Tineke Fokkema

Tineke Fokkema
Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute | NIDI

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150
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Publications

Publications (150)
Article
This special section brings together a set of four articles containing novel quantitative and qualitative research on older migrants in Europe. Detailed reporting and reflection is presented on fieldwork decisions and how certain challenges were tackled, and their implications. This introductory article aims to lay the groundwork for a better under...
Article
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Research suggests that loneliness among sexual minority adults is associated with marginalization, but it is unclear which processes may underlie this relationship. This cross-sectional study examined five possibilities: stigma preoccupation, internalized homonegativity, sexual orientation concealment, social anxiety, and social inhibition. The stu...
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There is considerable international and local-level variation in immigrant crime. In this article, we propose a theoretical model to better understand that contextual variation. Furthermore, we present the results of our first attempts to empirically assess the validity of the framework, focussing on local-level variation in crime among residents o...
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This study examines the influence of grandparenthood and grandparental childcare on loneliness among Chinese older adults. Using longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of 9240 individuals from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), we applied logistic regression to examine the relationship between various gr...
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The prevalence of loneliness among Turkish–Dutch and Moroccan–Dutch older adults is higher than among Dutch older adults of non-migrant origin. Three explanations may account for this difference: (1) differential item functioning might result in scores that vary in intensity and in meaning across categories; (2) the position of migrants is much mor...
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The topic of loneliness among older migrants has recently gained scholarly interest. There is a particular focus on why older migrants are generally lonelier than their non-migrant peers from the destination. These studies neglect variations both within and between older migrant groups. Our qualitative study is innovative for three reasons. First,...
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While activity participation in later life has attracted considerable attention from policymakers and scholars, indoor and outdoor engagement among older Chinese migrants in Europe is understudied. Using in-depth interviews with 21 older Chinese migrants in the Netherlands and seven in Belgium, this study is among the first to explore older Chinese...
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Older migrants may be one of the most vulnerable populations during the coronavirus pandemic, yet the degree of impact remains largely unknown. This study explores (1) the consequences of the coronavirus pandemic for older Chinese migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands in terms of increased loneliness and its risk factors (reduced in-person contac...
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Introducing the special issue, this paper provides a state-of-the-art on established and new trends in the study of international retirement migration (IRM) and summarises the five papers that follow. Early studies on IRM were mainly within Europe and drew on the conceptual framework of lifestyle migration, with some reference to the transnational...
Article
Introducing the special issue, this paper provides a state-of-the-art on established and new trends in the study of international retirement migration (IRM) and summarises the five papers that follow. Early studies on IRM were mainly within Europe and drew on the conceptual framework of lifestyle migration, with some reference to the transnational...
Article
Purpose Loneliness is a common problem that can affect an individual’s physical and mental wellbeing. While loneliness has been extensively researched among older people, relatively few studies have investigated loneliness in the adolescent population. In this study, we aim to explore the association between loneliness and contextual factors in a l...
Article
This article focuses on European migrants living in Morocco and now near retirement or retired. Using a lifecourse approach we are interested in whether their timing of migration to Morocco made a difference in terms of their motivations to settle there and subsequently with the social relationships at the destination. To this end, we conducted 36...
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This paper compares generations (G1, G1.5, G2, G3) of male Turkish migrants to Europe in their transnational behaviours: contact frequency, visits, remittances, property ownership and voting. We aim to explain differences by generational differences in transnational convoy size and integration into residence countries. Data from 798 members of migr...
Research
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Guest edited by Vincent Horn and Tineke Fokkema, this special issue shifts the focus on older people (50-plus) being forcibly displaced by armed conflicts, natural disasters, persecution or other reasons. Whilst the arrival of people seeking protection in Europe and elsewhere has spurred a plethora of research projects on children and younger adult...
