Tobias Richter

Tobias Richter
University of Wuerzburg | JMU

Dr. phil.

About

162
Publications
83,005
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,138
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2016 - present
University of Wuerzburg
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • More information here: https://go.uniwue.de/richter
September 2010 - September 2016
University of Kassel
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 2005 - March 2007
Florida State University
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (162)
Article
Full-text available
In social cognition, knowledge-based validation of information is usually regarded as relying on strategic and resource-demanding processes. Research on language comprehension, in contrast, suggests that validation processes are involved in the construction of a referential representation of the communicated information. This view implies that indi...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we examine the cognitive processes that are involved when readers comprehend conflicting information in multiple texts. Starting from the notion of routine validation during comprehension, we argue that readers' prior beliefs may lead to a biased processing of conflicting information and a one-sided mental model of controversial is...
Article
Full-text available
Readers confronted with unfamiliar and controversial scientific debates tend to rely on simple heuristics such as the perceived plausibility to focus their cognitive resources on specific information during comprehension. In the present experiment, we tested the assumption that plausibility judgments as an integral part of comprehension are used as...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung. Über die Struktur des Arbeitsmarkts für Psychologinnen und Psychologen, insbesondere über die quantitative Verteilung von Stellen auf verschiedene Beschäftigungsbereiche, berufliche Tätigkeiten, geforderte Kompetenzen und Abschlüsse, liegen keine zuverlässigen und aktuellen Informationen vor. Wir berichten die Ergebnisse einer syst...
Article
Full-text available
The use of masculine generics (i.e., grammatically masculine forms that refer to both men and women) is prevalent in many languages but has been criticized for potentially triggering male bias. Empirical evidence for this claim exists but is often based on small and selective samples. This study is a high-powered and pre-registered replication and...
Article
Full-text available
Recent theory on narrative processes suggests that changes in recipients’ emotional responses (emotional shifts) are characteristic of immersed story processing and precursors of narrative impact. In two experiments and a pilot study, a novel self-probed emotional retrospection task was used to measure emotional shifts. We examined the link between...
Chapter
In this chapter, major trends in the development of metacognitive competences and its relationship to various aspects of cognitive/academic performance are described, with a focus on metamemory and reading comprehension. In a first step, classic and more recent theoretical models of metacognitive competences are presented that elaborate on the deve...
Article
Full-text available
Proponents of the testing effect claim that answering questions about the learning content benefits retention more than does additional restudying—even without corrective feedback. In educational contexts, evidence for this claim is scarce and points toward differential effects for different question formats: Benefits emerged for short-answer quest...
Article
Reading is an essential ability and a cornerstone of education. However, learning to read can be challenging for children. To scaffold young learners, a number of reading interventions were developed, including a syllable-based approach in German, which has proven to be successful, but resource and time consuming through individual interaction by e...
Article
Full-text available
Background Retrieval practice promotes retention of learned information more than restudying the information. However, benefits of multiple-choice testing over restudying in real-world educational contexts and the role of practically relevant moderators such as feedback and learners’ ability to retrieve tested content from memory (i.e., retrievabil...
Article
Die Frage, wie sich die Schulzeitverkürzung auf Programme der außerschulischen Begabtenförderung auswirkt, ist bislang wenig beachtet worden. Wir untersuchten, ob sich die Würzburger Frühstudierenden des achtjährigen Gymnasiums (G8) von denen des neunjährigen Gymnasiums (G9) unterscheiden. Hierzu wurden Teilnehmende der G8-Kohorte (N = 377) mit den...
Article
Full-text available
Readers use prior knowledge to evaluate the validity of statements and detect false information without effort and strategic control. The present study expands this research by exploring whether people also non-strategically detect information that threatens their social identity. Participants ( N = 77) completed a task in which they had to respond...
Article
Einige Hochschulen stellen Studieninteressierten Online-Self-Assessments zur Verfügung, um sie bei der Entscheidung für ein Studienfach durch valide Informationen zu unterstützen und einem Studierendenschwund vorzubeugen. Dieser Beitrag beschreibt die Entwicklung fachspezifischer Online-Self-Assessments für die Studienfächer Biologie, Chemie, Infor...
