Timothy J Norman

Timothy J Norman
University of Aberdeen | ABDN · Department of Computing Science

BEng (Swan), Ph.D. (UCL)

About

280
Publications
23,797
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4,908
Citations
Citations since 2016
44 Research Items
1346 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200

Publications

Publications (280)
Article
Ensuring the trustworthiness of autonomous systems and artificial intelligence is an important interdisciplinary endeavour. In this position paper, we argue that this endeavour will benefit from technical advancements in capturing various forms of responsibility, and we present a comprehensive research agenda to achieve this. In particular, we argu...
Conference Paper
Interactive reinforcement learning can effectively facilitate the agent training via human feedback. However, such methods often require the human teacher to know what is the correct action that the agent should take. In other words, if the human teacher is not always reliable, then it will not be consistently able to guide the agent through its tr...
Chapter
Interactive reinforcement learning can effectively facilitate the agent training via human feedback. However, such methods often require the human teacher to know what is the correct action that the agent should take. In other words, if the human teacher is not always reliable, then it will not be consistently able to guide the agent through its tr...
Article
In this paper we illustrate how novel AI methods can improve the performance of intelligence analysts. These analysts aim to make sense of — often conflicting or incomplete — information, weighing up competing hypotheses which serve to explain an observed situation. Analysts have access to numerous visual analytic tools which support the temporal a...
Preprint
Interactive reinforcement learning can effectively facilitate the agent training via human feedback. However, such methods often require the human teacher to know what is the correct action that the agent should take. In other words, if the human teacher is not always reliable, then it will not be consistently able to guide the agent through its tr...
Conference Paper
Soccer is a sport characterised by open and dynamic play, with player actions and roles aligned according to team strategies simultaneously and at multiple temporal scales with high spatial freedom. This complexity presents an analytics challenge, which to date has largely been solved by decomposing the game according to specific criteria to analys...
Conference Paper
Argumentation mining aims at extracting, analysing and modelling people’s arguments, but large, high-quality annotated datasets are limited, and no multimodal datasets exist for this task. In this paper, we present M-Arg, a multimodal argument mining dataset with a corpus of US 2020 presidential debates, annotated through crowd-sourced annotations....
Article
Ensuring trustworthy performance of autonomous agents and Multiagent Systems (MAS) requires computational methods and formal tools to support reasoning about different forms of responsibility. In particular, such tools are needed to support identifying agents or agent groups that are responsible, blameworthy, accountable, or sanctionable for outcom...
Article
In this paper, we present a new application-focused benchmark dataset and results from a set of baseline Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning models for prediction of match outcomes for games of football (soccer). By doing so we give a baseline for the prediction accuracy that can be achieved exploiting both statistical match data and c...
Conference Paper
To develop and effectively deploy Trustworthy Autonomous Systems (TAS), we face various social, technological, legal, and ethical challenges in which different notions of responsibility can play a key role. In this work, we elaborate on these challenges, discuss research gaps, and show how the multidimensional notion of responsibility can play a ke...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper, we present a novel approach for optimising long-term tactical and strategic decision-making in football (soccer) by encapsulating events in a league environment across a given time frame. We model the teams' objectives for a season and track how these evolve as games unfold to give a fluent objective that can aid in decision-making g...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present a novel approach for optimising long-term tactical and strategic decision-making in football (soccer) by encapsulating events in a league environment across a given time frame. We model the teams' objectives for a season and track how these evolve as games unfold to give a fluent objective that can aid in decision-making...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper, we present a new application-focused benchmark dataset and results from a set of baseline Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning models for prediction of match outcomes for games of football (soccer). By doing so we give a baseline for the prediction accuracy that can be achieved exploiting both statistical match data and c...
Chapter
The Shapes Constraint Language (SHACL) is a recent W3C recommendation language for validating RDF data. Specifically, SHACL documents are collections of constraints that enforce particular shapes on an RDF graph. Previous work on the topic has provided theoretical and practical results for the validation problem, but did not consider the standard d...
Preprint
The Shapes Constraint Language (SHACL) is a recent W3C recommendation language for validating RDF data. Specifically, SHACL documents are collections of constraints that enforce particular shapes on an RDF graph. Previous work on the topic has provided theoretical and practical results for the validation problem, but did not consider the standard d...
Article
Full-text available
Hamblin distinguished between formal and descriptive dialectic. Formal normative models of deliberation dialogue have been strongly emphasized as argumentation frameworks in computer science. But making such models of deliberation applicable to real natural language examples has reached a point where the descriptive aspect needs more interdisciplin...
Preprint
An important use of sensors and actuator networks is to comply with health and safety policies in hazardous environments. In order to deal with increasingly large and dynamic environments, and to quickly react to emergencies, tools are needed to simplify the process of translating high-level policies into executable queries and rules. We present a...
