Toby Gifford

Toby Gifford
Monash University (Australia) · Sensilab

About

42
Publications
9,815
Reads
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372
Citations
Citations since 2017
24 Research Items
336 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
Additional affiliations
April 2011 - January 2017
Griffith University
Position
  • Lecturer
July 2010 - June 2011
Queensland University of Technology
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (42)
Article
Monitoring freshwater systems can prove difficult. Sampling regimes can influence outcomes by attracting or scaring target taxa and in extreme circumstances can injure the species. Ecoacoustics—an emerging discipline focusing on the ecological investigation of environmental sound—can overcome these difficulties and provide a continuous data stream...
Article
Full-text available
Freshwater ecoacoustics is an emerging field that involves underwater audio recordings to detect the presence, location, and density of species in noninvasive and unbiased ways. Conducted long-term, ecoacoustics provides information on biophysical changes and environmental patterns that can advance freshwater conservation. River Listening is an int...
Article
Machines incorporating techniques from artificial intelligence and machine learning can work with human users on a moment-to-moment, real-time basis to generate creative outcomes, performances and artefacts. We define such systems collaborative, creative AI systems, and in this article, consider the theoretical and practical considerations needed f...
Article
• Passive acoustic monitoring is gaining momentum as a viable alternative method to surveying freshwater ecosystems. As part of an emerging field, the spatio-temporal replication levels of these sampling methods need to be standardised. However, in shallow waters, acoustic spatio-temporal patchiness remains virtually unexplored. • In this paper, we...
Article
• Applications in bioacoustics and its sister discipline ecoacoustics have increased exponentially over the last decade. However, despite knowledge about aquatic bioacoustics dating back to the times of Aristotle and a vast amount of background literature to draw upon, freshwater applications of ecoacoustics have been lagging to date. • In this spe...
Conference Paper
This paper describes practice-based research in the reflexive dimensions of cinematic VR, using alienation and disembod-iment as rhetorical devices. Cinematic VR currently focuses on immersive illusion rather than inducing self-awareness, but VR can also create reflexive contexts for eliciting self and social reflection. Anonymous is an interactive...
Article
Biodiversity in freshwater habitats is decreasing faster than in any other type of environment, mostly as a result of human activities. Monitoring these losses can help guide mitigation efforts. In most studies, sampling strategies predominantly rely on collecting animal and vegetal specimens. Although these techniques produce valuable data, they a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Contemporary musical aesthetics, as a field in the humanities , does not typically argue for the existence of aesthetic universals. However, in the field of computational creativity, universals are actively sought, with a view to codification and implementation. This article critiques some statistical and information-based methods that have been us...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Collaboration is built on trust, and establishing trust with a creative Artificial Intelligence is difficult when the decision process or internal state driving its behaviour isn't exposed. When human musicians improvise together, a number of extra-musical cues are used to augment musical communication and expose mental or emotional states which af...
Chapter
This paper examines five key questions surrounding computer generated art. Driven by the recent public auction of a work of “AI Art” we selectively summarise many decades of research and commentary around topics of autonomy, authenticity, authorship and intention in computer generated art, and use this research to answer contemporary questions ofte...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper examines five key questions surrounding computer generated art. Driven by the recent public auction of a work of `AI Art' we selectively summarise many decades of research and commentary around topics of autonomy, authenticity, authorship and intention in computer generated art, and use this research to answer contemporary questions ofte...
Preprint
Collaboration is built on trust, and establishing trust with a creative Artificial Intelligence is difficult when the decision process or internal state driving its behaviour isn't exposed. When human musicians improvise together, a number of extra-musical cues are used to augment musical communication and expose mental or emotional states which af...
Article
• Ecoacoustic methods are increasingly used to monitor the state of populations and ecosystems. In freshwater environments, they present the clear advantages of being non‐invasive, reducing bias, and providing continuous observations instead of only limited sampling snapshots in time. However, similar to standard bioassessment methods, temporal var...
Presentation
Biodiversity in freshwater habitats is decreasing faster than in any other environment, mostly due to human activities. Monitoring these losses can help guide mitigation efforts. In most comparative or focal studies, sampling strategies predominantly rely on collecting animal and vegetal specimens. Although these techniques have produced valuable d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Musebots are autonomous musical agents that interact with other musebots to produce music. Inaugurated in 2015, musebots are now an established practice in the field of musical metacreation, which aims to automate aspects of creative practice. Originally musebot development focused on software-only ensembles of musical agents, coded by a community...
Article
Computational music systems that afford improvised creative interaction in real time are often designed for a specific improviser and performance style. As such the field is diverse, fragmented and lacks a coherent framework. Through analysis of examples in the field, we identify key areas of concern in the design of new systems, which we use as ca...
Conference Paper
Improvisational interfaces are human-machine systems for improvising creatively with. To facilitate research in this field, we seek some general approaches to evaluating the quality of a particular interface, and the success of a given improvisation. Drawing on a broad array of improvisational practices across music, visual art and drama, we draw o...
Conference Paper
Improvisational interfaces are human-machine systems for improvising creatively with. To facilitate research in this field, we seek some general approaches to evaluating the quality of a particular interface, and the success of a given improvisation. Drawing on a broad array of improvisational practices across music, visual art and drama, we draw o...
Article
The recent emergence of the interdisciplinary fields of ecoacoustics and sound studies has resulted in a dramatic increase in both artists and scientists engaged in the practice of audio field recording for a diversity of purposes. The recording techniques used vary substantially reflecting differing loci of interest. We argue that both fields coul...
