Timothy Shanahan

Timothy Shanahan
University of Illinois at Chicago | UIC · Center for Literacy (CFL)

Doctor of Education

About

104
Publications
133,808
Reads
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8,137
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
August 1980 - August 2013
University of Illinois at Chicago
Position
  • Distinguished Professor Emeritus

Publications

Publications (104)
Article
In this article, I provide an examination of research evidence concerning the effects of classroom instruction (Tier 1) for students with dyslexia and other reading problems. I discuss the suitability and limitations of different types of research evidence that may be used to determine how best to support the learning of these students in the class...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, the term science of reading has been used in public debate to promote policies and instructional practices based on research on the basic cognitive mechanisms of reading, the neural processes involved in reading, computational models of learning to read, and the like. According to those views, such data provide convincing evidence that ex...
Article
This department column features articles aimed at helping practitioners think about research and its application to classrooms. The focus is usually on specific examples of research about literacy instruction and what they have to tell us about teaching.
Article
This department column features articles aimed at helping practitioners think about research and its application to classrooms. The focus is usually on specific examples of research about literacy instruction and what they have to tell us about teaching.
Article
Full-text available
This department features articles aimed at helping practitioners to think about research and its application to classrooms. The focus is usually on specific examples of research about literacy instruction and what they have to tell us about teaching.
Article
Full-text available
The Common Core State Standards for the English Language Arts, together with the new tests being developed to assess them, are placing a greater emphasis on writing in elementary schools than in the recent past. This article explores similarities and differences of the standards with past state standards, explaining the reason both for why things h...
Article
In 2010, more than 40 states adopted the Common Core State Standards. Initially, the standards were quickly and easily embraced, but over the past year the standards have become enmeshed in various controversies, raising many questions about how the standards were written and what they include. This article attempts to provide authoritative answers...
Article
This column explains three ways that teachers can improve reading test performance. Basically, the idea is that instead of teaching students to respond to particular question types as is typical of test preparation despite the ineffectiveness of this practice, it is better to teach students to read the test passages more effectively. Three research...
Article
A secondary analysis of the High School and Beyond (HSB) data was performed in order to retest the private-school superiority hypothesis and to examine determinants of high school achievement. This analysis attempted to explain the fixed and alterable conditions which influence the achievement of 26,279 sophomores in reading, writing, mathematics,...
Article
In the past decade the proportion of school-aged children in the United States who are English language learners (ELLs) grew by 32%, compared with a 4.9% overall increase in U.S. school enrollment. This only heightens the already important challenge of providing effective, appropriate reading instruction for ELLs because all teachers can expect to...
Article
Full-text available
In the past decade the proportion of school-aged children in the United States who are English language learners (ELLs) grew by 32%, compared with a 4.9% overall increase in U.S. school enrollment. This only heightens the already important challenge of providing effective, appropriate reading instruction for ELLs because all teachers can expect to...
Article
“Data-driven school reform” emphasizes the idea that if teachers analyze the kinds of questions students miss on standardized reading comprehension tests, and then give students lots of practice with such items, they will end up with higher test scores. This approach is likely to be popular with the new Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for C...
Article
This article explores the relationship between federal and state educational policymaking and classroom reading instruction. The past 50 years of federal literacy education policy is summarized, particularly emphasizing the connections of these policies to reading curriculum and classroom assessment. The paper concludes with a discussion of the coo...
Article
This commentary discusses what disciplinary literacy is and why it is important. It then discusses the ways in which elementary school teachers can infuse aspects of disciplinary literacy into elementary instruction. It argues that the Common Core Standards, even those at the K-6 level, are providing avenues for preparation for disciplinary literac...
Article
Recently, it has been proposed that schools teach disciplinary literacy in science, mathematics, history, and literature classes as students move into middle school and high school. A disciplinary literacy approach emphasizes the specialized knowledge and abilities possessed by those who create, communicate, and use knowledge within each of the dis...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to describe educationally relevant differences in literacy use among three subject-matter disciplines—history, chemistry, and mathematics. These analyses were drawn from an investigation of the teaching of disciplinary literacy in high schools. The purpose of the overall project was to improve the literacy-teaching prep...
Article
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The purpose of this article is to respond to a review of the report Developing Literacy in Second-language Learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth, written by our respected colleague Kathy Escamilla, which appeared in a recent edition of the Journal of Literacy Research. This will also give us the opp...
Article
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This article summarizes Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel, which was published in 2008.That report provides an extensive meta-analysis of approximately 300 studies showing which early literacy measures correlate with later literacy achievement. It also provides a series of meta-analyses of a comprehensive collec...
Article
