Tina L. Heafner

Tina L. Heafner
University of North Carolina at Charlotte | UNC Charlotte · Department of Middle, Secondary and K-12 Education

PhD

About

125
Publications
27,460
Reads
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1,505
Citations
Citations since 2017
19 Research Items
857 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150

Publications

Publications (125)
Article
Examining the connections among teacher characteristics, instructional decision-making, and student learning in social studies education are both complicated and contentious. In the current study, we shed light on middle grades social studies teaching and learning—a black hole of research in the subject area. Using data from the National Assessment...
Chapter
The effectiveness of technology to support learning and the value of technology-mediated instruction are critical factors in determining the quality of educator preparation programs. A widely utilized, national measure of teacher readiness and preparation in the USA, edTPA, reports program completers' knowledge and skills in content-specific instru...
Chapter
Using a widely accepted measure of teacher candidates' performance, edTPA, this chapter examines the role of formative supports in supporting candidate-learning outcomes in a graduate teacher preparation program. The chapter compares performance outcomes for two program tracks: online and face-to-face. Authors conclude formative supports impact the...
Article
Full-text available
National Board Certification (NBC) is a voluntary yet advanced teaching credential that goes beyond the typical state licensure requirement (NEA, 2015 National Education Association (NEA). (2015). National Board Certification of Teachers. Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/home/31738.htm [Google Scholar]). The purpose of this study is to determine t...
Article
Previous research has examined the role of formal classroom economics education on student learning. However, few studies have examined the role of both in school and out of school economics education exposure on student learning. Using data from the 2006 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)-Economics 12th grade assessment, we conduct...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from the 2010 National Association of Education Progress eighth grade test of U.S. history (NAEP-US8), the current study explored the intersections among traditional indicators of teacher quality and competing dimensions of quality teaching on students’ history knowledge. Findings indicated that eighth grade social studies teachers with...
Article
Developing informed and participatory citizens is one of the aims of the National Council for the Social Studies’ (NCSS) vision of civic education. However, when aspiring to meet the call for meaningful civic education, teachers may find themselves at odds with other goals of accountability-driven school environments, creating contexts in which amb...
Article
Full-text available
Adding instructional time and holding teachers accountable for teaching social studies are touted as practical, logical steps toward reforming the age-old tradition of marginalization. This qualitative case study of an urban elementary school, examines how nine teachers and one administrator enacted district reforms that added 45 minutes to the ins...
Article
Using student- and teacher-level data from the United States National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), we attempted to disentangle the relationship among student demographics, teacher characteristics, and performance on the fourth grade assessment of U.S. history. Our findings suggest that teacher subject matter background, reported time...
Article
Adding instructional time and holding teachers accountable for teaching social studies are touted as practical, logical steps toward reforming the age-old tradition of marginalization. This qualitative case study of an urban elementary school, examines how nine teachers and one administrator enacted district reforms that added 45. min to the instru...
Article
Full-text available
How and to what extent students learn history content is a complicated process, drawing from the instructional opportunities they experience; the policy prioritization of history/social studies instruction in schools; and their own cultural perspectives toward the past. In an attempt to better understand the complex inter-play among these dimension...
Article
Current events influence public interest and drive Internet word searches. For over a decade, linguists and dictionary publishers have analyzed big data from Internet word searches to designate “Words of the Year” (WsOY). In this study, we examine how WsOY can foster critical digital literacy and illuminate essential aspects of inquiry and discipli...
Chapter
This chapter describes how quantitative research can and should be used to expand the types of research questions examined in social studies. The authors offer a framework for future researchers to consider when conducting quantitative research. They also applied the framework to a review of quantitative and mixed-method research articles from 2003...
Article
Using an Item response theory (IRT) analysis, this study examined ethnic and gender groups differences in exposure to content material (i.e. access to curriculum) assessed on the 12th grade NAEP US History 2010 exam. Employing multi-step data analysis procedures, authors examined race and gender using the NAEP Item Mapping Tool available through NC...
Article
Full-text available
For over a decade, Dixie and I have grappled with the challenges of helping students read efficiently and effectively in the social studies. We have worked with teachers across the country as they have exposed students to primary source texts only to find consistent challenges with: • Academic language gaps (lack of content knowledge to contextuali...
