Tobias Knopp

Tobias Knopp
University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf · s Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

Prof. Dr.-Ing.

About

239
Publications
20,351
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3,571
Citations

Publications

Publications (239)
Preprint
Full-text available
Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a tomographic imaging technique for determining the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Current MPI systems are capable of imaging iron masses over a wide dynamic range of more than four orders of magnitude. In theory, this range could be further increased using adaptive amplifiers, which prev...
Preprint
Magnetic particle imaging is a tracer based imaging technique to determine the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Due to physiological constraints, the imaging volume is restricted in size and larger volumes are covered by shifting object and imaging volume relative to eac...
Preprint
The tomographic imaging method magnetic particle imaging (MPI) requires a multi-patch approach for capturing large field of views. This approach consists of a continuous or stepwise spatial shift of a small sub-volume of only few cubic centimeters size, which is scanned using one or multiple excitation fields in the kHz range. Under the assumption...
Article
Signal stability is crucial for an accurate diagnosis via magnetic particle imaging (MPI). However, MPI-tracer nanoparticles frequently agglomerate during their in vivo applications leading to particle interactions altering the signal....
Article
Objectives: Fat quantification by dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) provides contrast-independent objective results, for example, on hepatic steatosis or muscle quality as parameters of prognostic relevance. To date, fat quantification has only been developed and used for source-based DECT techniques as fast kVp-switching CT or dual-source CT...
Article
Improving resolution and sensitivity will widen possible medical applications of magnetic particle imaging. Pulsed excitation promises such benefits, at the cost of more complex hardware solutions and restrictions on drive field amplitude and frequency. State-of-the-art systems utilize a sinusoidal excitation to drive superparamagnetic nanoparticle...
Preprint
Tracer and thus signal stability is crucial for an accurate diagnosis via magnetic particle imaging (MPI). However, MPI-tracer nanoparticles frequently agglomerate during their in vivo applications leading to particle interactions. Here, we investigate the influence of such magnetic coupling phenomena on the MPI signal. We prepared and characterize...
Article
Full-text available
Doses of irradiation above 25 kGy are known to cause irreversible mechanical decay in bone tissue. However, the impact of irradiation doses absorbed in a clinical setting on the mechanical properties of bone remains unclear. In daily clinical practice and research, patients and specimens are exposed to irradiation due to diagnostic imaging tools, w...
Article
Full-text available
Advances in micromachinery and nanotechnology, such as magnetically actuated microrobots for navigating in viscous environments, are important driving forces in medicine. Recently, it has been shown that the spatial orientation of an ensemble of immobilized nanoparticles with parallel-aligned magnetic easy axes has an effect on the magnetization re...
Article
Full-text available
Stroke is one of the leading worldwide causes of death and sustained disability. Rapid and accurate assessment of cerebral perfusion is essential to diagnose and successfully treat stroke patients. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new technology with the potential to overcome some limitations of established imaging modalities. It is an innovati...
Article
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) play an important role in biomedical applications including imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic particle imaging (MPI). The latter one exploits the non-linear magnetization response of a large ensemble of magnetic nanoparticles to magnetic fields which allows determining the spatial...
Article
Magnetic nanoparticles and their magnetization dynamics play an important role in many applications. We focus on magnetization dynamics in large ensembles of single domain nanoparticles being characterized by either Brownian or Néel rotation mechanisms. Simulations of the respective behavior are obtained by solving advection–diffusion equations on...
Preprint
Improving resolution and sensitivity will widen possible medical applications of magnetic particle imaging in its clinical application. Pulsed excitation promises such benefits, at the cost of more complex hardware solutions and restrictions on drive field amplitude and frequency. In this work, a sequence is proposed, that combines high drive-field...
Article
Background signals are a primary source of artifacts in magnetic particle imaging and limit the sensitivity of the method since background signals are often not precisely known and vary over time. The state-of-the art method for handling background signals uses one or several background calibration measurements with an empty scanner bore and subtra...