Article
Within the general framework of ‘lifestyle migration’, the paper explores three materialities associated with the arrival and settlement of British, German and Dutch later-life migrants in the Italian region of Marche, a relatively new ‘frontier’ region for international retirement migration. The first is about the aesthetics of landscape and the s...
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This paper explores the role of types and the intensity of transnational ties for migrants' well-being from a global perspective. Based on a literature review, two competing hypotheses are formulated-transnational resources versus transnational stress-according to which transnational ties have either a positive or a negative effect on migrants' wel...
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Kernwoorden: Corona, Kwetsbaarheid, Marokkanen, Migrantenouderen Er is veel aandacht voor de gevolgen van het coronavirus en de vanuit de regering getroffen maatregelen voor de ouderen. Migrantenouderen komen er echter bekaaid vanaf, terwijl zij tot de meest kwetsbaren behoren. Dit was voor ons de aanleiding om een verkennend onderzoek te doen na...
Research
Full-text available
This research panel shifts the focus on older people (50-plus) being forcibly displaced by armed conflicts, natural disasters, persecution or other reasons. Whilst the arrival of people seeking protection in Europe and elsewhere has spurred a plethora of research projects on children and younger adults during the last years, older people have thus...
Article
Scholarly attention for the position of older Moroccan and Turkish migrants has been rising in recent years. The focus lies on their relatively high vulnerability, as compared to non-migrant older Dutch their financial situation and living conditions are less comfortable and they have more physical and psychosocial health problems. Still, they have...
Article
Within the linked fields of population, migration and ageing, international retirement migration (IRM) has emerged as a strong focus for empirical research. Thus far, the classic studies have been on European North–South IRM, with a specific concentration on iconic regions such as the Costa del Sol, southern France, and Tuscany. But the geography o...
Chapter
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This is our contribution to the Population Europe Discussion Paper 'Migrant Families in Europe: Evidence from the Generation & Gender Programme'. Our paper introduces the panel dataset Families of Poles in the Netherlands (FPN) and discusses its scientific potential. The data were collected during the ERC project 'Families in Context' (PI Pearl Dyk...
Article
Eenzaamheid komt vaker voor onder ouderen van Marokkaanse en Turkse herkomst dan van Nederlandse herkomst. Twee verklaringen voor dit verschil zijn onderzocht. (1) Het concept en de meting verschillen tussen de herkomstgroepen. (2) Migranten verkeren in een kwetsbare situatie. Er is gebruik gemaakt van gegevens van de Longitudinal Aging Study Amste...
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Background: Although a growing body of migration literature has focused on the determinants of migrants' plans to return to the home country, the role major life events play in return migration intention - including transitions and turning points, key concepts of the life course approach - has barely been examined. Objective: We address the followi...
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Objectives: We explore and compare older adults' lived experiences and coping strategies in two post-communist countries - Albania and Bulgaria. Wholesale youth outmigration and economic and institutional regional decline have led to decaying rural areas where older adults become 'abandoned'. Aging alone, as couples or widowed, they are socially m...
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Objectives: When identifying older adults who may be at risk of being without necessary supports, policy makers and scholars tend to focus on those living alone, neglecting differences within that group. We examine how their social networks contribute to subjective well-being, why some of them fare better and compare their well-being to older adul...
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This paper aims to expand knowledge on the effects of an international migration on parent–adult child relationships. We develop a typology, include non-migrants in the country of origin for comparison, and consider transnational families. Analyses are based on the Turkish 2000 Families Study, using information of adult non-co-resident children abo...
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In Nederland en België neemt het aantal ouderen van Turkse of Marokkaanse herkomst snel toe. Deze ouderen genereren een nieuwe zorgvraag, niet alleen door hun specifieke culturele gebruiken, maar ook omdat zij over andere kenmerken beschikken dan ouderen zonder migratieachtergrond. In dit artikel wordt een sociaal-demografisch profiel van deze twee...
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This research investigates how a sense of belonging functions as protective mechanism against loneliness. Inspired by the work of Berry (1980) on acculturation strategies (i.e. integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization), we distinguish migrants who feel a relatively strong or weak sense of belonging to larger society and those who f...