Chapter
Fiction-when it is listened to, or when it appears in print, film, and video games-introduces people not only to storyworlds, but also to characters, their relationships, and complex social interactions. A growing body of research suggests that people who listen to, read, or watch fiction may learn social skills from stories through various mechani...
Chapter
This chapter explores the effects of literariness on readers’ psychological and social understandings within and beyond literary texts. Literariness is introduced as (a) a function of specific textual features that create linguistic foregrounding and (b) the positioning of a text as literary through para-textual signifiers (such as non-fiction and...
Article
Full-text available
Distributed learning is often recommended as a general learning strategy, but previous research has established its benefits mainly for learning with repeated materials. In two experiments, we investigated distributed learning with complementary text materials. 77 (Experiment 1) and 130 (Experiment 2) seventh graders read two texts, massed vs. dist...
Article
Full-text available
When pursuing a controversial socio-scientific issue, readers are expected to construct balanced representations that include overlapping and opposing information. However, readers’ mental representations are often biased towards their prior beliefs. Previous research on such text-belief consistency effects have been conducted mostly in monolingual...
Article
Full-text available
Teacher’s evaluation of students is sometimes negatively affected by diagnostic labels. We explored such negative effects caused by the labels “dyscalculia”, “dyslexia”, and “ADHD” in teacher students. In Experiment 1, we varied the presence of the dyscalculia and dyslexia label in vignettes between participants. The dyslexia but not the dyscalculi...
Article
Full-text available
Gifted underachievers perform worse in school than would be expected based on their high intelligence. Possible causes for underachievement are low motivational dispositions (need for cognition) and metacognitive competences. This study tested the interplay of these variables longitudinally with gifted and non‐gifted students from Germany (N = 341,...
Article
Full-text available
Pre-existing beliefs bias mental representations of socio-scientific controversies in favour of the perspective(s) that endorse(s) them. Several conditions have been proposed to moderate such belief-biased mental representations of controversial information. The present study examined the effects of readers’ prior beliefs on their mental models of...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the role of source credibility in the validation of factual information embedded in short narratives. In a self-paced reading experiment, we tested the assumption that the degree of (im-)plausibility determines the extent that source credibility affects validation during comprehension. We used reading times of target and spillov...
Article
Full-text available
Readers are expected to construct balanced mental representations of socioscientific issues discussed across controversial documents. However, readers tend to be biased toward documents that present belief-consistent perspectives and tend to refute documents that argue against their stance (text-belief consistency effect). Published studies on text...
Article
Full-text available
Training of Word Recognition with Willy Wordbear: A Syllable-Based Reading Promotion Program for Elementary School Being able to read words fluently and accurately is an important milestone in learning to read but not all children reach it. For weak readers, it is often difficult to make the transition from letter-by-letter reading to visual word r...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to spell words correctly is a key competence for educational and professional achievement. Economical procedures are essential to identify children with spelling problems as early as possible. Given the strong evidence showing that reading and spelling are based on the same orthographic knowledge, error detection tasks (EDT) could be co...
Article
Full-text available
Prior beliefs often bias the comprehension of multiple science-related texts such that belief-consistent texts are better comprehended compared to belief-inconsistent texts (text-belief consistency effect). Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether a metacognitive strategy training focusing on belief-biasing validation processes can red...
Article
Full-text available
Der Erwerb von Prozessen der visuellen Worterkennung steht am Anfang des Prozesses des Lesenlernens und ist gleichzeitig eine Hürde im Zusammenhang mit dem Leseverstehen, die nicht alle Kinder problemlos meistern. So gelingt es einigen Kindern nicht, Wörter flüssig zu lesen. Besonders bei langen Wörtern geraten sie immer wieder ins Stocken, selbst...
Article
Full-text available
Generated information is better recognized and recalled than information that is read. This so‐called generation effect has been replicated several times for different types of material, including texts. Perhaps the most influential demonstration was by McDaniel, Einstein, Dunay, and Cobb (1986; henceforth MEDC). This group tested whether the gener...
Article
Full-text available
Lay Description What is already known about this topic Testing is a commonly used technique to assess progress in computer‐assisted learning environments Students often benefit from the testing effect, that is practicing retrieval of information (testing) from memory benefits long‐term retention compared to restudying Currently, empirical evidence...
