Tobias Greitemeyer

Tobias Greitemeyer
University of Innsbruck | UIBK · Institute of Psychology

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188
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (188)
Article
Two studies examined how individual differences relate to prejudiced attitudes toward asylum seekers. Results consistently showed that prejudiced people had relatively low scores on Honesty-Humility and relatively high scores on the Dark Tetrad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and everyday sadism) and ideological beliefs (social dominanc...
Article
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Study 1 examined how personality and attitudes are related to daily pro-environmental behavior (PEB) and whether these relationships are moderated by perceived behavioral costs and benefits. One hundred and seventy-eight participants responded to scales measuring the dark and light side of personality, as well as their pro-environmental attitude. A...
Article
The present research examined whether the Dark Tetrad facets—narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and everyday sadism—are predictive of engagement in athletic aggression. In Study 1, participants (N = 603) received a list of 46 sport activities and were asked to assess the level of aggressiveness of the sport activity they participate in most...
Article
Hundreds of studies have examined the interpersonal effects of video game consumption. This article provides a brief review of the relationship between violent and prosocial, respectively, video gaming and social behavior. Although some studies came to contradicting results, meta-analyses found that violent video game consumption increases aggressi...
Preprint
Covering the face with masks in public settings has been recommended since the start of the pandemic. Because faces provide information about identity, and that face masks hide a portion of the face, it is plausible to expect individuals who wear a mask to consider themselves less identifiable. Prior research suggests that perceived identifiability...
Preprint
Full-text available
Covering the face with masks in public settings has been recommended since the start of the pandemic. Because faces provide information about identity, and that face masks hide a portion of the face, it is plausible to expect individuals who wear a mask to consider themselves less identifiable. Prior research suggests that perceived identifiability...
Article
Previous research found that violent video game play leads to increased aggression, but many people (mainly habitual violent video game players) still believe that playing violent games releases aggressive feelings and in turn reduces aggressive behavior. Other research has shown that video game play can have a positive impact on the player's mood....
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic led to serious restrictions on peoples’ everyday lives and had severe economic impacts. In contrast, “lockdown” restrictions led to short-term beneficial effects for the environment. In the present study, we compared pro-environmental behavior and materialism values before, during, and after COVID-19 lockdown restrictions in t...
Article
Much of human learning comes from learning from others. In this article, I review empirical work on the extent to which prosocial behavior is inspired by exposure to prosocial models. In fact, witnessing a prosocial model in person leads to an increase in the future prosocial behavior of the observer. Other research has shown that exposure to media...
Article
People's pro-environmental behavior (PEB) can reflect their concern for the environment, but it can also have selfish reasons. The present study (N = 261) addresses the relationship between communal and agentic narcissism on the one hand, and altruistic and egoistic PEB on the other. To assess participant's PEB, a general self-report questionnaire...
Article
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Exposure to violent media has been widely linked to increased aggression. In the present research, we examined whether violent media exposure would be associated with increased aggression, which would then spread within social networks like a contagious disease. Two groups of first year psychology students completed a questionnaire three times over...
Article
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The current research examines the extent to which attitudes and personality traits are predictive of pro-environmental behavior (PEB). Concretely, we tested the relationship between pro-environmental attitudes, HEXACO personality traits, and actual PEB (donating potential prize money to a pro-environmental organization; N = 257). Additionally, we c...
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The present research aimed to extend the state of knowledge regarding the relationship between self-perceived empathy and traditional gender roles and placed particular focus on the contextual conditions under which gender differences in empathy are present, can be created, or eliminated. Across two studies, women rated themselves higher in empathy...
Article
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The present research examined the relationships between engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), benign masochism, and antisocial personality traits. Because both benign masochists and individuals who engage in self-injury find pleasure in experiencing pain, we expected a positive relationship between benign masochism and NSSI. We further anti...
Article
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Based on the ‘Inclusion Model of Environmental Concern’, we tested whether daily messaging intervention increases participants’ pro-environmental behavior (PEB). In a two (time: pre vs. post, repeated measure) × three (condition: egoistic appeals, ecological appeals, control group) experimental design, two hundred and eighteen individuals received...
