T.m. Bezemer

T.m. Bezemer
Leiden University | LEI · Institute of Biology

PhD

About

419
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (419)
Article
Full-text available
Inoculation with soil from different ecosystems can induce changes in plant and soil communities and promote the restoration of degraded ecosystems. However, it is unknown how such inoculations influence the plant and soil communities, how much inoculum is needed, and whether inocula collected from similar ecosystems will steer soil and plant commu...
Article
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Purpose Insect herbivory affects plant growth, nutrient and secondary metabolite concentrations and litter quality. Changes to litter quality due to insect herbivory can alter decomposition, with knock on effects for plant growth mediated through the plant-litter-soil feedback pathway. Methods Using a multi-phase glasshouse experiment, we tested h...
Article
1. Environmental conditions experienced by parent plants can influence offspring performance through parental effects induced by DNA methylation. The offspring can also be influenced by environmental conditions experienced by their parents via soil legacy effects due to plant‐mediated changes in the composition of soil microbes. These two effects a...
Article
Agricultural intensification has had long-lasting negative legacies largely because of excessive inputs of agrochemicals (e.g., fertilizers) and simplification of cropping systems (e.g., continuous monocropping). Conventional agricultural management focuses on suppressing these negative legacies. However, there is now increasing attention for creat...
Article
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Aims Soil biotic communities can strongly impact plant performance. So far, most studies on plant-soil-interactions have estimated the effect of the soil microbial community on plant mass after a fixed duration of plant growth. However, these interactions may change over time and several studies have argued that plant-soil interactions are more imp...
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Background and aims Soil legacies mediated by abiotic and biotic factors can greatly influence succeeding plants, a phenomenon called plant-soil feedback (PSF). To date, the patterns and mechanisms of PSF remain largely unexplored in agroecosystems, especially how soil microbial legacies of crop species and management practices interact is poorly u...
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The importance of plant soil feedbacks (PSF) for above‐ and belowground multitrophic interactions is well recognized. However, most studies only condition soil for a short time before testing the feedback response. Here we investigate the influence of time of conditioning on soil microbiome composition, plant growth and metabolomics, and plant‐inse...
Preprint
Purpose Insect herbivory affects plant growth, nutrient and secondary metabolite concentrations and litter quality. Changes to litter quality due to insect herbivory can alter decomposition, with knock on effects for plant growth mediated through the plant-litter-soil feedback pathway. Methods Using a multi-phase glasshouse experiment, we tested ho...
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Aims Plants can influence the level of herbivory experienced by neighboring plants. The importance of such belowground associational effects are poorly understood. In this study we examine whether Jacobaea vulgaris provides associational resistance against nematodes to neighboring plants. Methods Thirteen species (6 forbs, 3 grasses and 4 legumes)...
Article
Plants leave legacy effects in the soil they grow in, which can drive important vegetation processes, including productivity, community dynamics and species turnover. Plants at the same time also face continuous pressure posed by insect herbivores. Given the intimate interactions between plants and herbivores in ecosystems, plant identity and herbi...
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Background and aims Jacobaea vulgaris plants grow better in sterilized than in live soil. Foliar application of SA mitigates this negative effect of live soil on plant growth. To examine what causes the positive effect of SA application on plant growth in live soils, we analyzed the effects of SA application on the composition of active rhizosphere...
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Composts are commonly used as soil amendments to sustain and improve the functionality of agricultural soil. Compost has abiotic (organic matter [OM], nutrients) and biotic characteristics (microorganisms) and both can influence the soil microbiome. The abiotic and biotic characteristics of compost, in turn, depend on properties of the compost such...
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Soil legacies mediated by plant species-specific microbial communities are major drivers of plant community dynamics. Most soil legacy studies focus on the role of pathogens and mutualists in driving these processes, while much less is known about plant litter-mediated changes to the soil microbial community. Here, we used an existing plant-soil fe...
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Plant-soil feedbacks are shaped by microbial legacies that plants leave in the soil. We tested the persistence of these legacies after subsequent colonization by the same or other plant species using 6 typical grassland plant species. Soil fungal legacies were detectable for months, but the current plant effect on fungi amplified in time. By contra...
Preprint
Full-text available
Inoculation with soil from different ecosystems can induce directional changes in plant and soil communities, however, it is unknown how specific these inoculations are, how much inoculum is needed, and whether different inocula collected from a similar ecosystem will steer differential ecosystem development at the recipient site. We conducted a so...
Article
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The overall effect of a live soil inoculum collected from nature on plant biomass is often negative. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is that the overall net pathogenic effect of soil microbial communities reduces plant performance. Induced plant defenses triggered by the application of the plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic a...
Article
Plant–soil feedback (PSF) and diversity–productivity relationships are important research fields to study drivers and consequences of changes in plant biodiversity. While studies suggest that positive plant diversity–productivity relationships can be explained by variation in PSF in diverse plant communities, key questions on their temporal relatio...