Article
River Listening is an interdisciplinary research project exploring the cultural and biological diversity of global river systems through sound. The project examines the creative possibilities of accessible and noninvasive recording technologies to monitor river health and engage local communities in the conservation of global river systems. River L...
Article
Full-text available
Acoustic ecology is a dynamic interdisciplinary field that studies the social, cultural, and ecological aspects of our environment through sound. In the context of UNESCO biosphere reserves that seek to reconcile the conservation of cultural and biological diversity, acoustic ecology offers valuable tools to understand environmental and cultural ch...
Article
Musical duets are a type of creative partnership with a long history of artistic practice. What can they tell us about creative partnerships between a human and a computer? To explore this question, we implemented an activity-based model of duet interaction in software designed to support musical metacreation and investigated the experience of perf...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This position paper suggests a novel approach to enhancing productivity for professionals whose core business is deep thinking, by manipulation of the sonic environment. Approaching the issue from the perspective of sound-design, it proposes the composition and algorithmic generation of background soundscapes that promote a psychological state of f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite a long history of generative practices in music, creation of large-scale form has tended to remain under direct control of the composer. In the field of musical metacreation, such interaction is generally perceived to be desirable, due to the complexity of generating form, and the necessary aesthetic decisions involved in its creation. Howe...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a series of algorithmic techniques for melody generation, inspired by models of music cognition. The techniques are designed for interactive composition, and so privilege brevity, simplicity, and flexibility over fidelity to the underlying models. The cognitive models canvassed span gestalt, preference rule, and statistical le...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
River Listening is a practice-led research collaboration between independent artist Dr. Leah Barclay and the Australian Rivers Institute to explore new methods for acoustically monitoring three Queensland river systems: the Brisbane River, the Mary River and the Noosa River. The project involves the establishment of site-specific listening labs to...
Article
Full-text available
What design factors contribute to an illusion of agency in a computational system? Our previous research [1, 2] has investigated this question in the context of creative human-machine musical partnerships, where we identified musical behaviours implying machine agency from the perspective of a human performer. This paper investigates an audience pe...
Chapter
A fundamental assumption in the fields of human-computer interaction and usability studies is that interfaces should be designed for ease of use, with a few exceptions such as the trade-off with long-term power. In this chapter it is argued that in music interaction the situation is far more complex, with social, technical, artistic, and psychologi...
Chapter
One of the roles that interactive music systems can play is to operate as real-time improvisatory agents in an ensemble. A key issue for such systems is how to generate improvised material that is musically appropriate, and complementary to the rest of the ensemble. This chapter describes some improvisation strategies employed by the Jambot (a rece...
Article
Full-text available
We advocate for the use of predictive techniques in interactive computer music systems. We suggest that the inclusion of prediction can assist in the design of proactive rather than reactive computational performance partners. We summarize the significant role prediction plays in human musical decisions, and the only modest use of prediction in int...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the Motivator, a newly developed Computer Assisted Composition (CAC) tool for generating variations of melodic motives. The motivator helps composers to make Gestalt switches in interpretation of multistable motives, generates variations that preserve structural tones in a given interpretation, and suggests variations that enhance the m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we describe some interaction strategies employed by the Jambot – an interactive music system that we have recently developed. In particular we outline three approaches that the Jambot uses to mediate between imitative and intelligent actions. The approaches are (i) mode switching based on confidence of understanding, (ii) filtering an...
Article
Full-text available
We aim to demonstrate unaided visual 3D pose estimation and map reconstruction using both monocular and stereo vision techniques. To date, our work has focused on collecting data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, which generates a number of
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses a method, Generation in Context, for interrogating theories of music analysis and music perception. Given an analytic theory, the method consists of creating a generative process that implements the theory in reverse. Instead of using the theory to create analyses from scores, the theory is used to generate scores from analyses...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the use of the Chimera Architecture as the basis for a generative rhythmic improvisation system that is intended for use in ensemble contexts. This interactive soft- ware system learns in real time based on an audio input from live performers. The paper describes the components of the Chimera Architecture including a novel anal...
Article
Full-text available
We have developed a new experimental method for interrogating statistical theories of music perception by implementing these theories as generative music algorithms. We call this method Generation in Context. This method differs from most experimental techniques in music perception in that it incorporates aesthetic judgements. Generation In Context...
Article
Full-text available
1. Abstract Generative music algorithms frequently operate by making musical decisions in a sequence, with each step of the sequence incorporating the local musical context in the decision process. The context is generally a short window of past musical actions. What is not generally included in the context is future actions. For real-time systems...
Article
Full-text available
This paper outlines a system for machine improvisation with a human performer where the focus is limited to the provision of rhythmic complementarity. Complementarity is achieved through the real-time measurement of metrical coherence in currently playing rhythmic material that informs the generation of subsequent material. A robust computational a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a new onset detection algorithm for the extraction of percussive attack times from a musical audio signal. The crux of the technique is to search for patterns of increasing noise in the signal. We therefore refer to it as the Stochastic Onset Detection (SOD) technique. This technique is designed for use with complex audio sign...