Article
Correll and colleagues ( Correll, Park, Judd, & Wittenbrink, 2002 ) developed a first-person shooter task that simulates the police officer’s dilemma of whether to shoot or not a target that may present lethal danger. The present study examined the relationship between habitual violent video game play and responses in this shooting paradigm. Habitu...
Article
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Past research has shown that how people rate their physical attractiveness is only moderately correlated with how they are rated by others, suggesting that at least some people have little insight into their true level of attractiveness. The present research tests the hypothesis that unattractive people are not aware of their unattractiveness. In f...
Article
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Objective: Based on prior research linking masochism and antisocial behavior to sensation seeking, we hypothesized that masochistic and antisocial preferences are positively correlated. Besides sensation seeking, we tested whether disgust sensitivity (due to its inhibitory function) and shared social values (e.g., stimulation) accounted for the ma...
Article
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Exposure to violent video games (VVE) has been shown to increase aggression in the player. In the present two experiments, we tested whether this effect spreads within a social network. In Experiment 1, using data from a previous study that showed an effect of VVE on aggression in a Competitive Reaction Time Task (Greitemeyer, 2014), we assigned th...
Article
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Meta‐analyses have shown that violent video game play increases aggression in the player. The present research suggests that violent video game play also affects individuals with whom the player is connected. A longitudinal study (N = 980) asked participants to report on their amount of violent video game play and level of aggression as well as how...
Article
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The present research tested the hypothesis that everyday sadists show a distinct preference for violent video games and examined the relationship between everyday sadism and participant's mood after violent video game play. In Study 1, participants watched three trailers for video games that differed in their level of violent content. Whereas every...
Article
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Being at a disadvantage and perceiving this predicament to be unfair are at the core of the experience of personal relative deprivation. Previous research has shown that personal relative deprivation is associated with interpersonal aggression. The present longitudinal study extended these investigations by examining the impact of personal relative...
Article
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Video games have gained massive popularity. For this reason, it is often discussed how video games affect the players. This review discusses the relationship between video gaming and social behavior. Whereas violent video game play increases aggressive behavior and decreases helping and cooperative behavior, prosocial and cooperative video games le...
Article
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Previous research on video games showed that violent and prosocial content influences the player’s behavior and is associated with their personality. However, it has often been criticized that the video games are poorly matched (i.e., relative to neutral video games, they may differ not only in their violent and prosocial content but also on a vari...
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The present research examined the causal effects of absolute and relative status on experienced deprivation and hostility. On the basis of the theory of relative deprivation, we reasoned that the subjective experience of being worse off than others is a better predictor for hostility than is the absolute level of how well‐off people are. Indeed, th...
Article
Comparing economically unfavorably with similar others has detrimental consequences for an individual, ultimately resulting in low physical health, delinquency, and hostility. In four studies (N = 2,032), we examined whether believing in a mobile society—one offering fair chances and opportunity—mitigates hostile emotions resulting from disadvantag...
Article
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The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Does Pokémon Go lead to a more physically active life style?" (Gabbiadini et al., in press) [1]. In the study, 981 individuals completed a web survey, in which frequency of Pokémon Go usage, overall physically active behavior, and amount of Pokémon Go related physical...
Article
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One correlational study examined whether virtual contact via Facebook is positively related to intergroup relations. The followers of two online campaigns from Iran and Israel—whose countries have been in a politically hostile relationship since the 1980s—indicated the amount of direct and indirect virtual (Facebook) and real-life outgroup contact...
Article
Previous research has shown that prosocial behavior that is driven by selfish intentions is evaluated negatively. In the present research, we focus on people's perceptions of action that does not benefit the actor but leads to societal benefit. Concretely, two studies examined the extent to which nonprofit (compared to for-profit) organizations are...
