Tobias Kampfrath

Tobias Kampfrath
Freie Universität Berlin | FUB · Department of Physics

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185
Publications
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Publications

Publications (185)
Preprint
Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are an aspiring class of materials with unique electronic and optical properties and potential applications in spin-based electronics. Here, we use terahertz emission spectroscopy to study spin-to-charge current conversion (S2C) in the TMDC NbSe$_2$ in ultra-high-vacuum-grown F|NbSe$_2$ thin-film stacks, whe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Antiferromagnetic materials have been proposed as new types of narrowband THz spintronic devices owing to their ultrafast spin dynamics. Manipulating coherently their spin dynamics, however, remains a key challenge that is envisioned to be accomplished by spin-orbit torques or direct optical excitations. Here, we demonstrate the combined generation...
Article
Spintronic terahertz emitters are broadband and efficient sources of terahertz radiation, which emerged at the intersection of ultrafast spintronics and terahertz photonics. They are based on efficient spin-current generation, spin-to-charge-current conversion, and current-to-field conversion at terahertz rates. In this Editorial, we review the rec...
Article
Full-text available
Ferromagnet/heavy metal bilayers represent a central building block for spintronic devices where the magnetization of the ferromagnet can be controlled by spin currents generated in the heavy metal. The efficiency of spin current generation is paramount. Equally important is the efficient transfer of this spin current across the ferromagnet/heavy m...
Article
Efficient terahertz generation and detection are a key prerequisite for high performance terahertz systems. Major advancements in realizing efficient terahertz emitters and detectors were enabled through photonics-driven semiconductor devices, thanks to the extremely wide bandwidth available at optical frequencies. Through the efficient generation...
Article
Full-text available
Magnetic Weyl semimetals are an emerging material class that combines magnetic order and a topologically non-trivial band structure. Here, we study ultrafast optically driven spin injection from thin films of the magnetic Weyl semimetals Co 2 MnGa and Co 2 MnAl into an adjacent Pt layer by means of terahertz emission spectroscopy. We find that (i)...
Preprint
Full-text available
We study laser driven spin-current effects at ferromagnet/topological-insulator interfaces by two complementary experimental approaches. The DC photocurrent is studied in ferromagnet/topological-insulator bilayers with high spatial resolution. Dynamic interface currents are explored via the emission of terahertz radiation emitted by these currents...
Conference Paper
We present THz generation in a back-cooled spintronic THz emitter in reflection geometry, excited with a high-average power Yb-laser providing up to 18.5 W at 400 kHz repetition rate. This allows us to increase the THz power.
Article
Full-text available
We study ultrafast magnetization quenching of ferromagnetic iron following excitation by an optical versus a terahertz pump pulse. While the optical pump (photon energy of 3.1 eV) induces a strongly nonthermal electron distribution, terahertz excitation (4.1 meV) results in a quasithermal perturbation of the electron population. The pump-induced sp...
Article
Full-text available
We show scalable and complete suppression of the recently reported terahertz-pulse-induced switching between different resistance states of antiferromagnetic CuMnAs thin films by ultrafast gating. The gating functionality is achieved by an optically generated transiently conductive parallel channel in the semiconducting substrate underneath the met...
Preprint
Full-text available
Metallic spintronic THz emitters have become well-established for offering ultra-broadband, gap-less THz emission in a variety of excitation regimes, in combination with reliable fabrication and excellent scalability. However, so far, their potential for high-average-power excitation to reach strong THz fields at high repetition rates has not been...
Preprint
Full-text available
Spintronic terahertz emitters are novel, broadband and efficient sources of terahertz radiation, which emerged at the intersection of ultrafast spintronics and terahertz photonics. They are based on efficient spin-current generation, spin-to-charge-current and current-to-field conversion at terahertz rates. In this review, we address the recent dev...
Preprint
Full-text available
Magnetic Weyl semimetals are an emerging material class that combines magnetic order and a topologically non-trivial band structure. Here, we study ultrafast optically driven spin injection from thin films of the magnetic Weyl semimetals Co$_2$MnGa and Co$_2$MnAl into an adjacent Pt layer by means of terahertz emission spectroscopy. We find that (i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Control over spin transport in antiferromagnetic systems is essential for future spintronic applications with operational speeds extending to ultrafast time scales. Here, we study the transition from the gigahertz (GHz) to terahertz (THz) regime of spin transport and spin-to-charge current conversion (S2C) in the prototypical antiferromagnet IrMn b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Spin transport is crucial for future spintronic devices operating at bandwidths up to the terahertz (THz) range. In F|N thin-film stacks of a ferro/ferrimagnetic layer F and a normal-metal layer N, spin transport is mediated by (1) spin-polarized conduction electrons and/or (2) torque between electron spins. To identify a cross-over from (1) to (2)...
Preprint
Full-text available
Spin transmission at ferromagnet/heavy metal interfaces is of vital importance for many spintronic devices. Usually the spin current transmission is limited by the spin mixing conductance and loss mechanisms such as spin memory loss. In order to understand these effects, we study the interface transmission when an insulating interlayer is inserted...