Chapter
Teachers are a significant factor associated with student achievement. Research recognizes that the greatest determinate of student achievement is the teacher, yet questions remain as to what characteristics of teachers are the most influential and where these attributes can be influenced through professional development. This paper explores the te...
Chapter
Teachers are a significant factor associated with student achievement. Research recognizes that the greatest determinate of student achievement is the teacher, yet questions remain as to what characteristics of teachers are the most influential and where these attributes can be influenced through professional development. This paper explores the te...
Article
Background/Context Current research addresses the marginalization of social studies and trends in teaching English learners (ELs) in monolingual schools; however, few studies have examined the way in which support services provided to ELs impact their exposure to social studies instruction. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study Social...
Chapter
Secondary datasets, large-scale studies, and big data are attractive information sources that have the potential to broaden the scope and influence of social studies research. Using large-scale samples and complex sampling frames, secondary datasets offer greater external validity, considerably more variables, and more representative samples than p...
Article
Full-text available
Moonlighting, an employment practice where individuals work outside of their primary job, is popular within the public education sector. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics Schools and Staffing Survey, this study examined both the characteristics and motivations of public school teachers across moonlighting categories. Find...
Chapter
This chapter examines the differences and similarities in learning outcomes between the two espoused approaches to service-learning in teacher education: an elementary school service-learning approach called the teachers as leaders of change model and a high school service-learning approach named the tutoring for change model. The purpose in compar...
Chapter
True education occurs when teachers become learners and learners become teachers (Freire, 2000). This epistemological ideal was achieved through reciprocal learning experiences of a successful Professional Development School (PDS) partnership between one high school and a local university. This chapter presents a model for a PDS relationship that:...
Chapter
Teachers are a significant factor associated with student achievement. Research recognizes that the greatest determinate of student achievement is the teacher, yet questions remain as to what characteristics of teachers are the most influential and where these attributes can be influenced through professional development. This paper explores the te...
Chapter
Full-text available
edTPA is a performance-based, content-specific assessment process designed by educators to determine whether new teachers are ready for the job. This chapter provides a thorough description of how two departments at the University of North Carolina implemented edTPA in teacher licensure programs and how candidates were supported through the process...
Chapter
Teachers are a significant factor associated with student achievement. Research recognizes that the greatest determinate of student achievement is the teacher, yet questions remain as to what characteristics of teachers are the most influential and where these attributes can be influenced through professional development. This paper explores the te...
Chapter
Full-text available
edTPA is a performance-based, content-specific assessment process designed by educators to determine whether new teachers are ready for the job. This chapter provides a thorough description of how two departments at the University of North Carolina implemented edTPA in teacher licensure programs and how candidates were supported through the process...
Article
The Windows into Teaching and Learning (WiTL) project was developed by researchers at one large urban institution in the southeast region of the United States as a way to facilitate online clinical experiences for content area methods students during summer coursework. Utilising both synchronous and asynchronous elements, WiTL addressed the issue o...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to determine the degree to which Opportunity to Learn (OTL), is associated with students’ achievement in US History. Opportunity to Learn stems from the basic premise that there is an important relationship between the quality and frequency of classroom instruction and students’ levels of academic success. The authors e...
Book
School-university partnerships have the potential to greatly benefit teaching and learning in PK-12 environments, as well as educator preparation programs. This collaboration is advantageous to teachers, counselors, and administrators. Professional Development Schools and Transformative Partnerships provides a comprehensive look at the design, impl...
Article
Using a paired national cross-section of third grade teacher and principal Schools and Staffing Survey data from 2007 to 2008, comparisons were made regarding teachers’ and elementary principals’ reports of instructional time distributions for English Language Arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and reading in third grade during a full week...
Chapter
Full-text available
Within social studies, researchers note limited attention has been given to examining gender differences associated with technology integration, and have called for increased dialogue regarding gender-related technology issues (Crocco, 2006, 2008; Crocco, Cramer, and Meier, 2008; Friedman and Hicks, 2006; Marri, 2007; Mason, Manfra, and Siko, 2005;...