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This rejoinder provides responses to the conceptual concerns expressed in the nine critiques published in this issue of Educational Researcher of the 2008 National Early Literacy Panel report. It explains the necessity of adhering to clearly established study selection parameters in conducting trustworthy meta-analyses and the need to be cautious i...
Article
Full-text available
Based on concerns about the increasing numbers of English Language Learners in U.S. schools and the documented academic underperformance of this group, particularly in the domain of literacy, the federal government provided funding for a panel of experts to synthesize the knowledge base in the field and provide recommendations for future research....
Article
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The National Assessment of Educational Progress reveals that 37 percent of U.S. fourth graders fail to achieve basic levels of reading achievement. In 1997, the U.S. Congress asked that a review of research be conducted to determine what could be done to improve reading and writing achievement. The resulting "Report of the National Reading Panel: T...
Article
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In this article, Timothy and Cynthia Shanahan argue that "disciplinary literacy" — advanced literacy instruction embedded within content-area classes such as math, sci- ence, and social studies — should be a focus of middle and secondary school settings. Moving beyond the oft-cited "every teacher a teacher of reading" philosophy that has historical...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This Practice Guide is the first in a series of the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) guides in education that are developed by a panel of experts. The guides are intended to bring the best available evidence and expertise to bear on the types of systemic challenges that cannot currently be addressed by single intervention or programs. This fir...
Article
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This volume reports the findings of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. The formal charge to the panel--a distinguished group of expert researchers in reading, language, bilingualism, research methods, and education--was to identify, assess, and synthesize research on the education of language-minority children and...
Article
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Research has shown that students can be taught to comprehend the material better while they are reading. Successful instruction of this type has usually focused on the teaching of comprehension strategies--that is, intentional actions students can use during reading to guide their thinking. Such strategies improve both understanding and memory. Som...
Article
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A quantitative meta-analysis evaluating the effects of phonemic awareness (PA) instruction on learning to read and spell was conducted by the National Reading Panel. There were 52 studies published in peer-reviewed journals, and these contributed 96 cases comparing the outcomes of treatment and control groups. Analysis of effect sizes revealed that...
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Article
The current study examined the hypotheses that (1) parental self-efficacy partially mediates the relationships between social support and both parental warmth and control, and (2) these parenting variables relate positively to children's socioemotional adjustment. First-generation, Mexican immigrant mothers were interviewed regarding social support...
Article
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A brief retrospective is first provided on the study of reading and writing relations. Next, it is suggested that research has supported the theoretical contention that reading and writing rely on analogous mental processes and isomorphic knowledge. Four basic types of shared knowledge are delineated. Then, reasons are articulated about why it is a...
Article
Character Perspective Charting is an instructional technique that fosters story understanding.
Article
Which studies have changed how we teach literacy? What are the fundamental characteristics of studies that make a difference? The authors offer a conversation on these topics, and propose a list of 13 studies that have influenced instructional practice. [This article is reprinted in Preparing Reading Professionals. www.reading.orgpublicationsbbvboo...
Article
Reviews research and raises questions about instruction that integrates reading and writing or that focuses on thematic units. Concludes with guidelines for integrated instruction. (SR)
Article
Research studies and theoretical works on the following aspects of professionalization of adult literacy teachers were reviewed: preparation, certification, and licensure of adult educators; history of the professionalization process of other occupations; state certification requirements for adult basic education (ABE) teachers; and preparation sta...
Article
READING RECOVERY(R) is an early instructional intervention for at-risk children. This article analyzes its effectiveness. Specifically, it considers whether Reading Recovery leads to learning and compares the amount of learning accomplished relative to the gains of average and low-achieving students. The analysis considers whether learning gains at...
Article
Explores problems that sometimes arise with instruction organized around thematic units and suggests practical ways of resolving them. (SR)
Article
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
This response analyzes Harris and Pressley's position on improving the quality of educational intervention research. It contrasts two different approaches to the interpretation of such research—technology transfer and heuristic interpretations—and their underlying assumptions. Harris and Pressley's positions are generally supported, but within the...
Article
A study examined issues of teacher professionalization within adult literacy education. Relevant research and theory on professionalization were reviewed, the historical experiences of other professional fields were examined, data on state certification requirements for adult basic education (ABE) teachers were analyzed, officials from states havin...
Article
Growing out of a 1992 conference that attracted teachers and educators from around the world, this book presents 13 essays which share the insights of 16 leading university scholars and teacher-researchers regarding the re-emergence of teacher education as a central focus in the field of English education. The book explores what teachers of the Eng...
Article
Studied which misspellings can be attributed to differences in voicedness between English (EN) and Spanish (SP) and whether voicedness can be used to identify a progression of spelling strategies that characterize SP-influenced EN spelling. Ss were SP-speaking students in a transitional bilingual education program; 41 2nd graders and 6 3rd graders...