Preprint
The Shapes Constraint Language (SHACL) has been recently introduced as a W3C recommendation to define constraints that can be validated against RDF graphs. Interactions of SHACL with other Semantic Web technologies, such as ontologies or reasoners, is a matter of ongoing research. In this paper we study the interaction of a subset of SHACL with inf...
Chapter
The Shapes Constraint Language (SHACL) has been recently introduced as a W3C recommendation to define constraints that can be validated against RDF graphs. Interactions of SHACL with other Semantic Web technologies, such as ontologies or reasoners, is a matter of ongoing research. In this paper we study the interaction of a subset of SHACL with inf...
Conference Paper
An important use of sensors and actuator networks is to comply with health and safety policies in hazardous environments. In order to deal with increasingly large and dynamic environments, and to quickly react to emergencies, tools are needed to simplify the process of translating high-level policies into executable queries and rules. We present a...
Conference Paper
The Shapes Constraint Language (SHACL) has been recently introduced as a W3C recommendation to define constraints that can be validated against RDF graphs. Interactions of SHACL with other Semantic Web technologies, such as ontologies or reasoners, is a matter of ongoing research. In this paper we study the interaction of a subset of SHACL with inf...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rule-based systems play a critical role in health and safety, where policies created by experts are usually formalised as rules. When dealing with increasingly large and dynamic sources of data, as in the case of Internet of Things (IoT) applications, it becomes important not only to efficiently apply rules, but also to reason about their applicabi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Rule-based systems play a critical role in health and safety, where policies created by experts are usually formalised as rules. When dealing with increasingly large and dynamic sources of data, as in the case of Internet of Things (IoT) applications, it becomes important not only to efficiently apply rules, but also to reason about their applicabi...
Conference Paper
p>In this paper we provide a first analysis of the research questions that arise when dealing with the problem of communicating pieces of formal argumentation through natural language interfaces. It is a generally held opinion that formal models of argumentation naturally capture human argument, and some preliminary studies have focused on justifyi...
Article
Full-text available
In making practical decisions, agents are expected to comply with ideals of behaviour, or norms. In reality, it may not be possible for an individual, or a team of agents, to be fully compliant -- actual behaviour often differs from the ideal. The question we address in this paper is how we can design agents that act in such a way that they select...
Conference Paper
p>This paper briefly describes AIF-EL, an OWL2-EL compliant ontology for the Argument Interchange Format.</p
Conference Paper
p>We introduce CISpaces.org, a tool to support situational understanding in intelligence analysis that complements but not replaces human expertise. The system combines natural language processing, argumentation-based reasoning, and natural language generation to produce intelligence reports from social media data, and to record the process of form...
Conference Paper
p>We demonstrate CISpaces.org, a tool to support situational understanding in intelligence analysis that complements but not replaces human expertise, for the first time applied to a judicial context. The system combines argumentationbased reasoning and natural language generation to support the creation of analysis and summary reports, and to reco...
Article
2018 The authors and IOS Press. This paper briefly describes AIF-EL, an OWL2-EL compliant ontology for the Argument Interchange Format.
Article
In this paper we provide a first analysis of the research questions that arise when dealing with the problem of communicating pieces of formal argumentation through natural language interfaces. It is a generally held opinion that formal models of argumentation naturally capture human argument, and some preliminary studies have focused on justifying...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of numerous and disparate information sources available to support decision-making calls for efficient methods of harnessing their potential. Information sources may be unreliable, and misleading reports can affect decisions. Existing trust and reputation mechanisms typically rely on reports from as many sources as possible to mitigate...
Article
Systems that support users in managing access to their personal data are important for a wide variety of applications including healthcare, where authorised individuals may need to share information in ways that the owner had not anticipated. Simply denying access in unknown cases may hamper critical decisions and affect service delivery. In this p...
Article
Full-text available
Models of deliberative dialogue are fundamental for developing autonomous systems that support human practical reasoning. The question discussed in this paper is whether existing models are able to capture the complexity and richness of natural deliberation. In real-world contexts, circumstances relevant to the decision can change rapidly. We refle...
Article
To enable reliable crowdsourcing applications, it is of great importance to develop algorithms that can automatically discover the truths from possibly noisy and conflicting claims provided by various information sources. In order to handle crowdsourcing applications involving big or streaming data, a desirable truth discovery algorithm should not...
Conference Paper
Models of decentralized online planning vary in the information that individual agents use to make local action decisions. Some models consider only local observations, eschewing coordination through communication. Others use communication to ensure that all agents are aware of the action decisions of others, but assume costless and delay-free comm...
