Tobias B. Grun

Tobias B. Grun
University of Florida | UF · Florida Museum

Dr. rer. nat.

About

57
Publications
7,383
Reads
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351
Citations
Citations since 2016
49 Research Items
341 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
Introduction
My research focuses on recent and fossil marine invertebrates with a particular focus on echinoids and spirulid cephalopods. My research interest is on their integration in the environment and evolution through geological times which is investigated in the light of biotic interaction.
Additional affiliations
September 2020 - December 2020
University of Florida
Position
  • Research Associate
Description
  • DFG (German Research Foundation) research project GR5464/1: Recognition and interpretation of predatory traces in echinoid skeletons: towards the evolution of predator-prey systems in ecologically important echinoid taxa.
April 2019 - September 2020
University of Florida
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Biotic interactions in echinoid communities through time within the NSF funded project Evolutionary Significance of Biotic Interactions: A Comparative Study Utilizing Echinoid Associated Traces (EAT).
September 2018 - March 2019
University of Tuebingen
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Biomechanics and technical biology of the echinoid skeleton and biotic interactions in marine communities.
Education
September 2015 - August 2018
University of Tuebingen
Field of study
  • Geosciences
September 2013 - August 2015
University of Tuebingen
Field of study
  • Biology
September 2009 - August 2013
University of Tuebingen
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (57)
Article
Full-text available
Background Irregular echinoids are ecosystem engineers with diverse functional services. Documenting present-day distribution of those widespread organisms is important for understanding their ecological significance and enhancing our ability to interpret their rich fossil record. Methods This study summarizes SCUBA surveys of clypeasteroid and sp...
Conference Paper
Burrowing echinoids, such as sand dollars, sea biscuits, and heart urchins, are increasingly appreciated for their role in enhancing the health and function of soft sediment habitats. On sea bottoms at which they are abundant , burrowing echinoids can be important ecosystem engineers due to their ability to process and oxygenate surficial sediments...
Article
Full-text available
Repeated polygonal patterns are pervasive in natural forms and structures. These patterns provide inherent structural stability while optimizing strength-per-weight and minimizing construction costs. In echinoids (sea urchins), a visible regularity can be found in the endoskeleton, consisting of a lightweight and resistant micro-trabecular meshwork...
Article
Full-text available
In biomimetic design, functional systems, principles, and processes observed in nature are used for the development of innovative technical systems. The research on functional features is often carried out without giving importance to the generative mechanism behind them: evolution. To deeply understand and evaluate the meaning of functional morpho...
Article
Full-text available
Predation traces found on fossilized prey remains can be used to quantify the evolutionary history of biotic interactions. Fossil mollusc shells bearing these types of traces provided key evidence for the rise of predation during the Mesozoic marine revolution (MMR), an event thought to have reorganized global marine ecosystems. However, predation...
Article
The infaunal living clypeasteroid echinoid genus Echinocyamus is considered a model organism for various ecological and paleontological studies since its distribution ranges from the polar regions to the tropics, and from shallow-marine settings to the deep-sea. Deep-sea analyses of this genus are rare, but imperative for the understanding and func...
Article
Full-text available
The endoskeleton of echinoderms (Deuterostomia: Echinodermata) is of mesodermal origin and consists of cells, organic components, as well as an inorganic mineral matrix. The echinoderm skeleton forms a complex lattice-system, which represents a model structure for naturally inspired engineering in terms of construction, mechanical behaviour, and fu...
Article
Interactions with predators and parasites can result in traces found on Recent and fossil echinoids. However, identifying specific trace makers, particularly on fossil echinoids, remains contentious. To document the range of trace morphologies present on echinoids and improve our ability to identify and quantify biotic interactions affecting echino...
Chapter
Im Laufe der Evolution haben sich Seeigel an unterschiedlichste Lebensräume im Meer angepasst. Besonders auffällig sind Entwicklungen im Bau ihrer Skelette, die zum Teil sehr spezifisch an die Umweltbedingungen gekoppelt sind. Die Schalen müssen vielen Anforderungen gerecht werden, um z. B. Strömungen, Sturmereignissen und Räuberangriffen zu widers...
Chapter
In the course of evolution, sea urchins have adapted to a wide range of habitats in the ocean. Particularly conspicuous are the developments in the construction of their skeletons, which feature specific adaptations to their ambient environmental conditions. The sea urchin shells thus have developed many different charakteristics in order to withst...
Chapter
In architectural research, pavilions play a special role because, as temporary structures, they present an opportunity to investigate specific issues without having to fulfill all requirements for permanent buildings. The findings resulting from this investigation can then be utilized in the design and implementation of permanent buildings. In this...
Chapter
Full-text available
Die Lebensräume, in welchen Echiniden leben, werden in deren Morpho-logie reflektiert. Clypeasteride Echiniden, die zu den irregulären Seeigeln gehören, leben sehr häufig komplett oder teilweise eingegraben im Sediment. Bei dieser Lebensweise hat sich in diesem Taxon eine dorsoventra-le Abflachung als vorteilhaft herausgestellt. Diese funktionsmorp...
Article
The minute sea urchin Echinocyamus pusillus is a well-known clypeasteroid echinoid that is common in both recent and fossil marine environments with often well-preserved tests. This echinoid inhabits a variety of soft substrates reflecting its ability to adapt to highly variable environmental conditions. Echinocyamus pusillus has increasingly come...
Article
Full-text available
The multi-plated skeleton of echinoids is made of the stereom, a lightweight construction which resembles a micro-beam framework. Although the two-dimensional design of the stereom has been studied, its spatial architecture is only little known. It is, however, imperative to understand the spatial architecture of the trabecular system in order to i...
Article
Full-text available