Preprint
Full-text available
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) play an important role in biomedical applications including imaging modalities such as MRI and magnetic particle imaging (MPI). The latter one exploits the non-linear magnetization response of a large ensemble of magnetic nanoparticles to magnetic fields which allows determining the spatial distribution of the MNP conc...
Article
Purpose: Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a preclinical imaging technique capable of visualizing the spatio-temporal distribution of magnetic nanoparticles. The image reconstruction of this fast and dynamic process relies on efficiently solving an ill-posed inverse problem. Current approaches to reconstruct the tracer concentration from its meas...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The aim of this work is to develop a high-performance, flexible, and easy-to-use MRI reconstruction framework using the scientific programming language Julia. Methods: Julia is a modern, general purpose programming language with strong features in the area of signal/image processing and numerical computing. It has a high-level syntax bu...
Article
Full-text available
Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a tomographic imaging technique for determining the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Current MPI systems are capable of imaging iron masses over a wide dynamic range of more than four orders of magnitude. In theory, this range could be further increased using adaptive amplifiers, which prev...
Chapter
Die Magnetpartikelbildgebung (MPI) ist eine junge tomographische Bildgebungstechnik, die magnetische Nanopartikel mit einer hohen räumlichen und zeitlichen Auflösung quantitativ abbildet. Eine gängige Methode zur Rekonstruktion von MPI-Daten ist die Systemmatrix (SM)-basierte Rekonstruktion. Die komplexwertige SM wird in einer zeitaufwändigen Kalib...
Preprint
Purpose: The aim of this work is to develop a high-performance, flexible and easy-to-use MRI reconstruction framework using the scientific programming language Julia. Methods: Julia is a modern, general purpose programming language with strong features in the area of signal / image processing and numerical computing. It has a high-level syntax but...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The aim is to evaluate whether smart worklist prioritization by artificial intelligence (AI) can optimize the radiology workflow and reduce report turnaround times (RTATs) for critical findings in chest radiographs (CXRs). Furthermore, we investigate a method to counteract the effect of false negative predictions by AI—resulting in an ext...
Article
Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a novel and versatile imaging modality developing towards human application. When up-scaling to human size, the sensitivity of the systems naturally drops as the coil sensitivity depends on the bore diameter. Thus, new methods to push the sensitivity limit further have to be investigated to cope for this loss. In...
Preprint
Magnetic nanoparticles and their magnetization dynamics play an important role in many applications. We focus on magnetization dynamics in large ensembles of single domain nanoparticles being characterized by either Brownian or N\'{e}el rotation mechanisms. Simulations of the respective behavior are obtained by solving advection-diffusion equations...
Chapter
Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) data is commonly reconstructed using a system matrix acquired in a time-consuming calibration measurement. Compared to model-based reconstruction, the calibration approach has the important advantage that it takes into account both complex particle physics and system imperfections. However, this has the disadvantage...
Article
Full-text available
Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an innovative radiation-free tomographic imaging method providing excellent temporal resolution, contrast, sensitivity, and safety. Mobile human MPI prototypes suitable for continuous bedside monitoring of whole-brain perfusion have been developed. However, for the clinical translation of MPI, a crucial gap in kno...
Article
Although Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is not yet in clinical use, it is highly promising for several medical applications , and especially for applications in diagnostic vascular in vivo imaging and imaging-guided vascular interventions. Furthermore, in the last years, different superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) based contrast agents have been...
Preprint
Background signals are a primary source of artifacts in magnetic particle imaging and limit the sensitivity of the method since background signals are often not precisely known and vary over time. The state-of-the art method for handling background signals uses one or several background calibration measurements with an empty scanner bore and subtra...
Article
Magnetic particle imaging is a tracer based imaging technique to determine the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Due to physiological constraints, the imaging volume is restricted in size and larger volumes are covered by shifting object and imaging volume relative to eac...
Article
Full-text available
Temperature-resolved magnetic particle imaging (MPI) represents a promising tool for medical imaging applications. In this study an approach based on a single calibration measurement was applied for highlighting the potential of MPI for monitoring of temperatures during thermal ablation of liver tumors. For this purpose, liver tissue and liver tumo...
