Timothy Rasinski

Timothy Rasinski
Kent State University | KSU

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199
Publications
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Publications

Publications (199)
Article
Reading fluency has been identified as a critical competency for reading success. Accurate and automatic word recognition, one component of fluency, is normally assessed through reading rate (Oral Reading Fluency—ORF). While norms for ORF exist through grade 8, norms beyond grade 8 are largely unknown. The present study attempted to establish ORF n...
Article
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The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a Process-Based Writing Modular Instructional Program (PBWMIP), supported with graphic organizers and formative assessment, on second-grade primary school students’ writing compositions and attitudes toward writing. This quasi-experimental research design study was conducted with 40 second grader...
Article
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This study aimed to explore the opinions of the preservice teachers about the children’s picture books related to single-parent families. A total of 61 preservice teachers majoring in English Language Arts participated, and the data were collected with semi-structured interviews. The data of the research were analyzed using a content analysis metho...
Article
"Little" Words often carry complex meanings. Pronoun resolution is an essential component of comprehension. Skilled readers work to maintain text cohesion (i.e., they resolve the pronouns as needed.) Less proficient readers often are not as proficient in resolving pronouns. Limited pronoun resolution limits comprehension. This article defines prono...
Article
The role of the teacher, specifically teacher craft, is central to engaging students in effective reading instruction. However, the science of reading has revealed that the content taught is also important to reading acquisition. Although the science of reading was aggregated some two decades ago to result in what became known as the five big pilla...
Chapter
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(This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Reading Fluency that was published in Education Sciences)
Article
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The present exploratory study examined the effect of the implementation of a reading fluency instruction protocol on the reading performance of early first grade students in an urban school. Previous research has tended to examine the effects of fluency instruction after students have achieved some degree of competency in word recognition, usually...
Article
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This article reports the results of a survey of reading teachers regarding their definition of reading fluency. Results show the majority of teachers associate reading fluency with reading rate, which is just one aspect of fluency.
Article
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Over the past two decades, reading fluency has been increasingly recognized as an important instructional variable for success in reading. Yet, this has not always been the case. This article presents a historical review of the nature and role of fluency instruction in the United States. The roots of oral reading fluency began in an age when texts...
Article
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This correlational study aimed to explore the relations of background knowledge, automaticity (rate), prosody, and strategy use with reading comprehension (KAPS model of reading comprehension) in the written Turkish language context with 207 fourth grade students. Successful comprehension requires readers to make meaning out of what they read. Our...
Article
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Keywords This study aimed to investigate the effect of feedback on Turkish fourth-grade students' fluent writing skills. The subjects, which were 42 fourth-grade students (21 in the control group, 21 in the experimental group) from a public elementary school in Turkey's Ankara province, were enrolled in the present study. The Fluent Writing Evaluat...
Conference Paper
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In this brief paper, the authors reflect on the field of fluency research with possibilities for future qualitative investigations.
Article
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Although readers theater has traditionally been recommended as a method for improving reading fluency, this 18-week quasi-experimental study examined the effects of a readers theater instructional protocol that updates and expands on traditional approaches by adding specific tasks that engage students in various reading comprehension and vocabulary...
Article
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The present study aimed to explore the relation between students’ oral reading efficacy, reading comprehension, and academic performance on a nationwide high school placement exam (TEOG). The students were selected from a public middle school. The students’ oral reading efficacy, comprehension, and TEOG achievement scores were obtained to figure ou...
Article
This study investigated the efficacy of the Fluency Development Lesson (FDL) in improving reading achievement in primary grade struggling readers. 30 readers, enrolled in a summer reading clinic, participated in daily 40-min mini-reading lessons across 5 weeks. During the fluency lessons, readers practiced and developed their literacy skills throug...
Chapter
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Best practices in reading fluency instruction.
Article
Poetry can help develop in students a love for reading, writing, and playing with language, yet it is often a neglected literary form in many reading curricula. Those who see the value of poetry recognize it as the perfect genre for teaching phonics, fluency, and a love of language. The rhyming, rhythmical language of poetry provides the perfect ba...
Article
Considerable evidence supports that close to two thirds of all fourth-grade students read at less than adequate levels on reading achievement tests and that the problem has persisted for decades. This study of 1,064 third-grade students at risk for reading failure uses path analytic techniques to measure a hypothesized model linking developmental s...