Article
Full-text available
Time is an essential component of instructional decision-making and subject area prioritization. The greater the amount of instructional time teachers allocate toward a specific subject the greater the content exposure and opportunity to engage learners. Evidence suggests that social studies receives short shrift in the elementary schools resulting...
Article
Background/Context In an era of accountability and standardization, elementary social studies is consistently losing its curricular foothold to English/language arts, math, and science instruction. Purpose This article examines the relationship between elementary teachers’ perceptions of instructional autonomy, teaching context, state testing poli...
Article
Full-text available
Music elicits emotions and acts as a cultural definer of class values, political beliefs, and economic life. Students are intrinsically drawn to and possess an innate ability for interpreting music. Music, moreover, activates learning in ways other content sources cannot; yet, it is utilized infrequently in social studies classrooms as a historical...
Article
Responding to the challenge of more rigorous and outcome-oriented program evaluation criteria of the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), authors take a critical look at the intersection of two standards: Clinical Partnerships and Practice (Standard 2) and Program Impact (Standard 4). Illustrating one aspect of a secondary...
Article
Using data from the Survey of the Status of Social Studies (S4), this article describes the instructional decisions and practices of elementary teachers in two neighboring states, one where social studies is tested and another where it is not. We define students' opportunity to learn within these states as a composite of three variables: time alloc...
Article
Full-text available
Utilizing data from the National Center for Education Statistics Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), a multilevel model (Hierarchical Linear Model) was developed to examine the association of teacher/classroom and state level indicators on reported elementary social studies instructional time. Findings indicated that state testing policy was a sign...
Article
Recently, the National Center for Education Statistics released its report on U.S. school-age children’s performance on National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) tests in History, Civics, and Geography. Students performed poorer on NAEP U.S. history than any other subject area tests (Dillon, 2011), suggesting insufficient preparation in so...
Article
Windows into Teaching and Learning (WiTL) was a project designed by researchers at one southeastern U.S. University that allowed the facilitation of online clinical experiences for graduate interns during their content area methods course. WiTL was originally developed to address challenges in providing meaningful clinical experiences for interns d...
Article
The increasing popularity and accessibility of affordable computer-mediated communication is rapidly changing the way in which we, as a society, interact and conduct business. This phenomenon is pervasive in all market sectors, including virtual K-12 education. This chapter examines collective and individual use of synchronous text chat to explore...
Article
The increasing popularity and accessibility of affordable computer-mediated communication is rapidly advancing alternative forms of message transmission into market sectors, such as education. The focus of this article is an exploratory multi-case study of rich learning experiences of Windows into Teaching and Learning (WiTL) participants enrolled...
Article
This chapter examines the differences and similarities in learning outcomes between the two espoused approaches to service-learning in teacher education: an elementary school service-learning approach called the teachers as leaders of change model and a high school service-learning approach named the tutoring for change model. The purpose in compar...
Article
Within social studies, researchers note limited attention has been given to examining gender differences associated with technology integration, and have called for increased dialogue regarding gender-related technology issues (Crocco, 2006, 2008; Crocco, Cramer, & Meier, 2008; Friedman & Hicks, 2006; Marri, 2007; Mason, Manfra, & Siko, 2005; Sande...
Article
True education occurs when teachers become learners and learners become teachers (Freire, 2000). This epistemological ideal was achieved through reciprocal learning experiences of a successful Professional Development School (PDS) partnership between one high school and a local university. This chapter presents a model for a PDS relationship that:...
Book
The integration of technology in classrooms is rapidly emerging as a way to provide more educational opportunities for students. As virtual learning environments become more popular, evaluating the impact of this technology on student success is vital. Exploring the Effectiveness of Online Education in K-12 Environments combines empirical evidence...
Article
Full-text available
In this analysis of promising practice, we demonstrate how social studies methods instructors can incorporate data analysis of the 2010 United States History National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP-USH) to facilitate pedagogical aims, engage teacher candidates in critical discourse, and investigate the contexts of teaching and learning. T...
Article
Full-text available
The National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) emphasizes the teaching of social studies to provide students with information, critical thinking skills, and experiences to allow them to grow into responsible and effective citizens. There have been few studies focused on social studies instruction for students with autism spectrum disorders or o...
