidal influence (observed in flow, temperature, electrical conductivity and water lev...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since its official inception in 1990, the mission of Global Underwater Explorers' Woodville Karst Plain Project (WKPP) has been to explore, survey, and protect the underwater cave systems of North Florida's Woodville Karst Plain. On December 15 2007, the WKPP exploration team of Jarrod Jablonski and Casey McKinlay conducted a seven mile underwater...
Chapter
Full-text available
Field trip guide book including full page maps
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report describes results from activities performed in 2005-2006 by Hazlett-Kincaid Inc for the Woodville Karst Plain Hydrologic Research Program, overseen by the Florida Geological Survey. The primary objectives of the 2005-2006 activities were: 1) Develop a web-based user interface to a database for hydrologic data in the WKP that HKI initiat...
Article
Full-text available
Regional groundwater flow in karstified carbonate aquifers typically occurs via a connected system of conduits, rather than in a porous matrix. This feature makes such aquifers difficult to characterize and quantify and they are among the most poorly modeled of all physical systems. Current models drastically overpredict travel times of pollutants,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Quantitative groundwater tracing is being used in the Woodville Karst Plain of North Florida to characterize the hydraulic complexities of conduit flow for numerical modeling purposes. Accordingly, seven tracer tests were performed along both mapped and unmapped pathways ranging from 2.5 to 19.5 km in length utilizing between 0.7 and 4.5 kg of fluo...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report describes results from activities performed in 2003-2004 by Hazlett-Kincaid Inc for the Woodville Karst Plain Hydrologic Research Program, overseen by the Florida State University Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute and the Florida Geological Survey. The primary objective of the 2003-2004 effort was to establish a long-term characteriz...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report describes the results of tasks performed for the Florida State University Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute and the Florida Geological Survey aimed at characterizing and describing the karst hydrogeology of the Woodville Karst Plain Florida. Specific activities performed included: 1) development of an ArcGIS database of mapped underw...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A three-dimensional (3-D) geologic framework model (GFM) is developed and applied to site environmental issues during the design phase of a large, complex, rail construction project. The GFM enables the visual and quantitative assessment of geospatial relationships between structural, geological, and environmental data. Such data includes subsurfac...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cleanup activities at the Defense Support Center Philadelphia (DSCP) facility in South Philadelphia involve a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) plume covering an area over 60-acres. Characterizing the extent and volume of the plume has been problematic and involved the work of more than six environmental consultants over the past 7 years with...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Taurus Mountains are an extension of the Alps into Anatolia. The karstified region extends for over 200 km across the mountains from central Anatolia to the Mediterranean Sea and follows the trend of the mountains across the entire length of Southern Turkey from the Aegean coast to Iran.The mountains reach heights of 2,500 - 3,000 m and are cha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Four underwater (fully saturated) caves in southern Turkey near the city of Antalya were exploredand mapped during the 1995-1996 KarstDive project. The caves include Kirkgoz-Suluin, Kirkgoz-1spring cave, Finike-Suluin, and Dudenbasi spring cave. Kirkgoz-Suluin and Kirkgoz-1 spring cavesare located in the Kirkgozler region of the Taurus Mountains ab...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Clean fresh water is rapidly becoming one of the most precious natural resources worldwide. Groundwater, the water beneath the land surface that occupies and flows through variably sized void spaces in rock and soil, accounts for 22% of the world’s total fresh water supply as compared to all surface water bodies at 0.3%. Karst groundwater resources...
Chapter
Full-text available
A method is presented for producing interactive three-dimensional geometric and parameter models of saturated cave systems from survey data. Two and three-dimensional gridding is used to construct the outer surface of the caves and to describe the spatial distribution of a measured parameter throughout the modeled cave system. Three computer progra...
Thesis
Full-text available
This dissertation is an analysis of saturated (water-filled) cave morphologies in relation to through-flow ground water velocities. The goal of this work is to answer two questions. (1) What factors control the morphologic structure of a saturated cave? (2) What is the relationship between morphologic structure and cave development? Specific object...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid infiltration of river water into unconfined parts of the Floridan aquifer represents a significant component of subsequent ground-water discharge in regions where the aquifer is dissected by surface streams. A two-year investigation of the Devil's Ear cave system, an extensive saturated conduit network in the Floridan aquifer which underlies...
Technical Report
Full-text available
KarstDive-95 was the first of two underwater cave exploration and survey expeditions to southern Turkey conducted a team of U.S. and Turkish divers (one in 1995 and one in 1996). Four caves that had been previously described at a cursory level by a Yugoslavian team of cave divers, were explored and surveyed. Two of these (Kirkgoz-1 and Kirkgoz-Sulu...
Thesis
Full-text available
The Devil's Ear cave system is an extensive network of phreatic karst conduits that are directly overlain by the 1.5 km reach of the Santa Fe River between Rum Island and July springs. The cave and the river are situated on a karst limestone plain where the Ocala Limestone is exposed at the surface leaving the Floridan aquifer unconfined. Fluctuati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Groundwater tracing done in 2008 and 2009 reveal that Wakulla Spring and Spring Creek Spring Group (vent #1) ( both 1st magnitude springs) the latter approximately 16 km down-gradient from Wakulla Spring on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, are connected via one or more conduits. Both Wakulla and Spring Creek springs display a very large range in di...
Conference Paper
In spring 1992, a recharge--discharge groundwater tracing experiment was conducted in order to establish the general location of recharge and investigate the interrelationships of three springs in close proximity (Rum Island, July, and Little Devil's) on the Santa Fe River, Florida. The study area lies within the High Springs Gap physiographic prov...

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Projects

Projects (4)
Archived project
Map and characterize karst groundwater flow paths and velocities in sufficient detail to parameterize and calibrate a hybrid numerical model of conduit flow through the Upper Floridan Aquifer such that cross-basin scale conduit flow is accurately simulated.
Project
Find, map and characterize submarine springs along the coast of the Black Sea. Quantify the magnitude of present-day discrete submarine groundwater discharge and develop or improve coastal water budgets.
Project
Develop a better understanding of karst aquifer complexities and how those complexities can best be simulated numerically.