Article
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The present study attempted to extend our knowledge of the role of reading fluency in contributing to reading comprehension among Turkish students in grades 4 through 8. One hundred students at each grade level were administered assessments of reading fluency, word recognition automaticity and prosody, and silent reading comprehension. Word recogni...
Article
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The present study attempted to extend knowledge of the role of reading fluency in contributing to reading comprehension of expository texts among Turkish students in grades four through eight. One hundred students at each grade level were administered assessments of two measures of reading fluency, word recognition automaticity and prosody, and sil...
Article
Current professional development efforts in writing at the secondary level have not resulted in student improvement on large-scale writing assessments. To maximize funding resources and instructional time, school leaders need a way to determine professional development content for writing teachers that aligns with specific student outcomes. The pre...
Article
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Readers Theatre has been used to introduce critical issues, promote fluency among English learners and non–English learners, teach vocabulary, and integrate content in the classroom. Previous studies of Readers Theatre application have demonstrated an increase in student reading fluency, motivation, and confidence. The focus of this systemic approa...
Article
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In this quasi-experimental study, the researchers examined the effects of implementing Readers Theatre in a second grade classroom, comprised of seven and eight-year-old students. The 70 subjects were chosen as a non-probability sample from two different classes and served as the treatment (n = 29) and comparison (n = 41) groups. A repeated measure...
Article
Research has indicated that a large percentage of primary-grade students who struggle in reading have not achieved full competency in the foundational reading competencies (word recognition and fluency). In this article, the author argues that more intensive instruction of the foundational competencies is needed and proposes a simple lesson approac...
Article
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The present study examined the impact of an intensive reading fluency intervention on the overall reading performance of 37 struggling readers in 3rd grade. Students’ 3rd-grade classroom teachers and/or their performance on a state-mandated reading achievement test given toward the end of the 3rd-grade school year identified them for the study. Sel...
Article
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This article examines the efficacy of the implementation of a program titled Consensus Initiative [pseudonym] in an urban school district that served 20,000 linguistically, economically, and racially diverse students situated in the northeast region of the United States. Using a research derived ecological framework from the school reform literatur...
Book
Fluency is an important part of comprehension, but how can teachers make sure they're providing the support that all readers need? Tiered Fluency Instruction: Supporting Learners in Grades 2-5 will help teachers meet this challenge. This resource will provide fluency support for all students, including disfluent readers. Chapters are included on RT...
Article
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p>This mixed-methods study investigated teachers’ perceptions and implementation of professional development in writing instruction at a United States public high school campus. A layered approach to professional development was utilized: (1) one group received weekly professional development during a Professional Learning Community (PLC) and parti...
Article
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Data were collected from 32 teachers using mixed methods to investigate their perceptions of the value of online professional development (PD) offered through a school-community partnership with National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The partnership between multiple school districts nationwide and NASA provided teachers with an onlin...
Article
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The Common Core State Standards suggest that an appropriate goal for secondary education is college and career readiness. Previous research has identified reading fluency as a critical component for proficient reading. One component of fluency is word recognition accuracy and automaticity. The present study attempted to determine the word recogniti...
Article
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This mixed-methods study investigated the impact of a multilayered approach to coaching that combined ongoing coaching with a six hour professional development session. It examined the effects of coaching on the reading progress of students whose teachers received only staff development to teachers who received staff development and coaching in the...
Article
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This article offers instructional suggestions and strategies based on research and theoretical literature for developing reading fluency through the use of rhyming poetry and other texts beyond the narrative and informational texts that have been traditionally used for reading instruction. Readers' lack of fluency in reading can be a monumental imp...
Book
Reading fluency has been identified in the Common Core State Standards as a foundational competency for reading proficiency. This resource provides teachers with approaches to fluency instruction that are effective, engaging, and easy to implement. The authors begin with a comprehensive definition of reading fluency, a discussion of why fluency has...
Article
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The authors describe a research-based method to increase students' reading fluency. The method is called Read Two Impress, which is derived from the Neurological Impress Method and the method of repeated readings. The authors provide step-by-step procedures to effectively implement the reading fluency intervention. Previous research indicates that...
Article
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Pavio’s Dual-Coding Theory (1991) and Mayer’s Multimedia Principal (2000) form the foundation for proposing a multi-coding theory centered around Multi-Touch Tablets and the newest generation of e-textbooks to scaffold struggling readers in reading and learning from science textbooks. Using E. O. Wilson’s Life on Earth: An Introduction (2012) as a...
