Tobias Floris Rinke de Wit

Tobias Floris Rinke de Wit
University of Amsterdam | UVA · Faculty of Medicine AMC

PhD

About

552
Publications
105,124
Reads
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17,505
Citations
Introduction
Since 2001 Professor Tobias Rinke de Wit (PhD) is Director Research at the PharmAccess group and is specifically affiliated with the Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD: www.aighd.org). Tobias is Principal Investigator at the Academic Medical Center (AMC), University of Amsterdam. Originally trained as a molecular biologist, he has specialized in HIV/AIDS in Africa, in particular affordable diagnostics, HIV epidemiology and HIV drug resistance.
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - present
Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development
Position
  • Principal Investigator
April 2006 - present
University of Amsterdam
Position
  • Professor (Full)
April 2001 - present
Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
Position
  • Senior Investigator

Publications

Publications (552)
Article
Objective: In a multicountry prospective cohort of persons with HIV from six countries between 2007 and 2015, we evaluated long-term outcomes of first-line non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy (ART), and risk factors for loss-to-follow-up, mortality, virological failure, and incomplete CD4+ T-cell recovery....
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Test & Treat Project offers universal HIV testing and access to antiretroviral treatment in Northern Tanzania. The current cross-sectional study provides midterm results on HIV testing and counseling activities through community outreaches and facility-based services. A total 255,329 HIV tests were performed: 198,451 (77.7%) during testing campaign...
Preprint
Background COVID-19 is overwhelming health systems universally. Increased capacity to combat the epidemic is important, while continuing regular healthcare services. This paper describes an innovative Public Private Partnership (PPP) against COVID-19 that from the onset of the epidemic was established in Kisumu County, Western Kenya. Methods An ex...
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In low-and middle-income countries, achieving universal health coverage remains challenging due to insufficient, temporary and fragmented funding as well as limited accessibility to quality healthcare. Leveraging a mobile health platform can be a powerful tool to address these problems. This paper demonstrates how analysing data collected from a mo...
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Background Serological testing for SARS-CoV-2 plays an important role for epidemiological studies, in aiding the diagnosis of COVID-19, and assess vaccine responses. Little is known on dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 serology in African settings. Here, we aimed to characterize the longitudinal antibody response profile to SARS-CoV-2 in Ethiopia. Methods In...
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Background Differentiated service delivery (DSD) offers benefits to people living with HIV (improved access, peer support), and the health system (clinic decongestion, efficient service delivery). ART clubs, 15-30 clients who usually meet within the community, are one of the most common DSD options. However, evidence about the quality of care (QoC)...
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Background HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) continues to threaten the effectiveness of worldwide antiretroviral therapy (ART). Emergence and transmission of HIVDR are driven by several interconnected factors. Though much has been done to uncover factors influencing HIVDR, overall interconnectedness between these factors remains unclear and African polic...
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Background HIV testing is the first step to stop transmission. We aimed to evaluate HIV testing history and new diagnoses among adult outpatients in Kenya aged 18–39 years seeking care for symptoms of acute HIV infection (AHI). Methods The Tambua Mapema Plus study, a stepped-wedge trial, enrolled patients presenting to care at six primary care fac...
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World Health Organization's recommendation to "treat all diagnosed with HIV" challenges the capacity of health systems, especially in low-and middle-resource countries. Current Tanzanian National Guidelines for the Management of HIV and AIDS views differentiated service delivery (DSD) models as promising approaches to improve HIV services. Nonethel...
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Introduction: a subsidized community health insurance programme in Kwara State, Nigeria was temporarily suspended in 2016 in anticipation of the roll-out of a state-wide health insurance scheme. This article reports the adverse consequences of the scheme´s suspension on enrollees´ healthcare utilization. Methods: a mixed-methods study was carrie...
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Background With antiretroviral therapy, more people living with HIV (PLHIV) in resource-limited settings are virally suppressed and living longer. WHO recommends differentiated service delivery (DSD) as an alternative, less resource-demanding way of expanding HIV services access. Monitoring client’s health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is necessa...
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Objective This study examined people’s motivations for (repeatedly) utilizing HIV testing services during community-based testing events in urban and rural Shinyanga, Tanzania and potential implications for Universal Health Coverage (UHC). Methods As part of a broader multidisciplinary study on the implementation of a HIV Test and Treat model in S...
Preprint
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Background: Maternal and neonatal mortality rates in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are still far above the targets of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3. Value-based healthcare (VBHC) could potentially surpass traditional input-oriented approaches to create a high-quality health system and to improve maternal, newborn and child he...