Article
Full-text available
Einleitung In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde das Potenzial von tabletbasierten Fehleridentifikationstests zur Erfassung der Rechtschreibleistung in der Grundschule untersucht. Studien aus dem englischen Sprachraum belegen hohe Zusammenhänge zwischen Leistungen in klassischen Diktaten und Leistungen in Aufgaben, in denen Rechtschreibfehler in präsent...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies suggest that readers need to reach a certain word-recognition accuracy threshold first before word-recognition speed starts to improve. In a longitudinal study, 1095 German primary school children were followed from Grades 1–4. Word-recognition accuracy and speed were assessed at the end of Grades 1–4 and reading comprehension at the...
Article
Full-text available
Reading narrative literature is discussed as an influencing factor on the development of social-cognitive skills. Transportability, which is the tendency to immerse into narrative worlds, has been proposed as a moderator within this relationship, with high-transportable individuals being assumed to profit more from narratives. The current study exa...
Article
Full-text available
Validation of text information as a general mechanism for detecting inconsistent or false information is an integral part of text comprehension. This study examined how the credibility of the information source affects validation processes. Two experiments investigated combined effects of source credibility and plausibility of information during va...
Chapter
Full-text available
The skills required for understanding and evaluating academic literature include a broad repertoire of different reading strategies, which are rarely explicitly taught and go beyond classical learning strategies that foster learning from expository texts. This chapter proposes a taxonomy of strategies for reading academic literature, which distingu...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effects of a syllable-based reading intervention for German second graders who demonstrated difficulties in the recognition of written words. The intervention focused on fostering word reading via syllable segmentation. The materials consisted of the 500 most frequent syllables typically read by 6-to 8-year-old children. The...
Article
Full-text available
Readers often comprehend belief-consistent information from multiple texts better compared with belief-inconsistent information (text-belief consistency effect). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adolescents’ comprehension of multiple texts is similarly impacted by their beliefs. Moreover, readers’ prior knowledge and an alter...
Chapter
Full-text available
Eine frisch gebackene Mutter überlegt, ihr drei Monate altes Baby impfen zu lassen. Schließlich soll es die Chance haben, einen ausreichenden Schutz gegen schwere Infektionen aufbauen und somit gesund aufwachsen zu können. Impfungen sind eine der wirksamsten Vorsorgemaßnahmen, um vor ansteckenden Krankheiten zu schützen – oder etwa nicht? Immer wie...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether word-reading speed starts increasing only after German fourth graders (n = 826) have reached a basic level of word-reading accuracy. Moreover, we examined for 170 readers with lower reading abilities (below percentile rank 50 in both word reading and reading comprehension) in an experimental pre-post control-group de...
Article
Full-text available
An interleaved presentation of items (as opposed to a blocked presentation) has been proposed to foster inductive learning (interleaving effect). A meta-analysis of the interleaving effect (based on 59 studies with 238 effect sizes nested in 158 samples) was conducted to quantify the magnitude of the interleaving effect, to test its generalizabilit...
Article
Full-text available
Listening to, reading, or watching a story is often a highly emotional experience. The current experiment was designed to gain insight into the role of emotions as part of the persuasive influence of stories. Our focus was on emotions that correspond to a storyline (event-congruent emotions). A short movie was presented that depicts the struggles o...
Presentation
Evidence for validation as an integral part of text comprehension accumulates, yet the role source information plays in this process is unclear. Two self-paced reading experiments investigated combined effects of source information and plausibility (truth value or text-belief consistency). Participants read short messages (tweets) from different so...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The evaluation of informal arguments is a key component of comprehending scientific texts and scientific literacy. Aim: The present study examined the nomological network of university students' ability to evaluate informal arguments in scientific texts and the relevance of this ability for academic success. Sample: A sample of 225...
Article
Full-text available
Angesichts der vielfältigen Aufgaben und Herausforderungen, mit denen sich die Psychologie insgesamt und auch die Pädagogische Psychologie im Besonderen konfrontiert sehen, soll eine Positionsbestimmung vorgenommen werden. In dem Beitrag stellen wir die Lage der Pädagogischen Psychologie in den Bereichen Forschung und Lehre dar, wobei wir im Bereic...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to comprehend informal arguments is essential for scientific literacy but students often lack structural knowledge about these arguments, especially when the arguments are more complex. This study used a pre-post-test design with a follow-up 4 weeks later to investigate whether a computerised training in identifying structural component...