Article
Full-text available
Reliable modulation of terahertz electromagnetic waveforms is important for many applications. Here, we rapidly modulate the direction of the electric field of linearly polarized terahertz electromagnetic pulses with 1–30 THz band-width by applying time-dependent magnetic fields to a spintronic terahertz emitter. Polarity modulation of the terahertz...
Article
In bilayers consisting of a normal metal (N) with spin-orbit coupling and a ferromagnet (F), the combination of the spin-Hall effect, the spin-transfer torque, and the inverse spin-Hall effect gives a small correction to the in-plane conductivity of N, which is referred to as spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR). We here present a theory of the SMR an...
Preprint
We show scalable and complete suppression of the recently reported terahertz-pulse-induced switching between different resistance states of antiferromagnetic CuMnAs thin films by ultrafast gating. The gating functionality is achieved by an optically generated transiently conductive parallel channel in the semiconducting substrate underneath the met...
Preprint
Full-text available
We study ultrafast magnetization quenching of ferromagnetic iron following excitation by an optical vs a terahertz pump pulse. While the optical pump (photon energy of 3.1 eV) induces a strongly nonthermal electron distribution, terahertz excitation (~4 meV) results in a quasi-thermal perturbation of the electron population. The pump-induced spin a...
Article
Full-text available
Anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) is a ubiquitous and versatile probe of magnetic order in contemporary spintronics research. Its origins are usually ascribed to extrinsic effects (i.e., spin-dependent electron scattering), whereas intrinsic (i.e., scattering-independent) contributions are neglected. Here, we measure AMR of polycrystalline thin f...
Preprint
Full-text available
In bilayers consisting of a normal metal (N) with spin-orbit coupling and a ferromagnet (F), the combination of the spin-Hall effect, the spin-transfer torque, and the inverse spin-Hall effect gives a small correction to the in-plane conductivity of N, which is referred to as spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR). We here present a theory of the SMR an...
Article
Full-text available
The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is a fundamental spintronic charge‐to‐charge‐current conversion phenomenon and closely related to spin‐to‐charge‐current conversion by the spin Hall effect. Future high‐speed spintronic devices will crucially rely on such conversion phenomena at terahertz (THz) frequencies. Here, it is revealed that the AHE remains o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Laser-induced terahertz spin transport (TST) and ultrafast demagnetization (UDM) are central but so far disconnected phenomena in femtomagnetism and terahertz spintronics. Here, we show that UDM and TST are driven by the same force: a generalized spin voltage, which is induced by the incident femtosecond laser pulse. Using broadband terahertz emiss...
Article
Full-text available
The efficient conversion of spin to charge transport and vice versa is of major relevance for the detection and generation of spin currents in spin‐based electronics. Interfaces of heterostructures are known to have a marked impact on this process. Here, terahertz (THz) emission spectroscopy is used to study ultrafast spin‐to‐charge‐current convers...
Article
Full-text available
We use the terahertz (THz) emission spectroscopy to study femtosecond photocurrent dynamics in the prototypical 2D semiconductor, transition metal dichalcogenide MoSe 2 . We identify several distinct mechanisms producing THz radiation in response to an ultrashort (30 fs) optical excitation in a bilayer (BL) and a multilayer (ML) sample. In the ML,...
Article
The spin Hall effect in heavy-metal thin films is routinely used to convert charge currents into transverse spin currents and can be used to exert torque on adjacent ferromagnets. Conversely, the inverse spin Hall effect is frequently used to detect spin currents by charge currents in spintronic devices up to the terahertz frequency range. Numerous...
Preprint
Full-text available
The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is a fundamental spintronic charge-to-charge-current conversion phenomenon and closely related to spin-to-charge-current conversion by the spin Hall effect. Future high-speed spintronic devices will crucially rely on such conversion effects at terahertz (THz) frequencies. Here, we reveal that the AHE remains operativ...
Preprint
We investigate the THz emission characteristics of ferromagnetic/non-magnetic metallic heterostructures, focusing on thin Fe/Pt bilayers. In particular, we report on the impact of optimized crystal growth of the epitaxial Fe layers on the THz emission amplitude and spectral bandwidth. We demonstrate an enhancement of the emitted intensity along wit...
Preprint
Anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) is a ubiquitous and versatile probe of ferro-, ferri- and antiferromagnetic order in contemporary spintronics research. Its origins are usually ascribed to spin-dependent electron scattering, whereas scattering-independent (intrinsic) contributions are neglected. Here, we measure AMR of the standard ferromagnets...
Preprint
Full-text available
The spin Hall effect in heavy-metal thin films is routinely employed to convert charge currents into transverse spin currents and can be used to exert torque on adjacent ferromagnets. Conversely, the inverse spin Hall effect is frequently used to detect spin currents by charge currents in spintronic devices up to the terahertz frequency range. Nume...
Preprint
Full-text available
We use the terahertz (THz) emission spectroscopy to study femtosecond photocurrent dynamics in the prototypical 2D semiconductor, transition metal dichalcogenide MoSe$_2$. We identify several distinct mechanisms producing THz radiation in response to an ultrashort ($30\,$fs) optical excitation in a bilayer (BL) and a multilayer (ML) sample. In the...