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The ‘crowding-out’ and the ‘decline of the family’ hypotheses are the fundamental theoretical notions underlying the literature on cross-country differences in informal support. In this study, we expand upon these notions to develop and test the premise that cultural context shapes European’s views about an often overlooked source of support: non-k...
Conference Paper
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Non-kin ties form a key dimension of sociability and provide care and support that is not always available through familial ties. There is some evidence that the number and supportive functions of friends, neighbours and other non-relatives vary across Europe. In this contribution, we expand on prior research by addressing European country differen...
Article
Silverstein and Bengtson (1997) were pioneers in examining multiple dimensions of parent–child relations simultaneously. Their typology of American late-life families has been replicated in different countries. Most of these studies focused on one parent–child dyad per family and all but one study² did not pay attention to the specific case of migr...
Article
This paper aims to expand knowledge on the effects of international migration on parent-adult child relationships. We develop a typology of families, include non-migrant families in the country of origin for comparison, and consider transnational families. Analyses are based on the Turkish 2000 Families Study, using information on adult non-coresid...
Conference Paper
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Overview of the rationale of the workshop The migration phenomenon regards several types of migrants. Alongside the traditional typologies of labour migrants, refugees and family migration, international retirement migration (IRM) is emerging with an increasing intensity, and with a constantly evolving and changing phenomenology. Typical of 'northe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The migration phenomenon regards several types of migrants. Alongside the traditional typologies of labour migrants, refugees and family migration, international retirement migration (IRM) is emerging with an increasing intensity, and with a constantly evolving and changing phenomenology. Typical of 'northern' countries, IRM is related to the incre...
Article
This article explores qualitatively how and to what extent religion protects older Romanian migrants from loneliness. The analysis is based on fieldwork research in two Swiss cantons and in neighbouring France among 30 Romanian migrants aged 57+. The sample is heterogeneous, made up of persons who fled the communist regime in their youth and others...
Article
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This study investigates how resources and constraints (location of family, gender, income, cultural distance to society of settlement, and health) impact the experience of two interrelated dimensions of transnational aging: transnational behavior and transnational belonging. We specify transnational behavior by visitation of the country of origin a...
Article
This paper starts with a short review of the growing literature on the topic of older migrants, particularly in relation to this population’s diversity, social vulnerability, loneliness, (transnational) care and support networks. It then introduces the collection of papers of this special issue by proposing an approach to studying older migrants as...
Article
This paper starts with a short review of the growing literature on the topic of older migrants, particularly in relation to this population’s diversity, social vulnerability, loneliness, (transnational) care and support networks. It then introduces the collection of papers of this special issue by proposing an approach to studying older migrants as...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study scrutinises the role of cultural and institutional contexts in shaping Europeans’ choices for a source of support. We draw attention to an often overlooked source of support: non-kin. Taking an interdisciplinary theoretical approach, we formulate a number of hypotheses on the impact of individualistic values, familialistic norms, general...
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BACKGROUND In this contribution we critically appraise the social network indices in the Generations and Gender Survey (GGS). OBJECTIVE After discussing the rationale for including social network indices in the GGS, we provide descriptive information on social network characteristics and an overview of substantive questions that have been addressed...
Article
This paper analyzes the impact of Italian immigration policies on migrants’ lives. Policies and changes in policies can affect migrants’ capabilities to stabilize themselves in the host country, in terms of legal residence and secure labor conditions, as well as their chances of becoming part of the host society. We argue that, together with border...
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Background: The Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) was developed to stimulate the study of a broad range of topics of relevance to population scientists. So far, at least one wave of the GGS has been conducted in 19 countries. If scholars want to use the GGS for comparative purposes, it is essential that there be cross-national equivalence in term...