Article
The whole language approach considers it essential to make learning active, to be respectful of teachers and learners, to allow students to develop ownership and control of their language and learning, and to use a variety of subjects together holistically. (SK)
Article
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Reviews theoretical and empirical work completed since 1980 on the connections between reading and writing. Three perspectives on these connections are addressed. The shared knowledge-shared process perspective is based on reading theory, cognitive psychology, and linguistics. The communications perspective treats the reading–writing relationship a...
Article
Intended for elementary teachers, reading specialists, curriculum directors, and teacher trainers, this book provides readers with conceptual and theoretical insights and compelling accounts of classroom practice. The book argues that teaching and learning work best when they occur within a community of learners. The book provides interpretations o...
Article
Previous research has suggested that good adult readers use a text's cohesion to help comprehend it (Kintsch, 1974), that good writers use cohesion to explicate meaning within and across clauses in a text (Halliday, 1985), and that readers use reading knowledge in their writing (Eckhoff, 1983). The study reported here was designed to examine the re...
Article
High school seniors in four handicapping groups — orthopedically handicapped (OH), hearing impaired (HI), speech disabled (SD), and learning disabled (LD) — were compared to nonhandicapped seniors on a range of demographic, achievement, and personal characteristics. Of the four groups, the OH students were the most similar to the nonhandicapped stu...
Article
Of the 26,142 American twelfth grade students for whom survey data from the national High School and Beyondstudy were complete, 353 (1.4%) identified themselves as having orthopaedic handicaps. Data on these orthopaedically handicapped (OH) twelfth graders (sixth form) were compared to those on their non‐orthopaedically‐handicapped (NOH) peers. The...
Article
This study investigates the magnitude and nature of the reading‐writing relationship. Particular attention is given to those theories that postulate identicality of knowledge use. Four reading measures (comprehension, cloze, vocabulary, phonics) and eight writing measures (three measures of spelling, vocabulary diversity, syntactic complexity, thre...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluated 3 models of the reading–writing relationship. The reading dimensions of these models include word analysis, vocabulary, and sentence and passage comprehension. Writing dimensions include spelling, vocabulary, sentence structure, and story organization. The interactive model permits the use of reading knowledge in writing, as well as the r...
Article
Of the 26,147 twelfth-graders on whom survey data from the national High School and Beyond study were complete, 439 (1.7%) identified themselves as having specific learning disabilities. Comparisons between the data on these students and those on their nonimpaired peers showed that the learning disabled group (a) was older, (b) included a dispropor...
Article
Of over 26,000 high-school seniors for whom survey data from the recent High School and Beyond study were complete, 278 identified themselves as having speech disabilities. The data on these latter students were compared to those on their nonimpaired peers with regard to demographic variables and measures of achievement, personal characteristics, a...
Article
Of the 30,030 sophomores for whom survey data from the national High School and Beyond study were complete, 810 (2.7%) identified themselves as having specific learning disabilities. Various comparisons between these learning disabled (LD) 10th graders and their non-learning-disabled (NLD) peers were made. The LD group was older, had a disproportio...
Article
Administered multiple reading measures (i.e., the Phonetic Analysis Test of the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Tests, the Reading Comprehension Test of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, and the Vocabulary tests of both of the above measures) and writing measures (i.e., analyses of vocabulary diversity, syntactic complexity, qualitative and quantitat...
Article
Of 26,146 high school seniors surveyed in the recent High School and Beyond study, 514 identified themselves as having hearing problems. The data on these respondents were compared to those on their normally hearing peers regarding demographic characteristics, academic achievement, and motivation. Black students were underrepresented among mainstre...
Article
This decade has witnessed an explosion of information concerning reading comprehension, but this information has been more cognitive, than affective, in nature. The purpose of this article is to consider the nature of motivation and its place in the development of reading comprehension. Maslow's “hierarchy of motivation” is used as a heuristic for...
Article
A study examined the relationship of multiple measures of reading and writing at the second and fifth grade levels. Multiple reading tests (measuring vocabulary, word recognition, sentence comprehension, and passage comprehension) and writing tests (evaluating vocabulary diversity and syntactic complexity, and providing qualitative and quantitative...
Article
Cloze tests are frequently used to measure reading comprehension. Although cloze is generally accepted as a global measure of reading comprehension, and cloze test results are reportedly well correlated with those of traditional comprehension tests, the question of which specific components of reading comprehension are measured by cloze tests has n...
Article
A review of the literature concerning the relationship of learning to read and learning to write. Special emphasis is given to those aspects of writing instruction or activity which may have a positive impact upon learning to read. A critical examination of several studies reveals that reading and writing are, indeed, related; and, that, at least u...
Article
Full-text available
Reports on a survey to determine teachers' attitudes and practices toward the teaching of creative writing in elementary classrooms. Suggests three reasons for writing deficiencies and argues that more time must be spent on reading and that reading instruction needs to be consistent within classes and among schools. (Author/IRT)
Article
explore the idea that reading comprehension instruction should foster a sense of reading as conversation between readers and authors / describe how readers use their conceptions of author strategically and metacognitively in ways that can enhance comprehension and interpretation / suggest how conceptualizing reading as a dialogue between reader and...

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