Article
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Background: Recent studies suggest that about 6 out of 10 users have installed a fitness tracking application on their smartphone. Nevertheless, more than 59% of adults do not engage in sufficient daily physical activity and much remains unknown with regard to the effectiveness of mobile applications. By adopting the Theory of Planned Behavior, we...
Article
Previous research has shown that everyday sadism is positively related to the amount of violent video game play. The present research extends this line of work by examining whether everyday sadists are attracted to violent video games because they are fascinated with weapons. In fact, a survey (N = 613) showed that everyday sadism was significantly...
Article
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Previous research suggests that Pokémon Go can be employed as an intervention for promoting healthy behav- ior on a large scale. In contrast, some scholars expressed concerns about the long-term effects of this mobile game, indicating that the impact of the app on exercise is just moderate. We hypothesized that Pokémon Go users are more active, but...
Article
Previous research has shown that people of low subjective socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to experience compassion and provide help to others than people of high SES. However, low subjective SES also appears to be related to more hostile and aggressive responding. Given that prosociality is typically an antagonist of aggression, we exami...
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This research examined the personality characteristics of individuals who ‘speak up’ and confront perpetrators of norm transgressions. We tested whether those who intervene tend to be ‘bitter complainers’ or ‘well-adjusted leaders’. In four studies (total N = 1,003), we measured several individual differences that are directly implicated by at leas...
Article
Previous research showed that focused listening to music has powerful effects on social behavior. In contrast, the impact of background music appears to depend on moderating factors. The present field study examined the effects of background music on tipping behavior in a restaurant and the possible moderating influence of age of paying guest. Part...
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Violent video game exposure has been shown to increase aggression in the player. The present research examines the idea that violent video game play does not only have an impact on the player, but also on the player's social network. In fact, egocentric social networking analyses showed that playing violent video games is associated with increased...
Article
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Previous research on personality and political attitudes has been conducted in countries where political parties from the center dominate the political system. In the present research (N = 675), we focus on the relationship between the dark side of human personality and political orientation and extremism, respectively, in the course of a president...
Article
The current studies explored whether individual differences in emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity would mediate the relationship between attachment security and empathy. Attachment theory was used as a framework to examine the influence of both dispositional and experimentally enhanced attachment security. In Study 1, attachment...
Article
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Background Medical students present higher numbers of physician relatives than expectable from the total population prevalence of physicians. Evidence for such a familial aggregation effect of physicians has emerged in investigations from the Anglo-American, Scandinavian, and German-speaking areas. In particular, past data from Austria suggest a fa...
Article
Despite their popularity, strategy video games have been poorly studied in social science. Because strategy video games require long gaming sessions and planning and management of resources for reaching long-term goals, we assumed that they would function as a virtual training center for self-regulation abilities in everyday life. Adopting the Stre...
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In most Western societies, wealth inequality is increasing, which in turn could increase people's belief that one's standing is relatively disadvantaged. Based on relative deprivation theory, we argue that such an experience of personal relative deprivation should causally lead to greater interpersonal hostility. Indeed, three experiments show that...
Article
Previous research found correlational evidence that the trait of everyday sadism is associated with the amount of violent video game play. Due to the correlational design, the direction of the association remained unclear. According to the selection hypothesis, everyday sadists should be attracted to violent video games, whereas the socialization h...
Article
Seven studies (overall N = 3690) addressed the relation between people’s subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and their aggression levels. Based on relative deprivation theory, we proposed that people low in subjective SES would feel at a disadvantage, which in turn would elicit aggressive responses. In 3 correlational studies, subjective SES was...
Article
The present two experimental studies examined the extent to which upward and downward comparison processes on Facebook influence people's state self-esteem. Participants were exposed to mock-up Facebook profiles of female and male targets with many or few Facebook friends. Participant sex was also included in the experimental design. In Study 1, a...
Article
Previous research has shown that acute alcohol consumption is associated with negative responses toward outgroup members such as sexual minorities. However, simple alcohol cue exposure without actually consuming alcohol also influences social behavior. Hence, it was reasoned that priming participants with words related to alcohol (relative to neutr...
