Ting Sun

Ting Sun
University College London | UCL · Institute for Risk and Disaster Reduction

PhD

About

55
Publications
38,002
Reads
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1,274
Citations
Citations since 2017
40 Research Items
1152 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
Introduction
I am a climate scholar for cities with multidisciplinary background in hydrology, meteorology and built environment. My research interests include impacts of weather and climate extremes (e.g. heat waves, extreme rainfall, etc.) in cities and urban climate modelling across multiple scales (from neighbourhood to globe) as well as their linkages with public health and building energy sectors.
Additional affiliations
July 2017 - May 2022
University of Reading
Position
  • NERC Independent Research Fellow
January 2016 - June 2017
University of Reading
Position
  • PostDoc Position
October 2014 - July 2015
University of Reading
Position
  • Visiting Scholar
Education
September 2011 - August 2012
Princeton University
Field of study
  • Urban Microclimate
August 2009 - December 2013
Tsinghua University
Field of study
  • Hydrology
August 2005 - July 2009
Tsinghua University
Field of study
  • Hydraulic Engineering

Publications

Publications (55)
Article
Full-text available
The hysteresis effect in diurnal cycles of net radiation Rn and ground heat flux G0 has been observed in many studies, while the governing mechanism remains vague. In this study, we link the phenomenology of hysteresis loops to the wave phase difference between the diurnal evolutions of various terms in the surface energy balance. Rn and G0 are par...
Article
Full-text available
As the climate warms, heat waves (HW) are projected to be more intense and to last longer, with serious implications for public health. Urban residents face higher health risks because urban heat islands (UHIs) exacerbate HW conditions. One strategy to mitigate negative impacts of urban thermal stress is the installation of green roofs (GRs) given...
Article
Full-text available
The net storage heat flux (ΔQS) is important in the urban surface energy balance (SEB) but its determination remains a significant challenge. The hysteresis pattern of the diurnal relation between the ΔQS and net all-wave radiation (Q∗) has been captured in the Objective Hysteresis Model (OHM) parameterization of ΔQS. Although successfully used in...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate and agile modelling of cities weather, climate, hydrology and air quality is essential for integrated urban services. The Surface Urban Energy and Water balance Scheme (SUEWS) is a state-of-the-art, widely used, urban land surface model (ULSM) which simulates urban-atmospheric interactions by quantifying the energy, water and mass fluxes....
Article
Full-text available
To compare the impact of surface-atmosphere exchanges from rural and urban areas, fully vegetated areas (e.g. deciduous trees, evergreen trees and grass) commonly found adjacent to cities need to be modelled. Here we provide a general workflow to derive parameters for SUEWS (Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme), including those associated...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming is projected to have major implications on global health. It is however not yet clear how this will translate to impacts on the healthcare system. By linking changes in temperature with changes in required bed days at a hospital level, through the use of a simple bed model, we quantify the projected impacts UK hospitals will need to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Building height and footprint are two fundamental urban morphological features required by urban climate modeling. Although some statistical methods have been proposed to estimate average building height and footprint from publicly available satellite imagery, they often involve tedious feature engineering, which is hard to achieve efficient knowle...
Article
With global warming and rapid urban growth, cities get warmer, which poses additional stress on human thermal comfort and health. Complex three-dimensional (3D) urban forms change radiation fluxes and shade patterns in cities, but most studies that link urban form to thermal exposure have traditionally investigated the horizontal, two-dimensional c...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is expected to lead to changes in seasonal temperature-related mortality. However, this impact on health risk does not necessarily scale linearly with increasing temperature. By examining changes in risk relative to degrees of global warming, we show that there is a delayed emergence of the increase in the summer mean mortality risk...
Article
Full-text available
The subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) predictive timescale, encompassing lead times ranging from 2 weeks to a season, is at the frontier of forecasting science. Forecasts on this timescale provide opportunities for enhanced application-focused capabilities to complement existing weather and climate services and products. There is, however, a ‘knowledge...
Article
Despite inter-building longwave radiative exchanges playing an important role in determining building energy and environmental performance, simulation tools (e.g. EnergyPlus) simplify this by assuming the surface temperature of surrounding buildings to be equal to the air temperature, and therefore cause bias. Here we propose a ‘spin-up’ approach t...
Article
Anthropogenic heat (AH) significantly impacts urban climates. Although combining the surface energy balance (SEB) with remote sensing data (RS-SEB) is promising for AH quantification, it has been shown to yield paradoxical low AH values in urban centers. Some speculation on the causes for the underestimation has appeared in the literature; however,...
Article
Despite building energy use being one of the largest global energy consumers, building energy simulations rarely take the actual local neighbourhood scale climate into account. A new globally applicable approach is proposed to support buildings energy design. ERA5 (European Centre Reanalysis version 5) data are used with SUEWS (Surface Urban Energy...
Article
Quantitative knowledge of the water and energy exchanges in agroecosystems is vital for irrigation management and modeling crop production. In this study, the seasonal and annual variabilities of evapotranspiration ( ET ) and energy exchanges were investigated under two different crop environments – flooded and aerobic soil conditions – using three...