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Background Testing for SARS-CoV-2 in resource-poor settings remains a considerable challenge. Gold standard nucleic acid tests are expensive and depend on expensive equipment and highly trained laboratory staff. More affordable and easier real-time rapid tests are an attractive alternative. This study assessed field performance of such a test in we...
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INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 testing is one of the options to combat COVID-19 in Kenya. In the first COVID-19 year there was limited tapping of the private sector's potential to scale up testing in Kenya. In April 2020, we initiated a unique public-private partnership (PPP) project in Kisumu County connecting the private sector to centralized testing s...
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Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection results in a spectrum of clinical presentations. Evidence from Africa indicates that significantly less COVID-19 patients suffer from serious symptoms than in the industrialized world. We and others previously postulated a partial explanation for this phenomenon, bei...
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The 2016–2017 Tanzania HIV Impact Survey (THIS) reported the accomplishments towards the 90-90-90 global HIV targets at 61-94-87, affirming the need to focus on the first 90 (i.e., getting 90% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) tested). We conducted a patient-pathway analysis to understand the gap observed, by assessing the alignment between where P...
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Background In sub-Saharan Africa, the material and human capacity to diagnose patients reporting with fever to healthcare providers is largely insufficient. Febrile patients are typically treated presumptively with antimalarials and/or antibiotics. Such over-prescription can lead to drug resistance and involves unnecessary costs to the health syste...
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Background To accelerate universal health coverage, Nigeria’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) decentralized the implementation of government health insurance to the individual states in 2014. Lagos is one of the states that passed a State Health Insurance Scheme into law, in order to expand the benefits of health insurance beyond the few re...
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Background Hypertension can be detected at the primary health-care level and low-cost treatments can effectively control hypertension. We aimed to measure the prevalence of hypertension and progress in its detection, treatment, and control from 1990 to 2019 for 200 countries and territories. Methods We used data from 1990 to 2019 on people aged 30...
Preprint
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Introduction HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) continues to threaten the effectiveness of worldwide antiretroviral therapy (ART). Emergence and transmission of HIVDR is driven by several interconnected factors. Though much has been done to uncover factors influencing HIVDR, overall interconnectedness between these factors remain unclear and African polic...
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Full-text available
Transgender women (TW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) in Kenya are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and would benefit substantially from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) with healthcare providers (HCPs) and TW/MSM leadership and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with PrEP-ex...
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With limited vaccine coverage and in the absence of specific therapeutics, the options to curb the CO-VID-19 pandemic today are mostly infection prevention measures and diagnostic tests to identify infected individuals rapidly, followed by isolation and contact tracing. The past months have seen significant worldwide scale-up of testing through qua...
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Introduction Placing all clients with a positive diagnosis for HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) has cost implications both for patients and health systems, which could, in turn, affect feasibility, sustainability and uptake of new services. Patient-incurred costs are recognized barriers to healthcare access. Differentiated service delivery (DSD)...
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Chronic immune activation has been considered as the driving force for CD4 ⁺ T cell depletion in people infected with HIV-1. Interestingly, the normal immune profile of adult HIV-negative individuals living in Africa also exhibit chronic immune activation, reminiscent of that observed in HIV-1 infected individuals. It is characterized by increased...
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Background: Little is known about HIV retesting uptake among key populations (KP) and general populations (GP) in Kenya. We assessed trends and predictors of first-time testing (FTT), late retesting (previous test more than one year ago for GP or three months for KP), and test positivity at three voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) centres in c...
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Introduction: The World Health Organization recommends differentiated service delivery (DSD) to support resource-limited health systems in providing patient-centered HIV care. DSD offers alternative care models to clinic-based care for people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Despite good patient-related outco...
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From 1985 to 2016, the prevalence of underweight decreased, and that of obesity and severe obesity increased, in most regions, with significant variation in the magnitude of these changes across regions. We investigated how much change in mean body mass index (BMI) explains changes in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, and severe obesity in di...