Article
In two studies, we investigated how bitter taste preferences might be associated with antisocial personality traits. Two US American community samples (total N = 953; mean age = 35.65 years; 48% females) self-reported their taste preferences using two complementary preference measures and answered a number of personality questionnaires assessing Ma...
Article
Past research on video game effects was often limited to explaining effects of game content and mode, leaving structural and contextual game elements scarcely investigated. The present research examined the yet unclear role of narration in video games, by adapting concepts and methodology from video game research based on self-determination theory...
Article
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Scientific misconduct appears to be on the rise. However, an accused researcher may later be exonerated. The present research examines to what extent participants adhere to their attitude toward a researcher who allegedly committed academic misconduct after learning that the researcher is innocent. In two studies, participants in an exoneration and...
Article
On Facebook, connections between users are published within “friends” lists. Therefore, ties between in- and outgroup members may be easily observed. We simulated this novel form of indirect intergroup contact through an evaluative conditioning (EC) procedure and tested if intergroup attitudes may be influenced positively. To be specific, we presen...
Chapter
In diesem Beitrag wird erläutert, was gute Argumentationsketten sind und wie sie vermittelt werden können. Man kann aber auch trotz schwacher (oder nicht vorhandener) Argumente andere Menschen (z. B. durch Suggestivfragen oder Pseudoerklärungen) überreden. Man kann davon ausgehen, dass Überzeugen auf der Grundlage starker Argumente ein Ideal ist, d...
Article
The bystander effect refers to the phenomenon that the presence of others inhibits helping behavior. The present research examines the idea that the bystander effect reverses when effective helping would require many help-givers. In a between-participants experiment, the number of help-givers needed as well as the number of individuals who were ask...
Article
Playing violent video games has become an integral part of the lives of many people, although some people more than others may be predisposed to enjoy violent video games. Two cross-sectional studies examined the extent to which everyday sadism predicts the amount of violent video game play. Past research has shown that everyday sadists obtain plea...
Article
Full-text available
Background In recent years the video game industry has surpassed both the music and video industries in sales. Currently violent video games are among the most popular video games played by consumers, most specifically First-Person Shooters (FPS). Technological advancements in game play experience including the ability to play online has accounted...
Article
Whereas previous research has mainly focused on negative effects of listening to music on intergroup attitudes and behavior, the present three experiments examined whether music exposure could reduce prejudice and discrimination. In fact, those participants who had listened to songs with pro-integration (relative to neutral) lyrics expressed less p...
Article
A correlational study on Facebook investigated the relationship between virtual intergroup contact and general attitudes toward diverse out-groups. A so-called Facebook application retrieved objective data about the intercultural composition of participants' Facebook networks. The exact percentage of out-group friends correlated significantly with...
Article
The present research tested the novel hypothesis that bitter taste increases hostility. Theoretical background formed the intimate link of the taste-sensory system to the visceral system, with bitter intake typically eliciting a strong aversion response. Three experiments using differential bitter and control stimuli showed that hostile affect and...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have shown that playing violent video games alone increases subsequent aggression. However, social game play is becoming more popular than solo game play, and research suggests cooperative game play is beneficial for players. The current studies explore the effects of cooperative game play on player’s subsequent aggressive behavior...
Article
Facebook is the world’s most popular online social network and used by more than one billion people. In three studies, we explored the hypothesis that Facebook activity negatively affects people’s emotional state. A first study shows that the longer people are active on Facebook, the more negative is their mood afterwards. The second study provides...
Article
The use of social networking sites, such as Facebook, provides ample opportunities for the pursuit of interpersonal connection but may also bring to mind one's social isolation. The present research examined the effects of interpersonal neglect (i.e., low number of responding Facebook friends) on the satisfaction of fundamental human needs. Two stu...
Article
There is a large body of research showing that people selectively prefer information that supports their decisions and opinions, and avoid conflicting information (selective information processing). Three studies were conducted to examine how the different leadership styles of supervisors influence subordinates’ selective information processing (i....