Preprint
Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a novel and versatile imaging modality developing towards human application. When up-scaling to human size, the sensitivity of the systems naturally drops as the coil sensitivity depends on the bore diameter. Thus, new methods to push the sensitivity limit further have to be investigated to cope for this loss. In...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Using 4D magnetic particle imaging (MPI), intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) catheters are tracked in real time in order to compensate for image artifacts related to relative motion. Our approach demonstrates the feasibility for bimodal IVOCT and MPI in-vitro experiments. Material and methods During IVOCT imaging of a steno...
Preprint
Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a preclinical imaging technique capable of visualizing the spatio-temporal distribution of magnetic nanoparticles. The image reconstruction of this fast and dynamic process relies on efficiently solving an ill-posed inverse problem. Current approaches to reconstruct the tracer concentration from its measurements a...
Article
Aim: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is highly promising for biomedical applications, but optimal tracers for MPI, namely superparamagnetic iron oxide-based contrast agents, are still lacking. Materials & methods: The encapsulation of commercially available nanoparticles, specifically synomag ® -D and perimag ® , into human red blood cells (RBCs) w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Growing radiologic workload and shortage of medical experts worldwide often lead to delayed or even unreported examinations, which poses a risk for patient's safety in case of unrecognized findings in chest radiographs (CXR). The aim was to evaluate, whether deep learning algorithms for an intelligent worklist prioritization might optimize the radi...
Article
This is the version 1.0 of our static, 3D printable, anatomical rat model. The designed purpos is to provide a anatomical shaped phantom for medical imaging. The organs are constructed as hollow bodys, which can be filled with contrast agend suiteable for the technology of interest, e.g. iodine for CT, gadolinium for MRI or iron nanoparticles for M...
Article
In Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), the system matrix plays an important role, as it encodes the relationship between particle concentration and the measured signal. Its acquisition requires a time-consuming calibration scan, whereas its size leads to a high memory-demand. Both of these aspects can be limiting factors in practice. In order to reduc...
Article
Full-text available
Magnetic particle imaging is a tomographic imaging technique capable of measuring the local concentration of magnetic nanoparticles that can be used as tracers in biomedical applications. Since MPI is still at a very early stage of development, there are only a few MPI systems worldwide that are primarily operated by technical research groups that...
Preprint
Purpose: Using 4D magnetic particle imaging (MPI), intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) catheters are tracked in real time in order to compensate for image artifacts related to relative motion. Our approach demonstrates the feasibility for bimodal IVOCT and MPI in-vitro experiments. Material and Methods: During IVOCT imaging of a sten...
Preprint
Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is a catheter based image modality allowing for high resolution imaging of vessels. It is based on a fast sequential acquisition of A-scans with an axial spatial resolution in the range of 5 to 10 {\mu}m, i.e., one order of magnitude higher than in conventional methods like intravascular ultrasound...
Article
Full-text available
Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) has been successfully used to visualize the distribution of superparamagnetic nanoparticles within 3D volumes with high sensitivity in real time. Since the magnetic field topology of MPI scanners is well suited for applying magnetic forces on particles and micron-sized ferromagnetic devices, MPI has been recently use...
Article
The tomographic imaging method magnetic particle imaging (MPI) requires a multi-patch approach for capturing large field of views. This approach consists of a continuous or stepwise spatial shift of a small sub-volume of only few cubic centimeters size, which is scanned using one or multiple excitation fields in the kHz range. Under the assumption...
Article
Full-text available
The image reconstruction problem of the tomographic imaging technique magnetic particle imaging (MPI) requires the solution of a linear inverse problem. One prerequisite for this task is that the imaging operator that describes the mapping between the tomographic image and the measured signal is accurately known. For 2D and 3D excitation patterns,...
Article
Purpose Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a novel tomographic radiation-free imaging technique that combines high spatial resolution and real-time capabilities, making it a promising tool to guide vascular interventions. Immediate availability of 3D image data is a major advantage over the presently used digital subtraction angiography (DSA), but...