Article
Assessment is a critical component of classroom instruction (Moon, 2002; Nelson, 1993); yet, research indicates that preservice teachers are inadequately trained in assessment procedures (Campbell & Evans, 2000; Stiggins, 2002). For teachers to effectively utilize various assessment approaches they need opportunities to experience these strategies...
Chapter
Instructional simulation games are models of the real world that allow students to interact with events and objects that are normally inaccessible within a classroom setting. Yet, simply using an instructional simulation ignores powerful learning opportunities. Papert advocates going beyond simply using models. He promotes a fundamental change in h...
Chapter
While technology has always played a role in teaching and learning, with the advent of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs), schools have struggled to keep pace with Web 2.0 tools available for teaching and learning. Multiliteracies, a term coined by scholars who published under the name The New London Group in 1996, has helped provide a t...
Chapter
A teacher educator examines the level of critical thinking of her preservice teachers participating in an urban education course through online discussions. The objective was to see if online discussions, which were the heart of the learning process, could be an effective strategy to promote critical thinking skills. Using the revised version of Bl...
Chapter
Learning and technology skills required for the 21st century can be developed through online pre-service teaching preparation programs. This chapter is an exploratory look at the implications of learner-centered and place-based approaches. These approaches to teaching and learning are collaborative and distributed through online learning. In this c...
Chapter
This chapter seeks to investigate the perceived sense of preparation for the classroom that leads to teacher effectiveness. The focus of this chapter is an exploration of the increasing role of alternative licensure and distance education in the preparation of teachers and results of a recent study concerning perceptions of a sense of preparedness...
Chapter
Teacher candidates in online courses engage in authentic learning to foster 21st-century practices similar to those of their K–12 students, namely information and technology literacy and media production. This chapter describes instructional practices used in six online literacy courses for pre-service and in-service teacher candidates. The instruc...
Chapter
Full-text available
At present, there are very few examples of the preparation of teachers for the online environment in teacher education. Even more unfortunate is that less than 40% of all online teachers in the United States reported receiving any professional development before they began teaching online. While some virtual schools provide some training to their o...
Chapter
This chapter reports a study which examined experiences of nine beginning teachers who completed their initial teacher education in the online mode. The study investigated reported perceptions during their first six months teaching. Participants found the content of the online program comprehensive, prepared them well to begin teaching, and provide...
Chapter
The Remote Observation of Graduate Interns (ROGI) is a method crafted by researchers at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte that allows graduate interns completing their student teaching experience to be observed remotely. Initially developed as a teacher shortage solution, ROGI remains an active method of observing interns geographically...
Chapter
Online learning continues to grow as a learning option for millions of students in US colleges and universities. Collaboration plays an important role in student learning. This chapter presents information on how collaborative learning was designed and implemented in a comprehensive online course in reading for pre-service and in-service educators...
Chapter
Teacher education courses offered online are becoming increasingly common. Unfortunately, few instructors of online teacher education courses have specific preparation for teaching adult learners or in teaching online courses, resulting in faltering attempts to transfer traditional methodology such as lectures to online platforms. This chapter cons...
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors present the framework and methods they employ to integrate online learning opportunities into an English teacher education program at a large, public university in the southeastern United States. The authors focus on their efforts to extend pre-service secondary English language arts teachers’ understandings of what con...
Chapter
This chapter introduces an innovative online learning platform for the preparation of teachers through simulations, which addresses some of the systemic challenges of teacher education in the US. The chapter contrasts traditional course-based online learning experiences with a simulation approach to four areas of teacher preparation: conceptions of...
Chapter
The increased demand for online instruction within higher and K-12 education has created a need for teacher education programs to provide pre-service and practicing teachers with training in online pedagogy; however, research has shown that such courses are rare within most teacher training programs. This chapter describes “Theory and Practice in O...
Chapter
The systematic, intentional study by teachers of their own classroom practice is critical for powerful professional development. Action research, or practitioner inquiry, provides teachers with a vehicle to engage in this professional development in order to raise teacher voices in educational reform and capture and share the knowledge generated by...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the results of a quasi-experiment conducted to determine the relative effectiveness of preparing pre-teacher education university students using a fully web-based course conducted asynchronously versus a blended model of instruction using the same LMS for forty percent of instructional time. The project evaluated two large s...