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Aim High levels of nitrogen deposition have been responsible for important losses of plant species diversity. It is often assumed that reduction of ammonia and nitrogen oxide emissions will result in the recovery of the former biodiversity. In Western Europe, N deposition peaked between 1980 and 1988 and declined thereafter. In a 60‐year experiment...
Article
Understanding biogeographic patterns of community assemblages is a core objective in ecology, but for soil communities these patterns are poorly understood. To understand the spatial patterns and underlying mechanisms of β‐diversity in soil communities, we investigated the β‐diversity of soil nematode communities along a 3200 km transect across sem...
Article
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Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) have been shown to strongly affect plant performance under controlled conditions, and PSFs are thought to have far reaching consequences for plant population dynamics and the structuring of plant communities. However, thus far the relationship between PSF and plant species abundance in the field is not consistent. Here,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background and aims Many plant species grow better in sterilized than in live soil. Foliar application of SA mitigates this negative effect of live soil on the growth of the plant Jacobaea vulgaris. To examine what causes the positive effect of SA application on plant growth in live soils, we analyzed the effects of SA application on the compositio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Plant-soil feedbacks are shaped by microbial legacies previous plants leave in the soil. We tested the persistence of such soil legacies after subsequent colonization by the same or other plant species, and whether the microbiome created by the previous plant explains current plant growth. Legacies of previous plants were detectable in soil fungal...
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Background Insect-associated microorganisms can provide a wide range of benefits to their host, but insect dependency on these microbes varies greatly. The origin and functionality of insect microbiomes is not well understood. Many caterpillars can harbor symbionts in their gut that impact host metabolism, nutrient uptake and pathogen protection. D...
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Green roofs can promote biodiversity in urban areas. The extent to which green roofs stimulate plant diversity can depend on roof characteristics such as roof age, substrate depth and shading. We exploratively studied the vegetation on a Dutch green roof in 50 permanent plots (1 m2) over eight years (2012–2019) following roof construction. Plots we...
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AimsThis study examines how inoculation with live soil influences the assembly of the endosphere microbiome of leaves and roots of chrysanthemum.Methods Sterilized soil was inoculated with 10% soil in which grasses had grown. Chrysanthemum was planted in these soils and control plants were grown in 100% sterilized soil. All plants were exposed to t...
Article
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Plant–soil feedbacks of plants that are exposed to herbivory have been shown to differ from those of plants that are not exposed to herbivores. Likely, this process is mediated by jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) defense pathways, which are induced by aboveground herbivory. Furthermore, exogenous application of these phytohormones to plan...
Article
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Changes in plant community composition can have long‐lasting consequences for ecosystem functioning. However, how the duration of plant growth of functionally distinct grassland plant communities influences abiotic and biotic soil properties and thus ecosystem functions is poorly known. In a field experiment, we established identical experimental s...
Book
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This Research Topic comprises articles - ranging from Original research articles, meta-analytical Reviews and Perspectives - that aim to advance our understanding of the contribution of PSFs to plant growth and plant community composition in different environmental contexts.
Article
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Abiotic and biotic properties of soil can influence growth and chemical composition of plants. Although it is well-known that soil microbial composition can vary greatly spatially, how this variation affects plant chemical composition is poorly understood. We grew genetically identical Jacobaea vulgaris in sterilized soil inoculated with live soil...
Article
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In response to environmental conditions, plants can alter the performance of the next generation through maternal effects. Since plant–soil feedbacks (PSFs) influence soil conditions, PSFs likely create such intergenerational effects. We grew monocultures of three grass and three forb species in outdoor mesocosms. We then grew one of the six specie...
Article
As a model for genetic studies, Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) offers great potential to unravel plant genome-related mechanisms that shape the root microbiome. However, the fugitive life history of this species might have evolved at the expense of investing in capacity to steer an extensive rhizosphere effect. To determine whether the rhizosph...
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Soil legacy effects are commonly highlighted as drivers of plant community dynamics and species co-existence. However, experimental evidence for soil legacy effects of conditioning plant communities on responding plant communities under natural conditions is lacking. We conditioned 192 grassland plots using six different plant communities with diff...
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Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) can influence plant performance in natural and agricultural systems but how PSF principles can be applied in agriculture is not well-studied. In a two-phase PSF experiment, we tested how inoculating soil conditioned by plants into live and sterilized commercial glasshouse soil influences the root-associated microbiome (b...
Article
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Soil legacies are typically examined for individual plant species, and we poorly understand how soil legacy effects created by entire plant communities influence plant growth. We used soils collected from a biodiversity field experiment to examine how the soil legacy effects of plant diversity influence the growth of a focal plant species. In the f...
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Understanding the causes of variation in foliar plant metabolomes is essential for our understanding of ecological interactions between plants and other organisms. It is well‐accepted that foliar herbivory alters metabolites in leaves. However, soil (micro)organisms can also induce such changes. We generated plant‐specific soil legacies by growing...