Article
Hillslope-based distributed hydrological model has become an essential tool to simulate hydrological processes in mountainous areas, while how to properly delineate hillslope with key factors still remains to be answered. In this study, we propose a conceptually simple and computationally efficient method, the hillslope-asymmetry-elevation-band-asp...
Article
Full-text available
Non-optimal temperatures, both warm and cold, are associated with enhanced mortality in the UK. In this study we demonstrate a pathway to sub-seasonal and medium range forecasting of temperature-related mortality risk by quantifying the impact of large-scale weather regimes and synoptic scale weather patterns on temperature-associated excess deaths...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal emissions – or anthropogenic heat fluxes (QF) – from human activities impact urban climates at a local and larger scale. DASH considers both urban form and function in simulating QF through the use of an agent-based structure that includes behavioural characteristics of urban residents. This allows human activities to drive the calculation...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sri Lanka experiences severe overheating risk that affect the health of its population. The risk of overheating is the outcome of inappropriate urban and building design and can be further exacerbated by heatwaves. Some South-Asian countries have implemented national management action plans for heatwaves. However, such resilient warning systems for...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper extends the applicability of the SUEWS (Surface [Urban] Energy and Water Balance Scheme) to extensive pervious areas (deciduous trees, evergreen trees, grass, croplands, soil and water) outside cities. It can be used either offline or online (i.e., coupled to weather/climate models). The required parameters to simulate the turbulent late...
Article
Full-text available
The storage heat flux (ΔQS) is the net flow of heat stored within a volume that may include the air, trees, buildings and ground. Given the difficulty of measurement of this important and large flux in urban areas, we explore the use of Earth Observation (EO) data. EO surface temperatures are used with ground-based meteorological forcing, urban mor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Thermal emissions or anthropogenic heat fluxes ( Q <sub>F</sub>) from human activities impact the local and larger scales urban climate. DASH considers both urban form and function in simulating Q <sub>F</sub> by use of an agent-based structure that includes behavioural characteristics of city populations. This allows social practices to...
Article
Full-text available
水库水温对河流水生态环境以及局地气候有重要影响。未来气候变化背景下,水库水温的响应受到国内外关注。本文以气候模式WRF中的湖泊模型为基础,对未来气候态下(RCP2.6、RCP8.5)糯扎渡水库水温变化趋势进行模拟。研究发现,不同未来气候态下,糯扎渡水库水温均呈现上升趋势,且表层水温比深层水温对气候变化的响应更显著。本世纪末水库表层水温上升幅度在4 °C以内,深层水温上升0.8 °C左右。
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we examine the impacts of urbanization and open water surface on heavy convective rainfall based on numerical modeling experiments using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We focus on a severe storm event over the emerging Xiong’an city in northern China. The storm event consists of two episodes, and features intense m...
Article
Full-text available
Large lakes and reservoirs play important roles in modulating regional hydrological cycles and climate; however, their representations in coupled models remain uncertain. The existing lake module in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) system (hereafter WRF-Lake), although widely used, did not accurately predict temperature profiles in deep l...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate and agile modelling of the climate of cities is essential for urban climate services. The Surface Urban Energy and Water balance Scheme (SUEWS) is a state-of-the-art, widely used, urban land surface model (ULSM) which simulates urban-atmospheric interactions by quantifying the energy, water and mass fluxes. Using SUEWS as the computation k...
Article
Full-text available
Large lakes and reservoirs play important roles in modulating regional hydrological cycles and climate; however, their representations in coupled models remain uncertain. The existing lake module in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) system (hereafter WRF-Lake), although widely used, did not accurately predict temperature profiles in deep l...
Article
Full-text available
UMEP (Urban Multi-scale Environmental Predictor), a city-based climate service tool, combines models and tools essential for climate simulations. Applications are presented to illustrate UMEP's potential in the identification of heat waves and cold waves; the impact of green infrastructure on runoff; the effects of buildings on human thermal stress...
Article
Studies examining the relation between climate and human conflict often focus on the role of temperature and have diverging views on the significance of other climatic variables. Using a 6-year (from 2009 to 2014) dataset of crime statistics collected in a medium size city of Tangshan in China, we find strong, positive correlations between temperat...
Article
Full-text available
When the urban heat island (UHI) effect coincides with a heat wave (HW), thermal stress in cities is exacerbated. Understanding the surface energy balance (SEB) responses to HWs is critical for improving predictions of the synergies between UHIs and HWs. This study evaluates observed SEB characteristics in four cities (Beijing, Łódź, London and Swi...
Article
Full-text available
To understand the impacts of urbanization on moist convection, we explore how an idealized circular urban island affects the diurnal cycle and spatial distribution of rainfall over urban and surrounding rural areas at the diurnal equilibrium state using large-eddy simulations (LES) performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Co...
Conference Paper
The city based climate service tool UMEP (Urban Multi-scale Environmental Predictor) is a coupled modelling system that combines models essential for urban climate processes and is developed as an extensive QGIS plugin. An application is presented to illustrate its potential, speci�cally of the identi�cation of heat waves and cold waves in cities....
