Tobias H. Stark

Tobias H. Stark
Utrecht University | UU · European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations - ERCOMER

PhD

About

39
Publications
19,103
Reads
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951
Citations
Citations since 2016
24 Research Items
835 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
Introduction
Tobias H. Stark currently works at the European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations - ERCOMER, Utrecht University. Tobias does research in Quantitative Social Research and Social Psychology.

Publications

Publications (39)
Article
Ethnic minorities from more traditional countries tend to hold more conservative views towards homosexuality compared to the ethnic majority population in Western Europe. Assimilation theory predicts that this difference diminishes over time because of exposure and contact between these groups. The role of ethnic classroom composition in this proce...
Article
How do people form their attitudes toward complex policy issues? Although there has long been an assumption that people consider the various components of those issues and come to an overall assessment, a growing body of recent work has instead suggested that people may reach summary judgments as a function of heuristic cues and goal-oriented ratio...
Article
Egocentric network studies and many general population surveys rely on proxy reports about network contacts of study participants that are asked in name interpreter questions. A central concern is the extent to which proxy reports match the answers these contacts would give themselves if they would be directly interviewed. Based on the theory of su...
Article
In the context of the current “replication crisis” across the sciences, failures to reproduce a finding are often viewed as discrediting it. This paper shows how such a conclusion can be incorrect. In 1981, Schuman and Presser showed that including the word “freedom” in a survey question significantly increased approval of allowing a speech against...
Article
Full-text available
Egocentric network studies and many general population surveys rely on proxy reports about network contacts of study participants that are asked in name interpreter questions. A central concern is the extent to which proxy reports match the answers these contacts would give themselves if they would be directly interviewed. Based on the theory of su...
Article
Full-text available
Interethnic contact is important for social cohesion and has been shown to vary with people’s socio-economic status (SES). There is some evidence that SES has opposite effects on interethnic contact for non-Western ethnic minorities and for majority members in Western countries. Whereas minority members with a higher SES tend to have more contact w...
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Rejection of Muslim religious practices in West European societies is typically explained by prejudicial feelings towards Muslims as a group. However, although people can oppose Muslim religious practices because they feel negatively towards Muslims as a group, they might also have more general reasons for doing so. By simultaneously considering mu...
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How are social and intellectual relations structured and given shape within research universities? To answer these questions, we test to what extent various theoretically predicted processes explain the dynamics of academics' networks of collaboration and shared language use in a unique longitudinal data set (1994 to 2005) of 2,631 faculty at a lar...
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Research has examined tolerance of Muslim minority practices and anti-Muslim sentiments. We go beyond the existing research by applying latent profile analyses (LPA) on majority member’s evaluations of a range of Muslim practices and their feelings toward Muslims. We found five different subgroups of individuals among a sample of Dutch majority mem...
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The increasing use of smartphones around the world provides new opportunities for network data collection using smartphone surveys. We investigated experimentally whether the use of smartphones and of a recall aid affects the number of reported names in a network name generator question. In a German online access panel (N = 3891), respondents were...
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Questionnaire design is routinely guided by classic experiments on question form, wording, and context conducted decades ago. This article explores whether two question order effects (one due to the norm of evenhandedness and the other due to subtraction or perceptual contrast) appear in surveys of probability samples in the United States and 11 ot...
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In the last 60 years, the proportion of white Americans expressing anti-black prejudice in face-to-face survey interviews has declined dramatically. To test whether social desirability pressures affect the expression of anti-black prejudice, we analyzed a within-subjects experiment in the 2008 American National Election Study in which white respond...
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Research has shown that adolescents’ intergroup attitudes are subject to friends’ influence, but it remains unknown if certain friends are more influential than others. Popular adolescents may be especially influential of their friends’ intergroup attitudes because they can set peer norms. We examined several indicators of popularity in social netw...
Article
Full-text available
According to the extended contact hypothesis, direct intergroup contact is not necessary for prejudice reduction; it suffices to know that ingroup friends have outgroup friends. However, extended contact is typically measured in a way that does not clarify whether people know the outgroup friend of their ingroup friend or whether they are even dire...
Article
This study examines whether negative contact with immigrants promotes voting for radical right-wing parties, to what extent this relationship can be explained by feelings of outgroup threat, and whether this relationship depends on perceived personal and collective self-efficacy. Hypotheses were tested among 630 native Dutch respondents, mainly liv...
Chapter
This chapter explains the design of the multinational study of questionnaire design (MSQD) and the challenges faced when implementing the project across countries. It then elaborates on the sampling and online implementation of the questionnaire, as well as the questionnaire design experiments selected for the study. The aim of the MSQD was to cond...
Chapter
Full-text available
Individual-level social network data are critical to understanding the dynamics that shape many important social outcomes. Survey research is one of the most common methods for collecting these data from individuals. However, there are a number of challenges that this particular task, mapping social networks, poses to survey-based data collection m...
Article
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Research has established that adolescents both befriend peers based on their academic achievement and adjust their own achievement to that of their friends’ over time. However, these processes may be different for ethnic minority students, because some of them may adhere to an oppositional culture that rejects striving for academic success. We exam...