Conference Paper
Existing approaches for the verification of normative systems consider limited representations of norms, often neglecting collective imperatives, deadlines and contrary-to-duty obligations. In order to capture the requirements of real-world scenarios, these structures are important. In this paper we propose methods for the specification and formal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present an argumentation framework for reasoning within deliberation dialogues. This framework includes a dynamic notion of trust — the degree of belief placed in the dialogue participants changes over the course of the dialogue, and in turn affects the strength of the arguments the participants advance , affecting the dialogue's conclusions.
Article
Truth discovery is an important technique for enabling reliable crowdsourcing applications. It aims to automatically discover the truths from possibly conflicting crowdsourced claims. Most existing truth discovery approaches focus on categorical applications, such as image classification. They use the accuracy, i.e., rate of exactly correct claims,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We argue that burden of proof (BoP) of the kind present in persuasion does not apply to deliberation. We analyze existing computational models showing that in deliberation agents may answer a critique but there is no violation of the protocol if they choose not to. We propose a norm-­‐‑ governed dialogue where BoP in persuasion is modeled as an obl...
Conference Paper
Social networks foster the development of social sensing to gather data about situations in the environment. Making sense of this information is, however, a challenge because the process is not linear and additional sensed information may be needed to better understand a situation. In this paper we explore how two complementary technologies, Moira...
Conference Paper
p>We propose Normative Dec-POMDPs, a model of collective decision making in the presence of complex norms, with violations of norms classified according to their relative severity. We extend the PBPG algorithm in order to solve Normative Dec-POMDPs and propose a heuristic that improves its scalability without affecting the policy quality.</p
Article
The ubiquity of smartphones has led to the emergence of mobile crowdsourcing tasks such as the detection of spatial events when smartphone users move around in their daily lives. However, the credibility of those detected events can be negatively impacted by unreliable participants with low-quality data. Consequently, a major challenge in quality c...
Conference Paper
Norms specify ideal behaviour. Agents, however, are autonomous, and may fail to comply with the ideal. Contrary to Duty obligations can be used to specify reparational behaviour that mitigates the effects of a violation. In addition to specifying reparational behaviours, it is important to understand how robust a system is against possible violatio...
Conference Paper
p>Securing provenance has recently become an important research topic, resulting in a number of models for protecting access to provenance. Existing work has focused on graph transformation mechanisms that supply a user with a provenance view that satisfies both access control policies and validity constraints of provenance. However, it is not alwa...
Conference Paper
Information about quantitative characteristics in local businesses and services, such as the number of people waiting in line in a cafe and the number of available fitness machines in a gym, is important for informed decision, crowd management and event detection. In this paper, we investigate the potential of leveraging crowds as sensors to report...
Article
It has been recognised that throughout the UK, rural economies have a significant potential for growth but despite the potential for growth, many rural businesses face barriers that prohibit their expansion. In this study, we focus on one particular group of rural small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs): food and drink producers. Through user eng...
Conference Paper
The aim of intelligence analysis is to make sense of information that is often conflicting or incomplete, and to weigh competing hypotheses that may explain a situation. This imposes a high cognitive load on analysts, and there are few automated tools to aid them in their task. In this paper, we present an agent-based tool to help analysts in acqui...
Article
We demonstrate CISpaces, a system for agent-aided collaborative intelligence analysis. CISpaces exploits collaboration to ease the effort of constructing hypotheses from acquired information. Argumentation-based reasoning is employed by a sensemaking agent to identify plausible hypotheses and to compute their likelihood to be justified. Information...
Article
Full-text available
We present a decision-theoretic approach for sampling information sources in resource-constrained environments, where there is uncertainty regarding source trustworthiness. We exploit diversity among sources to stratify the population into homogeneous subgroups to both minimise redundant sampling and mitigate the effect of source collusion. We show...
Article
The aim of intelligence analysis is to make sense of information that is often conflicting or incomplete, and to weigh competing hypotheses that may explain a situation. This imposes a high cognitive load on analysts, and there are few automated tools to aid them in their task. In this paper, we present an agent-based tool to help analysts in acqui...
Conference Paper
p>Our focus is on the specification and verification of normative systems that include contrary-to-duty, collective and event-driven imperatives with deadlines. We propose an operational syntax and semantics for the specification of such systems. Using Maude and its model checker, we show how Linear Temporal Logic properties can be verified, and pr...
Conference Paper
p>We present a decision-theoretic approach for sampling information sources in resource-constrained environments, where there is uncertainty regarding source trustworthiness. We exploit diversity among sources to stratify the population into homogeneous subgroups to both minimise redundant sampling and mitigate the effect of source collusion. We sh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Models of deliberative dialogue are fundamental for developing autonomous systems that support human practical reasoning. However , we must consider whether these existing models are able to capture the complexity and richness of natural deliberation for developing real applications. In real contexts, circumstances relevant to the decision can chan...