Article
This study focuses on the social wellbeing of older migrants in Italy, an important yet neglected topic in the Italian political and scholarly debate. Knowledge about the lived experience of loneliness and its perceived causes was gathered by means of 34 in-depth interviews with Albanian and Moroccan migrants aged 50 and above living in the Marche...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the pendular migration of older adults, those frequently traveling back and forth between their host and home countries. Four widespread beliefs among the general public on this topic are challenged by reviewing empirical literature, including findings from our own qualitative research. These beliefs are that pendular migrat...
Article
High crime rates among second-generation immigrants are usually attributed to the ethnic group’s weak socioeconomic position in the host society. The causes of crime can, however, also be sought in their native countries or regions. Owing to a lack of empirical data, this has rarely been tested. The Netherlands is an exception: small-scale ethnogra...
Article
We validate a translated version of the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS) for use among older migrants from Turkish and Moroccan descent and validate the original Dutch version of the same scale for Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands. The data were derived from a population-based cross-sectional study among community-dwelling individual...
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We examine the extent to which coping options endorsed by older adults help alleviate loneliness, and experiences with loneliness influence the coping options. Two ways of coping are distinguished: problem-focused, i.e. improving one’s relationships, and emotion-focused, i.e. lowering one’s expectations about relationships. Loneliness is assessed u...
Article
textabstractIn de sociologie van migratie en criminaliteit worden hoge cijfers van geregistreerde misdaad bij jongemannen van de tweede generatie immigranten gewoonlijk toegeschreven aan sociale desorganisatie van de betreffende etnische groep en de zwakke sociaaleconomische positie die deze in het nieuwe land inneemt. Daar staat het vermoeden tege...
Article
This paper focuses on the so-called ‘zero generation’: the parents of first-generation migrants who are initially left behind in the migrant country of origin and who may subsequently follow their children in migration or engage in transnational back-and-forth mobility. We challenge the prevailing optic on the left-behind older generation that sees...
Article
Different migration theories generate competing hypotheses with regard to determinants of return migration. While neoclassical migration theory associates migration to the failure to integrate at the destination, the new economics of labour migration sees return migration as the logical stage after migrants have earned sufficient assets and knowled...
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The dominant approaches to immigrant assimilation—segmented and ‘new’ assimilation theories—analyse differences in assimilation across immigrant groups. However, neither adequately addresses variation within groups because nearly all the variables usually used to explain variation are best at addressing between-group differences. The exception is f...
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This is the first Italian study focusing on the well-being of older migrants. Information on the experience of loneliness, its causes and coping strategies was gathered through 30 in-depth interviews with Albanian and Moroccan older migrants aged 50 and over. Findings show that the great majority of the participants are lonely. Taking care of their...
Article
https://www.francoangeli.it/Riviste/Scheda_Rivista.aspx?idArticolo=50848
Article
The aim of this study was (1) to examine whether Turkish older migrants are indeed—as is often claimed without solid scientific evidence—lonelier than their peers with no migration background and (2) to determine the factors that account for the differences in loneliness between them. We analysed data of adults aged 50–79 from the first wave of the...
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THE WIDESPREAD ENTHUSIASM triggered by the Arab Spring affected both first- and second-generation Egyptians in Italy and led to different forms of action and socio-political participation. However, to what extent will this new enthusiasm transform into a real consideration of returning to Egypt is a largely unexplored topic. Relying on the main mig...
Article
Awareness of risk factors for loneliness is a prerequisite for preventive action. Many risk factors for loneliness have been identified. This paper focuses on two: poor health and widowhood. Preventive action by developing a satisfying social network requires time and effort and thus seems appropriate for people unexposed to risk factors, i.e. thir...
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Transnationalism of first-generation migrants, usually considered as a core element of their migratory projects, is nowadays taken somewhat for granted. Our aim in this paper is to examine empirically the relations of transnationalism with duration of residence and integration of Eastern European migrants in Italy, a country which evolved into a ma...