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric rivers (ARs), filamentary patterns of strong water vapour fluxes, play a prominent role in global poleward moisture transport and have profound impacts on extreme rainfalls (ERs). Previous AR research has mainly focused on the mid-latitude regions, whereas the characteristics of ARs in low latitudes and their relationship with local ERs...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies investigating the relation between heat stress and crime incidents often focus on violent crimes. In this study, the impacts of heat stress on two types of robbery (violent and nonviolent) in China are compared using crime statistics collected in Beijing and heat stress indices that consider the combined effects of temperature and...
Article
Urbanization influences hydrologic cycle significantly on local, regional even global scale. With urbanization the water resources demand for dense population sharpened, thus it is a great challenge to ensure water supply for some metropolises such as Beijing. Urban area is traditionally considered as the area with lower evapotranspiration (ET) on...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic heat is an important component of the urban energy budgets that can affect land surface and atmospheric boundary layer processes. Representation of anthropogenic heat in numerical climate modeling systems is, therefore, important when simulating urban meteorology and climate, and has the potential to improve weather forecasts, climate...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate high-resolution estimates of precipitation are vital to improving the understanding of basin-scale hydrology in mountainous areas. The traditional interpolation methods or satellite-based remote sensing products are known to have limitations in capturing the spatial variability of precipitation in mountainous areas. In this study, we devel...
Article
Full-text available
The net storage heat flux is not only a large part of the urban surface energy balance (SEB) but its determination remains a significant challenge. The diurnal hysteresis behaviour found between the net storage heat flux (ΔQS) and net all-wave radiation (Q*) has been captured in the Objective Hysteresis Model (OHM) parametrization of ΔQS. Although,...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate high-resolution estimates of precipitation are vital to improve the understanding on basin-scale hydrology in mountainous areas. The traditional interpolation methods or satellite-based remote sensing products are known to have limitations in capturing spatial variability of precipitation in mountainous areas. In this study, we develop a f...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the impacts of land-use and land-cover change such as urbanization is essential in many disciplines. This study investigates the impacts of urban-rural contrasts in terms of momentum roughness length (z0) and aerodynamic surface temperature (TSK) on dry planetary boundary layers (PBLs) using large-eddy simulations (LES) with the Weath...
Article
Full-text available
The interaction between urban heat islands (UHIs) and heat waves (HWs) is studied using measurements collected at two towers in Beijing metropolitan area, China and an analytical model. Measurements show that 1) the positive interaction between UHIs and HWs not only exists at the surface but also persists to higher levels (up to ~70 m) and 2) the u...
Article
Full-text available
Using the hourly precipitation observations from 118 gauge stations and a weather radar in the Greater Beijing Region (GBR) during 2008-2012, we investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of precipitation and discuss the appropriate observational approach for capturing variability of precipitation over this region. In general, the south central...
Article
Full-text available
The advanced Princeton Roof Model (PROM) is evaluated and then applied to quantify the heat transferred through various modular roof structures over an entire year. The goal is to identify an optimal combination of roof reflectivity and insulation thickness that will reduce energy consumption and minimize cost. Meteorological data gathered over the...
Article
Full-text available
Heat waves (HWs) are projected to become more frequent and last longer over most land areas in the late 21st century, which raises serious public health concerns. Urban residents face higher health risks due to synergies between HWs and urban heat islands (UHIs) (i.e., UHIs are higher under HW conditions). However, the responses of urban and rural...
Article
Full-text available
A direct comparison of urban and rural surface energy balances, as well as a variety of other variables including incoming shortwave/longwave radiation and aerosol optical depth, is conducted for the Beijing metropolitan area. The results indicate that, overall, the urban area receives a smaller amount of incoming shortwave radiation but a larger a...
Article
Green roofs (GRs), as compared to conventional roofs, can retain a considerable amount of water in the soil layer and hence have been used in many urban areas to mitigate urban flooding. However, a simple yet physical model for describing the rainfall (P)-runoff (R) relationship over GRs is still lacking. In this study, a physically-based P–R relat...
Article
Full-text available
Turbulent transport of momentum and scalars over an urban canopy is investigated using the quadrant analysis technique. High-frequency measurements are available at three levels above the urban canopy (47, 140 and 280 m). The characteristics of coherent ejection-sweep motions (flux contributions and time fractions) at the three levels are analyzed,...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the performance of an irrigation-integrated green roof (GR) system is analyzed through numerical simulations using the vertically-resolved Princeton ROof Model (PROM). The simulations are driven by a 63-day series of summertime meteorological forcing measured at a GR site in Beijing, China. Due to the importance of the medium layer d...
Article
In this study, the Princeton ROof Model (PROM) is developed, validated and used to simulate the hygrothermal dynamics of green roof systems. PROM is embedded within the framework of the Princeton Urban Canopy Model, with a multi-layer spatially-analytical heat transfer scheme and an improved hydrological module. The model is validated by comparing...