Article
Full-text available
In rural UK, businesses are often isolated and have much to gain from healthy networks, yet studies show that many rural business owners fail to network effectively. Information communications technologies offer new ways to network that might benefit rural businesses by expanding their reach. This study looked at online and face-to-face networking...
Conference Paper
p>The ubiquity of smartphones has led to the emergence of mobile crowdsourcing tasks such as the detection of spatial events when smartphone users move around in their daily lives. However, the credibility of those detected events can be negatively impacted by unreliable participants with low-quality data. Consequently, a major challenge in quality...
Conference Paper
p>We present the CISpaces framework, a collaborative virtual space for intelligence analysts for the elaboration of information to explain a situation. CISpaces supports the analysis of conflicting information in collaboration exploiting argumentation schemes to structure and share analyses, crowd-sourcing to collect information and provenance to e...
Article
Bootstrapping trust assessment where there is little or no evidence regarding a subject is a significant challenge for existing trust and reputation systems. When direct or indirect evidence is absent, existing approaches usually assume that all agents are equally trustworthy. This naive assumption makes existing approaches vulnerable to attacks su...
Article
Modern multiorganizational coalitions can bring diverse sets of capabilities, assets, and information sources to bear on complex and dynamic operations. However, successfully completing these operations places demands on the trust between coalition partners. When it's necessary to rely on other partners, decision makers must be able to make rapid a...
Conference Paper
Systems for allowing users to manage access to their personal data are important for a wide variety of applications including healthcare, where authorised individuals may need to share information in ways that the owner had not anticipated. Simply denying access in unknown cases may hamper critical decisions and affect service delivery. Rather, dec...
Article
We present the CISpaces framework, a collaborative virtual space for intelligence analysts for the elaboration of information to explain a situation. CISpaces supports the analysis of conflicting information in collaboration exploiting argumentation schemes to structure and share analyses, crowd-sourcing to collect information and provenance to est...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We address the problem of developing effective automated reasoning support for the detection and resolution of conflicts between plans and policies (or norms). How automated reasoning mechanisms can effectively support human decision makers in this process is little understood. In this research, we have conducted experiments with human subjects to...
Conference Paper
p>This paper investigates how to restrict the spread of sensitive information. This work is situated in a military context, and provides a tractable method to decide what semantic information to share, with whom, and how. The latter decision is supported by obfuscation, where a related concept or fact may be shared instead of the original. We consi...
Article
Full-text available
Computational trust mechanisms aim to produce trust ratings from both direct and indirect information about agents' behaviour. Subjective Logic (SL) has been widely adopted as the core of such systems via its fusion and discount operators. In recent research we revisited the semantics of these operators to explore an alternative, geometric interpre...
Chapter
Full-text available
In open dynamic societies, agents are required to work with others that do not necessarily have the same set of objectives. If left unchecked, self-interested agents will try to accomplish their individual goals without regard for others. Norms provide a means to regulate agent behaviour, and this requires some consideration of the ways in which no...
Article
Full-text available
A decision procedure implemented over a computational trust mechanism aims to allow for decisions to be made regarding whether some entity or information should be trusted. As recognised in the literature, trust is contextual, and we describe how such a context often translates into a confidence level which should be used to modify an underlying tr...
Conference Paper
Computational trust mechanisms aim to produce a trust rating from both direct and indirect information about agents behaviour. Jøsang's Subjective Logic has been widely adopted as the core of such systems via its fusion and discount operators. Recently we proposed an operator for discounting opinions based on geometrical properties, and, continuing...
Conference Paper
Disease self-management interventions have the potential to greatly benefit both sufferers of chronic illnesses and healthcare providers in rural areas. In this paper, we discuss our vision for a trusted platform for delivering self-management interventions in rural areas of the UK and India using second-generation mobile devices, and outline the k...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A limitation of standard Description Logics is its inability to reason with uncertain and vague knowledge. Although probabilistic and fuzzy extensions of DLs exist, which provide an explicit representation of uncertainty, they do not provide an explicit means for reasoning about second order uncertainty. Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence (DST) ove...
Conference Paper
The fares that passengers are asked to pay for their journey have implications on such things as passenger transport choice, demand, cost recovery and revenue generation for the transport provider. Designing an efficient fare structure is therefore a fundamental problem, which can influence the type of transport options passengers utilise, and may...
Conference Paper
Pervasive information consumers in open, loosely-coupled systems, such as in Internet of Things and crowd-sensing environment, will rely more and more often on streaming information from sensory sources with whom they have only ephemeral, transient relationships. In such settings, information uncertainties arise as the trustworthiness of the source...