Article
The ‘home-field advantage’ (HFA) hypothesis predicts that litter decomposition is accelerated in its home environment (i.e. in conspecific soil). Soil organisms play a key role in driving such HFA effects. Soil biota have a large range of body sizes, referred to as size fractions, which may influence their roles in the decomposition process and in...
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Our findings highlight how soil fungal and bacterial communities respond to time, season, and plant species identity. We found that succession shapes the soil bacterial community, while plant species and the type of plant species that grows in the soil drive the assembly of soil fungal communities. Future research on the effects of plants on soil m...
Article
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Interactions between plants and soil microbes are important for plant growth and resistance. Through plant‐soil‐feedbacks, growth of a plant is influenced by the previous plant that was growing in the same soil. We performed a plant‐soil feedback study with 37 grass, forb and legume species, to condition the soil and then tested the effects of plan...
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•Soils and their microbiomes are now recognized as key components of plant health, but how to steer those microbiomes to obtain their beneficial functions is still unknown. Here, we assess whether plant‐soil feedbacks can be applied in a crop system to shape soil microbiomes that suppress herbivorous insects in aboveground tissues. •We used four gr...
Article
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Plant‐mediated soil legacy effects can be important determinants of the performance of plants and their aboveground insect herbivores, but so far, soil legacy effects on plant–insect interactions have been tested for only a limited number of host plant species and soils. Here, we tested the performance of a polyphagous aboveground herbivore, caterp...
Article
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Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) are important drivers of vegetation composition in nature. Whole-soil inoculations can help to steer plant-community assembly for nature restoration success. However, it is unclear how subsequent colonization by ruderal and late-successional plant species influences PSFs. Here we test the direction and strength of the PS...
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Background and aims Current knowledge of soil heterogeneity-diversity relationships (HDR) is largely based on studies manipulating single factor, but the advancements in HDR may require a comprehensive experiment incorporating multiple factors. Methods We conducted a three-year field experiment in which a seed mixture of 16 common grassland specie...
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Aims: Soil food webs include multiple groups of organisms that each can favor or repress particular plant species in a plant community. This study explores how microbes and nematodes alter the temporal dynamics of specific plant species and functional groups (i.e. grasses and forbs) in mixed grassland communities. Methods: We extracted communities...
Article
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Plant–soil feedbacks (PSFs) involve changes to the soil wrought by plants, which change biotic and abiotic properties of the soil, affecting plants that grow in the soil at a later time. The importance of PSFs for understanding ecosystem functioning has been the focus of much recent research, for example, in predicting the consequences for agricult...
Article
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Recent demonstrations of the role of plant–soil biota interactions have challenged the conventional view that vegetation changes are mainly driven by changing abiotic conditions. However, while this concept has been validated under natural conditions, our understanding of the long‐term consequences of plant–soil interactions for above‐belowground c...
Article
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Under natural conditions, aboveground herbivory and plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) are omnipresent interactions strongly affecting individual plant performance. While recent research revealed that aboveground insect herbivory generally impacts the outcome of PSFs, no study tested to what extent the intensity of herbivory affects the outcome. This, how...
Article
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Microbiomes of soils and plants are linked, but how this affects microbiomes of aboveground herbivorous insects is unknown. We first generated plant-conditioned soils in field plots, then reared leaf-feeding caterpillars on dandelion grown in these soils, and then assessed whether the microbiomes of the caterpillars were attributed to the condition...
Article
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Background and aims Soil inoculation is a powerful tool for the restoration of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the origin of the donor material may differentially influence early- and late-successional plant species. Donor soil from late-succession stages may benefit target plant species due to a higher abundance of soil-borne mutualists. Arable s...
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Background and aims Most plant-soil feedback and inoculation studies are limited to one growth cycle. We examined the effects of inoculation with eight plant-conditioned soils on chrysanthemum during two sequential growth cycles. The plants were also exposed sequentially to soil diseases. Methods In cycle 1, plants were grown in sterile soil inocu...
Article
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Plants actively interact with antagonists and beneficial organisms occurring in the above- and belowground domains of terrestrial ecosystems. In the past decade, studies have focused on the role of plant–soil feedbacks (PSF) in a broad range of ecological processes. However, PSF and its legacy effects on plant defense traits, such as induction of d...
Article
Soil microbial community composition and litter quality are important drivers of litter decomposition, but how litter quality influences the soil microbial composition largely remains unknown. We conducted a microcosm experiment to examine the effects of changes in litter quality induced by long-term N deposition on soil microbial community composi...
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Abstract Aims Plants use different types of responses such as tolerance and induced defense to mitigate the effects of herbivores. The direction and magnitude of both these plant responses can vary with plant age. However, most studies have focused on aboveground herbivory, whereas important feeding occurs belowground. Here we tested the hypothesis...