Article
Full-text available
A material’s magnetic state and its dynamics are of great fundamental research interest and are also at the core of a wide plethora of modern technologies. However, reliable access to magnetization dynamics in materials and devices on the technologically relevant ultrafast timescale, and under realistic device-operation conditions, remains a challe...
Article
Full-text available
Coupling phase-stable single-cycle terahertz (THz) pulses to scanning tunneling microscope (STM) junctions enables spatio-temporal imaging with femtosecond temporal and Ångstrom spatial resolution. The time resolution achieved in such THz-gated STM is ultimately limited by the sub-cycle temporal variation of the tip-enhanced THz field acting as an...
Article
Full-text available
Following the success and relevance of the 2014 and 2017 Magnetism Roadmap articles, this 2020 Magnetism Roadmap edition takes yet another timely look at newly relevant and highly active areas in magnetism research. The overall layout of this article is hereby unchanged, given that it is very suitable to convey the most relevant aspects of today's...
Article
Full-text available
The electron linear accelerators driving modern X-ray free-electron lasers can emit intense, tunable, quasi-monochromatic terahertz (THz) transients with peak electric fields of V Å ⁻¹ and peak magnetic fields in excess of 10 T when a purpose-built, compact, superconducting THz undulator is implemented. New research avenues such as X-ray movies of...
Article
Full-text available
Energy dissipation in water is very fast and more efficient than in many other liquids. This behavior is commonly attributed to the intermolecular interactions associated with hydrogen bonding. Here, we investigate the dynamic energy flow in the hydrogen bond network of liquid water by a pump-probe experiment. We resonantly excite intermolecular de...
Preprint
Coupling phase-stable single-cycle terahertz (THz) pulses to scanning tunneling microscope (STM) junctions enables spatio-temporal imaging with femtosecond temporal and \r{A}ngstrom spatial resolution. The time resolution achieved in such THz-gated STM is ultimately limited by the sub-cycle temporal variation of the tip-enhanced THz field acting as...
Preprint
Full-text available
Energy dissipation in water is very fast and more efficient than in many other liquids. This behavior is commonly attributed to the intermolecular interactions associated with hydrogen bonding. Here, we investigate the dynamic energy flow in the hydrogen-bond network of liquid water by a pump-probe experiment. We resonantly excite intermolecular de...
Conference Paper
We explore power and bandwidth scaling for the generation of highly-temporally-confined THz transients from spintronic emitters, driven by the 250-fs and 20-fs pulses of a high-power 28-MHz Yb-based laser, spectrally centered at 1030 nm.
Article
Full-text available
A review on the recent development of intense laser‐driven terahertz (THz) sources is provided here. The technologies discussed include various types of sources based on optical rectification (OR), spintronic emitters, and laser‐filament‐induced plasma. The emphasis is on OR using pump pulses with tilted intensity front. Illustrative examples of ne...
Article
We demonstrate antenna-coupled spintronic terahertz (THz) emitters excited by 1550 nm, 90 fs laser pulses. Antennas are employed to optimize THz outcoupling and frequency coverage of ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic metallic spintronic structures. We directly compare the antenna-coupled devices to those without antennas. Using a 200 μm H-dipole antenna an...
Article
We systematically study the pump-wavelength dependence of terahertz pulse generation in thin-film spintronic THz emitters composed of a ferromagnetic CoFeB layer between adjacent nonmagnetic W and Pt layers. We find that the efficiency of THz generation is essentially flat for excitation by 150 fs pulses with center wavelengths ranging from 900 to...
Preprint
The theoretical prediction of topological insulators in 2007 triggered tremendous interest. They are of fundamental interest because of their topological twist in k-space, which comes along with unidirectional, spin-polarized surface-state currents, required for spin-optoelectronics. This property makes topological insulators on one hand perfect ma...
Preprint
We systematically study the pump-wavelength dependence of terahertz pulse generation in thin-film spintronic THz emitters composed of a ferromagnetic Fe layer between adjacent nonmagnetic W and Pt layers. We find that the efficiency of THz generation is essentially at for excitation by 150 fs pulses with center wavelengths ranging from 900 to 1500...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the transfer of spin angular momentum is essential in modern magnetism research. A model case is the generation of magnons in magnetic insulators by heating an adjacent metal film. Here, we reveal the initial steps of this spin Seebeck effect with <27fs time resolution using terahertz spectroscopy on bilayers of ferrimagnetic yttrium-...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying materials with an efficient spin-to-charge conversion is crucial for future spintronic applications. In this respect, the spin Hall effect is a central mechanism as it allows for the interconversion of spin and charge currents. Spintronic material research aims at maximizing its efficiency, quantified by the spin Hall angle and the spin...
Article
Full-text available
To gain control over magnetic order on ultrafast time scales, a fundamental understanding of the way electron spins interact with the surrounding crystal lattice is required. However, measurement and analysis even of basic collective processes such as spin-phonon equilibration have remained challenging. Here, we directly probe the flow of energy an...