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Projects

Projects (4)
Project
River Listening is an interdisciplinary research project exploring the cultural and biological diversity of global river systems through the emerging field of freshwater ecoacoustics. The project examines the possibilities of accessible and noninvasive recording technologies to monitor river health and engage local communities in the conservation of global river systems. River Listening combines emerging fields of science with acoustic ecology, conservation technology and participatory action research to further our understanding of aquatic biodiversity and inspire action at a time when the conservation and management of freshwater ecosystems is a critical priority. The project is currently focused around developing accessible hydrophone recording kits for remote installations, real-time listening networks, sound maps and acoustic databases.
Project
Acoustic ecology is a dynamic interdisciplinary field that studies the social, cultural, and ecological aspects of our environment through sound. In the context of UNESCO biosphere reserves that seek to reconcile the conservation of cultural and biological diversity, acoustic ecology offers valuable tools to understand environmental and cultural changes from a diversity of perspectives. Biosphere Soundscapes is a large-scale interdisciplinary research project conceived in 2011 that studies and records the changing soundscapes of UNESCO biosphere reserves. The project is underpinned by the creative possibilities of acoustic ecology and rapidly emerging fields of biology concerned with the study of environmental patterns and changes through sound. Biosphere Soundscapes sits at the intersection of art and science, with the recordings providing valuable scientific data for biodiversity analysis and rich source material for education programs, community engagement and creative works that bring awareness to these environments. This project is designed to inspire communities across the world to listen to the environment and explore the value of sound as a measure for social, cultural and environmental health in UNESCO biosphere reserves. Biosphere Soundscapes is delivered through immersive residencies with artists and scientists, research laboratories, intensive masterclasses, virtual education programs and a diversity of creative projects spanning four continents. Biosphere Soundscapes is designed as a platform for local and global communities to connect and collaborate in exploring the creative and scientific possibilities of acoustic ecology in UNESCO biosphere reserves.