Article
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Despite hundreds of studies, there is continuing debate about the extent to which violent video games increase aggression. Believers argue that playing violent video games increases aggression, but this stance is disputed by skeptics. The present study addressed believers' and skeptics' responses to summaries of scientific studies that do or do not...
Article
Previous research has documented that the colors red and black influence perceptions of attractiveness for men viewing women. Perceived sexual receptivity has been identified as a mediator for the red-attraction link, but there has been no research to date on the mechanism linking black to attractiveness. We conducted an experiment to test whether...
Article
The bystander effect refers to the phenomenon that individuals are less likely to help if there are potential other helpers present. For instance, past research revealed that participants were less likely to help computer-controlled characters if there were other computer-controlled characters present. Research has also shown that the bystander eff...
Article
Computer players often deny that playing violent video games makes them aggressive, which is in contrast to the findings of a recent comprehensive meta-analysis. The present research examines whether comparison processes between the players' intense acts of violence in a video game and their comparatively harmless aggressive behavior in daily life...
Article
Whether video game play affects social behavior is a topic of debate. Many argue that aggression and helping are affected by video game play, whereas this stance is disputed by others. The present research provides a meta-analytical test of the idea that depending on their content, video games do affect social outcomes. Data from 98 independent stu...
Article
Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of...
Article
Based on terror management theory, we tested the idea that reminders of death strengthen justice sensitivity. In Study 1, we exposed participants to three different kinds of death‐related pictures (terrorism vs. natural disasters vs. graveyards) or neutral pictures. The results showed that death‐related visual material led to more justice sensitivi...
Article
Although there is broad scientific consensus that global warming is happening and that it is human-caused, these issues are denied by climate change skeptics. The present two studies examined to what extent (and why) climate change affirming and climate change skeptic films are successful in affecting people's environmental concern. Relative to a n...
Article
Video game developments allow players to design their own personalized avatars. Previous research has shown that this capability increases levels of aggression within socially acceptable forms of violence. Using the general aggression model (GAM), the current study examined the effect of avatar personalization on behavioral aggression within a viol...
Article
The retraction of an original article aims to ensure that readers are alerted to the fact that the findings are not trustworthy. However, the present research suggests that individuals still believe in the findings of an article even though they were later told that the data were fabricated and that the article was retracted. Participants in a debr...
Article
Three studies were performed to investigate how identification with an exergame character increases motivation to perform physical activity and, in turn, actual physical activity. Study 1 showed that the extent to which players identified with their game character positively correlated with motivation to perform physical activity. Study 2 indicated...
Article
According to self-perception theory, individuals infer their characteristics by observing their own behavior. In the present research, the hypothesis is examined whether helping behavior increases perceptions of one's own humanity even when help is given that does not benefit a real person. In fact, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial vid...
Article
Name-valence and physical attractiveness have been shown to be associated with how people respond toward others, in that people judge and behave more positively toward individuals with positive names and individuals who are physically attractive. The present research examined whether Facebook users are more likely to accept friendship requests from...
Article
Research on several non-human primate species has shown that females use red ornamentation as a sexual signal to attract male conspecifics. In the present research, we conducted two experiments designed to test an analogous use of red clothing by women in an intersexual interaction. In Experiment 1, women expecting to converse with an attractive ma...
Article
Past research has predominantly focused on negative effects of media exposure. However, as pointed out by the General Learning Model (GLM), exposure to media may have positive consequences as well. Two studies tested the effects of exposure to media with prosocial (relative to neutral) content on participant’s propensity for reckless and risky driv...
Article
The bystander effect, the phenomenon that the (real or imagined) presence of others inhibits helping, has often been ascribed to bystanders' apathy. In the present research, we demonstrate that the occurrence of the bystander effect has rational roots. Three studies reveal that the presence of other bystanders does not inhibit helping when effectiv...
Article
The present research tests the idea that playing a team-player video game in which players work together as teammates and assist each other in achieving a common goal increases cooperative behavior toward a new partner. In fact, relative to a single-player mode, cooperatively playing a video game increased cooperation in a mixed-motive decision dil...