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Projects

Projects (6)
Archived project
Today, human activities, especially those in urban areas, are transforming the global environment at an unpreceded rate and scale. Urban centers feature high population density, a heavily modified landscape, burgeoning anthropogenic stress, and on top of that, novel challenges of urban environmental issues, the urban heat island being a well-known example. Urban dynamics underlies a complex interplay between humans and nature, the understanding of which requires process-level knowledge augmented by system-level modeling, of which the urban atmosphere is a critical element. This Special Issue of Atmosphere focuses on the flow and transport of energy, water, greenhouse gases, and pollutants in urban canopy layers. We invite you to contribute to this Special Issue with your state-of-the-art research endeavors to further our fundamental understanding of the physics and thermodynamics of flow over complex built terrains, and more importantly, to inform and foster sustainable urban environment management and policy-making processes in the long run. We solicit original research papers, reviews, and perspectives on all topics related to urban atmospheric studies, with an impact on local hydrometeorological changes as well as regional and global environment–health–climate repercussions. Specific topics include but are not limited to observations and numerical simulations of urban flow field, exchange of energy, water, and scalars in the land–atmosphere continuum, and the underlying dynamics of the urban heat island, air pollution, and hydroclimate changes. https://www.mdpi.com/journal/atmosphere/special_issues/urban_canopy_layers#info
Project
COSMA is a multidisciplinary study that will bring together a group of experts in urban meteorology, building environmental engineering, architecture, urban planning and social science, to work with local stakeholders to understand the overheating risk in the urban area of Colombo. This project is funded by NERC (Natural Environment Research Council) in the UK.
Project
Model urban energy, water and carbon exchanges