The skeleton of Echinocyamus pusillus is considered as an exceptional model organism for structural strength and skeletal integrity within the echinoids as demonstrated by the absence of supportive collagenous fibres between single plates and the high preservation potential of their skeletons. The structural principles behind this remarkably stable...
Article
The stability of echinoid skeletons is highly dependent on the strength of the connections between individual elements, such as the plates of the test, which contribute to the construction of these modular organized organisms. Herein, the irregular echinoid genus Clypeaster (Lamarck 1801) is studied with respect to constructional details of the ske...
Article
Full-text available
The clypeasteroid echinoid skeleton is a multi-plated, lightweight shell construction produced by biomineralization processes. In shell constructions, joints between individual elements are considered as weak points, yet these echinoid skeletons show an extensive preservation potential in both Recent and fossil environments. The remarkable strength...
Article
Full-text available
Spines of the slate pencil sea urchin Heterocentrotus mamillatus Linnaeus, 1758, are in focus of biomimetic research as they feature a “graceful” failure behaviour under uniaxial compression dissipating energy and resisting high loads even after high strain. This study elucidates and quantifies the organization of calcitic trabeculae and pores in l...
Chapter
Full-text available
Im Laufe der Evolution haben sich Seeigel an unterschiedlichste Lebensräume im Meer angepasst. Besonders auffällig sind Entwicklungen im Bau ihrer Skelette, die zum Teil sehr spezifisch an die Umweltbedingungen gekoppelt sind. Die Schalen müssen vielen Anforderungen gerecht werden, um zum Beispiel Strömungen, Sturmereignissen und Räuberangriffen zu...
Article
Full-text available
Cassid gastropods are well-known drilling predators of a whole suite of echinoids which are common in both Recent and fossil environments. In many cases, the identification of cassids as possible predators is based on drill hole morphology only. A detailed study of drill hole characteristics is thus imperative for predator recognition and provided...
Article
The gastropod Cassis tuberosa (Linnaeus, 1758) usually lives in and on soft sediments and sea grass meadows. This carnivorous snail is primarily a semi-epifaunal and nocturnal hunter that, during daytime, rests burrowed in sediments. Around the Bahamian island of San Salvador, C. tuberosa has extended its behavior from nocturnal to metaturnal; feed...
Article
Fossilized tests of 1,053 Echinocyamus stellatus (Capeder, 1906) from the Miocene Globigerina Limestone Formation exposed on the northern coast of Gozo (Maltese Islands) were analyzed for predation traces. Specimens mixed by time-averaging processes can be clearly separated into two distinct samples according to their preservation as phosphatized o...
Chapter
Concrete double-curved shell constructions have been used in architectural design and building constructions since the beginning of the twentieth century. Although monolithic shells show a high stiffness as their geometry transfers loads through membrane forces, they have been mostly replaced by the more cost-efficient lattice systems. As lattice s...
Article
Full-text available
A new quasimetric approach is used to statistically analyze taphonomic data from a commonly occurring shallow water clypeasteroid echinoid in order to obtain metric equivalent measurements of taphonomic alteration on an interval-like scale. This technique takes the character condition as well as its proportion into account and translates the taphon...
Article
Stingrays (Order: Myliobatiformes) are well-known predators that feed on a variety of marine species including crustaceans, teleosts, molluscs and annelids. Here, a predatory attack by a stingray on the large spatangoid echinoid Meoma ventricosa (Lamarck) is reported from the shallow-water carbonate platform of San Salvador, Bahamas. A single sting...
Conference Paper
High resolution determination and quantification of biotic components in thin sections are used to determine component diversities, biotic relationships, taphonomic pathways (microtaphofacies) and facies patterns within Oligocene to Lower Miocene carbonates of the circumalpine region. The studied thin sections originate from detailed studies and fa...
Conference Paper
Clypeasteroid echinoids are known to be potentially well-preserved in the fossil record. The high preservation potential is due to morphological characteristics unique to clypeasteroids including internal support which are structures connecting the oral and aboral test sides, as well as interlocking plates that securely join neighboring plates. Ech...
Conference Paper
The differential preservation potentials of sea urchin skeletons depend on numerous factors including the architecture of the test, mode of death, ambient ecological factors and so on. Clypeasteroid echinoids are known to have a high preservation potential due to the presence of internal supports in most taxa that bridge the oral and aboral side of...
Conference Paper
Recent echinoids are known to be commonly hunted by numerous predators including cassid gastropods which produce drillholes. Numerous tests of the minute clypeasteroid echinoid Echinocyamus from the Late Oligocene of Northern Germany have been studied with respect to morphology, size parameters and drill holes. The echinoid tests originate from...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Comparison of drilling predation patterns on the fossil and Recent echinoid Echinocyamus may offer insights in development of predator-prey relationships. Data from extant Echinocyamus from the Mediterranean and the Red Sea are available, but data concerning fossil representatives are still scarce. For the present study, 1053 tests of Echinocyam...
Conference Paper
Drilling predation on echinoids by cassid gastropods is common in marine environments but rarely documented for the minute clypeasteroid Echinocyamus pusillus O.F. Müller (1776). Tests of this echinoid were collected from the Mediterranean Sea (Giglio Island, Italy) and were examined for size and boreholes with regard to the borehole morphology...
Article
Full-text available
Drilling predation of cassid gastropods (tonnacean) on echinoids is common in marine environments but is rarely documented. Tests of the minute clypeasteroid Echinocyamus pusillus OF Müller (1776) were collected from the Mediterranean Sea (Isola del Giglio, Italy). Besides general morphology, features pertaining to the morphology and distribution o...
Conference Paper
Drilling predation of cassid gastropods (tonnacean) on echinoids is common in marine environments but rarely documented for the minute clypeasteroid Echinocyamus pusillus O.F. Müller (1776). Tests of this echinoid were collected from the Mediterranean Sea (Isola del Giglio, Italy) and were examined for size, morphology as well as boreholes with...