Article
Objective Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new, fast and three-dimensional imaging technique, which is considered promising for angiographies. As available MPI-scanners suffer from restricted spatial resolution and are mostly constructed for small animal imaging, no vessels within one organ have been depicted by MPI, yet. The purpose of this st...
Article
Full-text available
For medical research, approximately 115 million animals are needed every year. Rodents are used to test possible applications and procedures for the diagnosis of anatomical and physiological diseases. However, working with living animals increases the complexity of an experiment. Accurate experimental planning is essential in order to fulfill the 3...
Preprint
The image reconstruction problem of the tomographic imaging technique magnetic particle imaging (MPI) requires the solution of a linear inverse problem. One prerequisite for this task is that the imaging operator that describes the mapping between the tomographic image and the measured signal is accurately known. For 2D and 3D excitation patterns,...
Preprint
Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) has been successfully used to visualize the distribution of superparamagnetic nanoparticles within 3D volumes with high sensitivity in real time. Since the magnetic field topology of MPI scanners is well suited for applying magnetic forces on particles and micron-sized ferromagnetic devices, MPI has been recently use...
Article
Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a tracer-based imaging technique that can be used for imaging vessels and organ perfusion with high temporal resolution. Background signals are a major source for image artifacts and in turn restrict the sensitivity of the method in practice. While static background signals can be removed from the measured signal...
Preprint
Full-text available
Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) data is commonly reconstructed using a system matrix acquired in a time-consuming calibration measurement. The calibration approach has the important advantage over model-based reconstruction that it takes the complex particle physics as well as system imperfections into account. This benefit comes for the cost that...
Article
Full-text available
Determining the brain perfusion is an important task for diagnosis of vascular diseases such as occlusions and intracerebral haemorrhage. Even after successful diagnosis, there is a high risk of restenosis or rebleeding such that patients need intense attention in the days after treatment. Within this work, we present a diagnostic tomographic image...
Article
Full-text available
The increased availability of X-ray image archives (e.g. the ChestX-ray14 dataset from the NIH Clinical Center) has triggered a growing interest in deep learning techniques. To provide better insight into the different approaches, and their applications to chest X-ray classification, we investigate a powerful network architecture in detail: the Res...
Article
Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an imaging modality that detects the response of a distribution of magnetic nanoparticle tracers to static and alternating magnetic fields. There has recently been exploration into multi-contrast MPI, in which the signal from different tracer materials or environments is separately reconstructed, resulting in mult...
Article
Purpose: Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is a catheter-based image modality allowing for high-resolution imaging of vessels. It is based on a fast sequential acquisition of A-scans with an axial spatial resolution in the range of 5-10 μm, that is, one order of magnitude higher than in conventional methods like intravascular ultr...
Article
Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a highly sensitive imaging method that enables the visualization of magnetic tracer materials with a temporal resolution of more than 46 volumes per second. In MPI the size of the field of view scales with the strengths of the applied magnetic fields. In clinical applications those strengths are limited by periphe...
Article
Full-text available
Hemodynamic properties and deformation of vessel structures are assumed to be correlated to the initiation, development, and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Therefore, precise quantification of wall motion is essential. However, using standard-of-care imaging data, approaches for patient-specific estimation of pulsatile deformation are prone to unce...
Preprint
Full-text available
Determining the brain perfusion is an important task for the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases such as occlusions and intracerebral haemorrhage. Even after successful diagnosis and treatment, there is a high risk of restenosis or rebleeding such that patients need intense and frequent attention in the days after treatment. Within this wo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chest radiography is the most common clinical examination type. To improve the quality of patient care and to reduce workload, methods for automatic pathology classification have been developed. In this contribution we investigate the usefulness of two advanced image pre-processing techniques, initially developed for image reading by radiologists,...
Article
Due to peripheral nerve stimulation the magnetic particle imaging (MPI) method is limited in the maximum applicable excitation-field amplitude. This in turn leads to a limitation of the size of the covered field of view (FoV) to few millimeters. In order to still capture a larger field of view, MPI is capable to rapidly acquire volumes in a multi-p...