Article
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The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through f...
Article
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Reading fluency has been found to be an essential component of proficient reading and is a significant part of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS, 2010; NRP, 2000). Previous research has found that students may often differ in their ability to fluently read narrative and informational text. In this study we examine differences in fluent reading...
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Although reading fluency has been dismissed and overlooked as an important component of effective reading instruction, the author makes that case that fluency continues to be essential for success in learning to read. Moreover, many students who struggle in reading manifest difficulties in reading fluency. After defining reading fluency, the articl...
Article
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Reading fluency is one of the underlying factors of successful language curricula and it is also one of the defining characteristics of good readers. A lack of fluency is a common characteristic of struggling readers. There is a growing body of research that demonstrates proficiency in reading fluency is important for success in learning to read En...
Article
Effective fluency instruction should focus on reading with understanding, rather than simply reading quickly or expressively. This article outlines three research-based instructional approaches that assist students in developing accurate, automatic word recognition and prosody; at the same time, they ensure learners attend to the text’s meaning as...
Article
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Although parental involvement in children's literacy development has been recognized for its potential in helping children develop early literacy achievement, studies of the effectiveness and sustainability of school-based parent involvement programs are not numerous. This study examines the effectiveness and durability of a school-based parent inv...
Article
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Although identified as a critical component of proficient reading in the primary grades, reading fluency (word recognition accuracy, automaticity, and prosody) is often viewed as less important beyond the early stages of reading acquisition. In the present study, 108 ninth-grade students were assessed to explore the relationships among word recogni...
Article
Previous research has suggested that phrasing or chunking texts during reading is an important aspect of fluent reading. Past studies have indicated that good and poor elementary readers differ in their ability to phrase texts. In the present study, good and poor college-aged readers were asked to identify phrase boundaries in two texts varying in...
Article
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This research study focused on the relationships among the various components of reading fluency components (word recognition accuracy, automaticity, and prosody), as well as their relationships with reading comprehension among fifth-grade students in Turkey. A total of 119 fifth-grade elementary school students participated in the study. The findi...
Article
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Reading fluency has traditionally been recognized as a competency associated with word recognition and comprehension. As readers become more automatic in word identification they are able to devote less attention and cognitive resources to word decoding and more to text comprehension. The act of reading itself has been associated with growth in voc...
Article
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Based on a first grade teacher's search for approaches to promote successful reading acquisition in her first grade classroom, the authors present a curricular engagement in which the teacher explored using music, specifically singing songs, as a fun and motivating way to accelerate reading progress. The premise is that singing (while at the same t...
Article
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In this article the authors integrate literacy with classroom-based technologies to create a student produced movie. The authors explain the steps to classroom movie production that deepens students' comprehension, engages students' in purposeful writing, and utilizes new technologies.
Conference Paper
Theater majors at a major university were interviewed to discern reading habits and identify the effect that repeated reading and the interpretation of scripts had on their overall reading affect. It was found most of the struggling readers felt that the theater made them better readers, although some said that they still struggled with reading and...
Article
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This study identified problems encountered by both dyslexic children and their parents. Seven parents were interviewed. Parents mentioned the negative attitudes of teachers towards them and their children, the use of incorrect practices in the classroom, and educational insufficiency in relation to dyslexia. Similarly, family members were found to...
Article
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Although reading fluency has been identified as a critical element in successful literacy curricula for elementary students, fluency has been relatively neglected beyond the elementary grades. Prior research has shown that word recognition automaticity (one component of fluency) is strongly associated with overall reading proficiency among secondar...
Article
Using primary sources with students has untapped potential for expanding and deepening the reading experiences of elementary and middle grade students. Primary sources expands teachers’ palette of reading materials, allows students to connect more closely to topics for learning, and deepens their understanding of the past. This article argues for t...
Article
This article explores problems that have surfaced in the teaching of reading fluency and how teachers and reading coaches can resolve those problems. Specific issues addressed include reading fluency being defined as reading fast and instruction that is focused on having students read fast, reading fluency viewed as solely and oral reading activity...
Article
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This article uses a review of research to consider a fundamental aspect of reading instruction that has been marginalized in policies and practices over the last decade: the development of silent reading habits that involve strong comprehension and optimal reading rates. The review of research attends to typical development and performances of stud...