Chapter
The purpose of this study was to explore preservice teachers’ behaviors in and perceptions of traditional field-based and virtual models of early field experiences. Specifically, this study examined some of the strengths and limitations associated with each model. Fifty undergraduate students participated in either a traditional field-based or a vi...
Chapter
This chapter describes how faculty in a fully online Master’s program in teacher leadership are using a design-based approach, grounded in theory and informed by data, to iteratively improve core courses and student learning from them. Specifically, the authors revised their courses to meet Quality Matters (QM) standards for online course design, a...
Chapter
Finding time for reflection and collaboration presents challenges for teachers. Combined with this are feelings of isolation from colleagues. Web 2.0 tools can assist in alleviating these difficulties for teachers. This chapter discusses the potential of Web 2.0 tools, the development and uses of these tools, and considerations to make when using W...
Chapter
Windows into Teaching and Learning (WiTL), a project conceived and actualized by authors situated in a large urban university in the southeastern region of the United States, captures the nuisance of online learning as a method for transforming school-based clinical experiences in teacher preparation programs. This chapter introduces and describes...
Article
Full-text available
The University of North Carolina at Charlotte’s College of Education offers a 100 % online teacher licensure program. One component of the licensure program is the Graduate Internship, which involves the observation of graduate interns’ teaching. With many current and potential students located in more remote areas of the state, the remote observat...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from the National Center for Educational Statistics research spanning fifteen years, researchers examined the impact of national educational policy implementation on the role of social studies in elementary schools. Specifically, with the reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in 2007 and the continuation of federal-mandated test...
Article
In this chapter, unexpected challenges, "lessons learned," as well as the best practices that have resulted during the implementation of a program involving the remote observation of graduate interns are addressed. More specifically, best practices and lessons learned related to a series of logistical, pedagogical, and technological issues encounte...
Article
The Scopes Monkey Trial is a landmark court case in American history and has often been referred to as “The Trial of the Century.” It provides a curricular platform for understanding changes in American society, populace tensions with shifting social and moral views, gaps in economic prosperity, and the outcomes of urbanization. Studying this pivot...
Article
Although technology-mediated learning has its advantages, it does not come without operational tradeoffs. Thus, consideration of the effectiveness of new modes of teacher preparation in comparison to traditional, longstanding, research-proven methods is necessary. In this study, we evaluated one large southern urban university’s implementation of s...
Article
With teacher shortages in both general and critical needs areas and constricting operating budgets, it is important for Colleges of Education to develop methods of providing alternative certification programs to reach larger segments of the population. One method of increasing the scope of potential preservice teachers is through the development of...
Article
In this qualitative research study, the authors explore the use of the Remote Observation of Graduate Interns (ROGI) as a tool for expanding online instruction for teacher licensure programs. Data are presented evaluating the differences between remote (synchronous) and face to face observational processes for a social studies lateral entry teacher...
Article
Full-text available
The de-valuing of social studies is becoming prevalent as schools shift emphasis to other subjects addressing national and state accountability. The teacher candidate perspective is presented from an original study regarding the de-emphasis of social studies in elementary schools (Rock, Heafner, O'Connor, Passe, Oldendorf, Good, & Byrd, 2006). Teac...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to explore the nationwide historic trend of elementary social studies marginalization compared to math, science, and language arts. Incorporating 17 years of data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Schools and Staffing Survey, the authors conducted comparative analyses to investigate differences...
Article
This chapter presents the theory and literature behind the integration of technology, particularly the Internet, in social studies teacher education. The authors have spent significant time studying the impact of technology in the K-12 social studies environment; the results of this research are summarized in the chapter and serve as a backbone for...

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Projects (3)
Project
In this research study we examine differences and similarities in candidate learning outcomes as measured by edTPA for two teacher preparation program tracks-- one fully online and the other a traditional, face to face program. The results suggest programmatic course offering are not equal for both types of students and that results in differences favoring face to face course preparation; however, online candidates, even with unequal course access, outperformed face to face candidates as being more teacher ready on 80% of the rubrics within edTPA. Findings lead us to wonder: Do teacher preparation program structures represent inherent biases projected by faculty who prefer face to face over online programs without evidence of differences in learning effectiveness?