Article
The aim of this article is to investigate the remittance behavior of host country-born children of migrants – the second generation – in various European cities. We address the following question: Are second-generation remitters driven more by altruism or by self-interest? Data from “The Integration of the European Second Generation” (TIES) survey...
Article
This study constitutes one of the few attempts to assess the varying impact of different types of migrants’ legal status on their transnationalism, and to investigate to what extent these variations can be explained by differences in their length of residence and level of integration. Integrometro, a large-scale migrant survey conducted in 2008-09...
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The key question of this study is whether policies adopted elsewhere in Europe might be useful in helping to increase the labour force participation of women and of older workers in the Netherlands, and thus improve the financial basis for social security arrangements. We examined the effectiveness of national policy measures over and above that of...
Article
This research compares cities between and within the United States and Europe with respect to their dimensionality and degree of immigrant incorporation. Based on theoretical perspectives about immigrant incorporation, structural differentiation and national incorporation regimes, we hypothesize that more inclusionary (MI) cities will show more dim...
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Twee lesbiennes, op jonge leeftijd ‘uit de kast gekomen’, voorvechters van homo-emancipatie, beiden in de 60, en ruim 30 jaar een stel. Na een hersenbloeding belandt én van hen in een verpleeghuis. Uit angst voor discriminatie door medebewoners en negatieve reacties of slechtere behandeling van het personeel verzwijgen zij hun seksuele voorkeur en...
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Loneliness concerns the subjective evaluation that the number of relationships is smaller than the individual considers desirable or that the intimacy that the individual wishes for has not been realized. The aim of this study was to assess variations in levels of late-life loneliness and its determinants across Europe. Data came from the SHARE sur...
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In this article we examine to what extent norms of filial obligation in the Netherlands are shaped by group value patterns, family constellation, possibilities for helping others, and actual experiences of support exchange. The data are drawn from the first wave of the combined main and migrant sample of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study, the Dut...
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Norms of filial obligation in the Netherlands In this article we examine to what extent norms of filial obligation in the Netherlands are shaped by group value patterns, family constellation, opportunities to help others, and actual experiences of support exchange. The data are drawn from the first wave of the combined main and migrant sample of th...
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A limited amount of information is available on how older adults cope with loneliness. Two ways of coping are distinguished here, i.e., active coping by improving relationships and regulative coping by lowering expectations about relationships. We explore how often older adults suggest these options to their lonely peers in various situations and t...
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While return migration is receiving increasing attention, there is still insufficient insight into the factors which determine migrants’ intentions and decisions to return. It is often assumed that integration in receiving countries and the concomitant weakening of transnational ties decreases the likelihood of returning. However, according to alte...
Article
Using a unique dataset (N=2,014), we examine the pre- and post-migration determinants of socio-cultural integration among first-generation immigrant groups in southern Europe: Moroccan and Senegalese migrants in Spain, and Egyptian and Ghanaian migrants in Italy. The results of the pooled and immigrant-group specific regression analyses partly high...
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Following Reher's (1998) seminal paper on family ties in western Europe, the perspective that family solidarity patterns are divided between an individualistic north and a famialistic south has dominated the literature. We challenge this view and address the variability in intergenerational family solidarity within and across countries. Using multi...
Article
Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States. Perfo...
Chapter
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This chapter discusses loneliness intervention strategies, as well as one example of concerted action. The concept, determinants and the prevalence of loneliness are presented in advance of comment on the research outcomes.
Chapter
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Whereas most research on remittances focuses on first-generation migrants, the aim of this paper is to investigate the remitting behaviour of the host country-born children of migrants - the second generation - in various European cities. Some important studies found that migrant transnationalism is not only a phenomenon for the first generation, b...
Article
Data from The Integration of the European Second Generation (TIES) project were used to examine the determinants of 'return' intentions among the Turkish second generation in several European cities. Theory-derived hypotheses on the effects of economic and socio-cultural integration and transnational ties, and their variation according to policy re...