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This study investigated how students’ ethnic pride was related to variation in ethnic composition between classrooms as well as within the same classroom over time. Predictions derived from Optimal Distinctiveness Theory (ODT) were tested among 13 to 14 year old ethnic majority and minority students (N=1,123). Lending support to ODT, a curvilinear...
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This study (1) tested the effectiveness of a new survey tool to collect ego-centered network data and (2) assessed the impact of giving people feedback about their network on subsequent responses. The new tool, GENSI (Graphical Ego-centered Network Survey Interface), allows respondents to describe all network contacts at once via a graphical repres...
Article
This study tests how the density of the social network in which intergroup contact takes place might affect the extent to which contact improves intergroup attitudes. Having contact with more outgroup members in dense social networks, in which everybody knows each other, may reinforce contact's positive effect. In this case, outgroup contact is sha...
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This study examines how classroom and neighborhood ethnic diversity affect adolescents' tendency to form same- versus cross-ethnic friendships when they enter middle school. Hypotheses are derived from exposure, conflict, and constrict theory. Hypotheses are tested among 911 middle school students (43 classrooms, nine schools) in the Netherlands. M...
Article
Immigrants who strongly identify with the host country have more native friends than immigrants with weaker host country identification. However, the mechanisms underlying this correlation are not well understood. Immigrants with strong host country identification might have stronger preferences for native friends, or they might be more often chose...
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Full-text available
Research has found that prejudiced people avoid friendships with members of ethnic outgroups. Results of this study suggest that this effect is mediated by a social network process. Longitudinal network analysis of a three-wave panel study of 12- to 13-year-olds (N = 453) found that more prejudiced majority group members formed fewer intergroup fri...
Article
Research on the influence of the number of ethnic minority group classmates on majority group students’ interethnic attitudes produced conflicting results. With data from 728 early adolescents, we found that the effect of the ethnic class composition depends on two opposing student-level mechanisms. First, majority group students who liked a larger...
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Despite the release of his birth certificate, some Americans express continued skepticism over whether Barack Obama was born in the United States. This study examined two possible causes of birther beliefs: that Republicans and conservatives, whose ideological beliefs and policy preferences led to disapproval of the president, might be particularly...
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Much published research indicates that voting behavior in the 2008 presidential election and evaluations of Barack Obama were importantly influenced by anti-Black sentiment. Various psychological theories made opposing predictions as to whether exposure to the first Black president during his first term would strengthen or weaken the alignment betw...
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The current study hypothesized that extended intergroup friendships improve outgroup attitudes in particular for people with initially unfavorable outgroup attitudes, and for those without direct intergroup friendships. In contrast, building on structural balance theory, it was hypothesized that extended contact in small social settings may also be...
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This study examined whether classroom norms based on status explained between-class variations in selection processes and particularly influence processes on adolescents’ risk attitudes in a sample of 1092 adolescents (age 12–13) across 47 classrooms. Based on the association between status (popularity) and risk attitudes (norm salience), it was hy...
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The generalization of attitudes toward individual outgroup members into attitudes toward the outgroup as a whole can affect intergroup relations. However, little is known about the relative strengths of the generalization of negative and positive interpersonal attitudes into attitudes about the outgroup. The unique contribution of negative (disliki...
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This study investigated associations between ethnicity, ethnic diversity, and bullying among 739 pupils enrolled in their last year of primary school. Hypotheses derived from social misfit and inter-ethnic relations theories were tested using the multilevel p2 model. Our key findings were: (1) inter- and intra-ethnic bullying are just as common in...
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How can we reduce ethnic friendship segregation in ethnically heterogeneous schools? The Common Ingroup Identity Model suggests that interethnic friendships are promoted by those intervention programs that focus on the interests students have in common. The authors argue that the outcome of these common interest interventions may crucially depend o...
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Research on friendship networks in schools suggests that heterogeneity increases homophily preferences. We argue that this may be a misleading interpretation of the coefficients of the exponential random graph models (p*) that are used to model the network data. If students wish to avoid having no friends at all, then minority students may appear t...
Article
Survey respondents have been found to systematically overreport their participation in political elections. Although the sociodemographic correlates of this response bias are well known, only a few studies have analyzed the determinants predicted by two prominent theoretical explanations for vote overreporting: memory failure and social desirabilit...
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The respondents’ susceptibility to item nonresponse is an important determinant for the quality of political science survey data. In particular, one has to expect biased samples when groups of respondents systematically differ in their nonresponse rates. Our study tests firstly whether and how strong four different aspects of political involvement...
Article
We test the hypothesis that respondents with a strong attitude that surveys in general cannot be trusted are more susceptible to item nonresponse. This is done separately for the don’t know and refusal rate observed for subjective and factual questions. In a comparative perspective, using data from the ten new member states of the European Union, w...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
formally modelling dynamics and conditions of opinion polarization modelling effects of segregation on opinion formation, improving models of persuasive argument exchange, experimental and field research on cooperation and social control