Article
The present field study investigated the interplay between the presence of a passive bystander (not present versus present) in a simulated bike theft and expected negative consequences (low versus high) in predicting intervention behavior when no physical victim is present. It was found that an additional bystander increases individual intervention...
Article
Two studies addressed whether playing video games cooperatively in a team would increase emphatic concern toward others in need. Study 1 showed that cooperative team-play ameliorates the negative effects of violent video game play on empathy. Both those participants who had played a violent video game cooperatively in a team and participants who ha...
Article
The present research examined the effects of social exclusion on ethnocentrism. It was reasoned that expressions of ethnocentrism boost one's social identity, which can serve as a buffer to the thwarted need to belong. In fact, Study 1 revealed that social exclusion, relative to a neutral control condition, increased participant's expressions of et...
Article
Full-text available
The present research tests the idea that playing a team-player video game in which players work together as teammates and assist each other in achieving a common goal ameliorates the negative effects of violent video game play on cooperative behavior. In fact, two studies revealed that, relative to a single-player mode, playing a cooperative team-p...
Article
After making a preliminary decision, a balanced search for information that is consistent and inconsistent with one's decision is associated with effective decision making. However, whereas searching for information that is inconsistent with one's preliminary preference arouses the aversive motivational state of cognitive dissonance, evokes negativ...
Article
In many non-human primate species, female red displays are a signal of sexual receptivity and this signal attracts male conspecifics. In the present research, we proposed and tested a human analog whereby perceived sexual receptivity mediates the relation between red and sexual attraction in men viewing women. Two experiments were conducted, each o...
Article
Past research has provided abundant evidence that exposure to violent video games increases aggression and aggression‐related variables. In contrast, little is known whether and why video game exposure may also decrease aggressive behavior. In fact, two experiments revealed that playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video game reduces aggress...
Article
Media contents that glorify risk-taking (e.g., video games that simulate illegal street racing, TV depictions of dangerous extreme sports or stunts) are becoming increasingly popular. Theory and research suggest that risk glorification is associated with risk-taking among the audience. Until recently the evidence was limited in three ways: First, m...
Article
Empathetic arousal has been found to be a strong predictor of helping behavior. However, research has neglected the motivational mechanisms whereby empathetic concern elicits help giving. Three studies examined the extent to which autonomous and controlled motives for helping mediated the relationship between empathy and helping. Study 1 found that...
Article
Risk-taking behavior is puzzling insofar as it may involve considerable losses (such as increased mortality rates). The present research advances an evolutionary account of risk-taking behavior in that one of its main functions is to get access to potential mating partners. Inasmuch as reproductive competition among men is more pronounced than amon...
Article
Past research has provided evidence for the notion that media exposure may increase negative attitudes and behavior toward women. In contrast, little is known whether media exposure may also improve people's images of women. In fact, four studies tested and found support for the hypothesis that listening to music with proequality lyrics is causally...
Article
Previous research has shown that after terrorist attacks people focus more on their personal social networks. The present research tested to what extent this result can be extended to occupational networking. Considering previous research showing that in the face of terrorism people neglect their workplace, it was expected that terrorism threat wou...
Article
Past research revealed that people were prone to persist with losing courses of action. However, in these studies, it was unclear in advance whether discontinuation of the course of action was not too early. The present research showed that participants tried to actively change a troubling situation (primary control) even if they were aware that th...
Article
Based on terror management theory, previous research has shown that terrorism threat increases prejudice against Muslims and is mediated by death-related thoughts. Because this effect was found on a correlational level, it remains unclear whether terrorism threat increases prejudice against Muslims because of enhanced death-related thoughts or the...
Article
Helping and aggression are core topics in social psychology. So far, abundant evidence that violent media decreases helping and increases aggression has been collected. However, recent theoretical and empirical work has demonstrated that the media may also increase prosocial outcomes and decrease antisocial outcomes. In fact, exposure to media with...