Article
Full-text available
Research with adults in laboratory settings has shown that distributed rereading is a beneficial learning strategy but its effects depend on time of test. When learning outcomes are measured immediately after rereading, distributed rereading yields no benefits or even detrimental effects on learning, but the beneficial effects emerge two days later...
Chapter
Full-text available
The internet is the primary source of information about a broad range of topics, which may range from consumer and medical decisions to political and socio-scientific issues. The relevant information is often available in the form of written texts that convey divergent perspectives, such as different opinions, competing theoretical assumptions, arg...
Chapter
Full-text available
Readers using the World Wide Web as a source for informal learning are often confronted with documents that provide partial and one-sided information supporting only one position in a controversy, or argue for divergent positions and viewpoints, or provide alternative and contradictory evidence for the same circumstance. This is especially true wit...
Article
Full-text available
Review of learned material is crucial for the learning process. One approach that promises to increase the effectiveness of reviewing during learning is to answer questions about the learning content rather than restudying the material (testing effect). This effect is well established in lab experiments. However, existing research in educational co...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have shown that narratives can influence readers’ beliefs about themselves. In the present study, our goal was to investigate whether stories portraying a strong protagonist can positively influence recipients’ beliefs of being in control of events in their own lives (self-related control beliefs). Experiment 1 showed that narrative...
Article
Full-text available
Der Beitrag skizziert ein Konzept für ein Online-Screening zur Diagnostik von Entwicklungsstörungen schulischer Fertigkeiten (Lernstörungen) im Grundschulbereich. Das Screening soll eine valide Identifikation von Kindern ermöglichen, die nur ein unterdurchschnittliches Fähigkeitsniveau in den Bereichen Lesen, Schreiben oder Rechnen erreichen, und z...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the validity of students' evaluations of teaching as an instrument for measuring teaching quality by examining the effects of likability and prior subject interest as potential biasing effects, measured at the beginning of the course and at the time of evaluation. University students (N = 260) evaluated psychology courses in one...
Poster
Full-text available
Validation of text information is an integral part of text comprehension. This self-paced reading experiment investigated combined effects of source credibility and plausibility of information during validation. Participants read short stories with a high-credible vs. low-credible person stating a true or false assertion. Reading times on target se...
Article
Validity is an important issue when measuring teaching quality using student evaluations. This study examined the effects of psychology students’ subjective clarity about study contents and their prior interest in the subject as variables possibly biasing the evaluations of psychology courses. German students (N = 292) evaluated lectures and semina...
Article
Full-text available
Reading comprehension is based on the efficient accomplishment of several cognitive processes at the word, sentence, and text level. To the extent that each of these processes contributes to reading comprehension, it can cause reading difficulties if it is deficient. To identify individual sources of reading difficulties, tools are required that al...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that the validation of incoming information during language comprehension is a fast, efficient, and routine process (epistemic monitoring). Previous research on this topic has focused on epistemic monitoring during reading. The present study extended this research by investigating epistemic monitoring of audiovisual info...
Article
Full-text available
Readers' memory for belief-consistent texts is often stronger than for belief-inconsistent texts (text-belief consistency effect). However, presenting belief-consistent and belief-inconsistent texts alternatingly reduces the discrepancy between the memory strengths of belief-consistent and belief-inconsistent texts. The present study used eye track...
Article
Full-text available
Informelle Argumente sind in wissenschaftlichen Texten allgegenwärtig. Um solche Argumente verstehen und bewerten zu können, müssen Studierende ihre Struktur entschlüsseln. Zur Erfassung dieser Kompetenz wurde der computergestützte Argumentstrukturtest (AST) für Studierende sozial- und erziehungswissenschaftlicher Fächer sowie Lehramtsstudierende e...
Chapter
Full-text available
For comprehension to be successful, readers need to update their mental representations in the appropriate way. Likewise, they need to revise their prior knowledge when new information renders it inaccurate or unreliable. At the same time, there is evidence that readers often do not engage in updating and revision even when they should do so. This...