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Objective To describe clinical features and assess determinants of severity and in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients from unique setting in Ethiopia. Methods Consecutive patients admitted to COVID-19 quarantine and isolation center were included. We analyzed proportions of clinical spectrum of COVID-19, factors associated with risk of severe...
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Background: Little is known about HIV retesting uptake among key populations (KP) and general populations (GP) in Kenya. We assessed trends and predictors of first-time testing (FTT), late retesting (previous test more than one year ago for GP or three months for KP), and test positivity at three voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) centres in c...
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Background: Only approximately one in five adults are offered HIV testing by providers when seeking care for symptoms of acute illness in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our aims were to estimate testing coverage and identify predictors of provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) and barriers to PITC implementation in this population. Methods: We a...
Preprint
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Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection results in a spectrum of clinical presentations. The effect of co-infection with parasites on the clinical features of COVID-19 is unknown. Methods: We prospectively enrolled consecutive COVID-19 patients and screened them for intestinal parasitic infections. Patient...
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Background Transgender women (TGW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa have high HIV acquisition risks and can benefit from daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We assessed PrEP adherence by measuring tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) levels and explore motives for PrEP persistence in TGW and MSM. Methods Participants were enr...
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Background: COVID-19 symptomatology in Africa appears significantly less serious than in the industrialized world. We and others previously postulated a partial explanation for this phenomenon, being a different, more activated immune system due to parasite infections. We investigated this hypothesis in an endemic area in Africa. Methods: Ethiopia...
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This multi-country prospective study investigated whether persistent systemic inflammation, measured by eight plasma biomarkers, in HIV-1-infected Africans during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) (viral load<50 copies/mL), was associated with CD4+ T-cell recovery and viral rebound (>1,000 copies/mL) during long-term treatment. On-ART sCD14...
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Background: Social health insurance has been widely proposed as a key strategy to improve access to healthcare and provide financial protection. The Kwara Community Health Insurance Programme (KCHIP) in Nigeria was temporarily suspended in 2016 in anticipation of the roll-out of a state-wide health insurance scheme. This article reports the adverse...
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Background Comparable global data on health and nutrition of school-aged children and adolescents are scarce. We aimed to estimate age trajectories and time trends in mean height and mean body-mass index (BMI), which measures weight gain beyond what is expected from height gain, for school-aged children and adolescents. Methods For this pooled ana...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: More people living with HIV (PLHIV) in resource-limited settings are virally suppressed and living longer, mainly due to an increased access to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). With the expansion of ART programmes, the World Health Organisation recommended differentiated service delivery (DSD) as an alternative less resource-dema...
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Introduction HIV is a highly diverse virus with significant genetic variability which may confer biologic differences that could impact on treatment outcomes. Materials and methods We studied the association between HIV subtypes and immunologic and virologic outcomes in a longitudinal cohort of 169 patients on combination antiretroviral therapy. P...
Article
Introduction: To achieve viral suppression among more than 90% of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART), improved understanding is warranted of the modifiable causes of HIV viremic episodes. We assessed the relative contributions of drug-resistance, nonadherence and low-level viremia (LLV) (viral load 50-999 cps/ml) on viremic episodes in sub-Sah...
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Background: poor access to HIV viral load (VL) testing prevents the timely monitoring of HIV treatment adherence and efficacy. Factors enabling clinical benefits of VL testing when added to local standards of care, can inform the development of more cost-effective routine VL scale-up plans. We compared antiretroviral therapy (ART) switch practices...
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High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world³ and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein...
Article
: Exposure of infants to antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission can induce resistance to nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Data from nine national surveys of pretreatment drug resistance in children newly diagnosed with HIV show high levels of resistance to NRTIs included in first-line anti...
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Introduction In 2015, WHO recommended immediate treatment for people living with HIV (PLHIV). As a result, the number of PLHIV needing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) doubled from 12 million to over 25 million. This put a strain on already weak health systems and inspired the exploration of innovative service delivery model...