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Projects

Projects (4)
Archived project
In the present project, the shells of sand dollars, highly adapted sea urchins, will be studied as a biological concept generator. These shells consist of modular polygonal plates linked at the edges by finger-like calcite protrusions and organic fibres. Sand dollars show a high geometric variety with respect to overall shape and plate arrangements. The high load-bearing capacity of the sand dollar skeleton is well adapted to high energy environments. It shows morphological features that are also required from many shells in building construction: a mainly flat curvature, apertures and column-like connections between the upper and the lower half of the shell.
Project
The hard echinoid skeletons, or their fragments, are recorder of biotic and abiotic signals. These signals reflect the contemporary environmental conditions in which an individual lived and died. The recognition of taphonomic signals and identification of potential taphonomic filters are the basis for many ecological and paleontological disciplines. This project aims to investigate some aspects of taphonomy which are relevant for the interpretation of test strength, fossilization potential, and the conservation of predatory traces in the echinoid's test.
Project
Echinoids are valuable prey-items in both modern and ancient ecosystems. During predation, the beast of prey can leave distinct predatory traces on the echinoid's test. The recognition of such predatory traces contributes to the understanding of both recent and ancient echinoderm biocenosis. This project aims to analyze predatory traces in recent and fossil echinoids and compare these traces along taxa and through time.