Timothy D Meehan

Timothy D Meehan
National Audubon Society | AUDUBON · Science Division

MS, PhD

About

112
Publications
30,182
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,901
Citations
Introduction
I am a Quantitative Ecologist with the Science Division of the National Audubon Society
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
October 2016 - present
National Audubon Society
Position
  • Quantitative Ecologist
October 2014 - September 2016
National Ecological Observatory Network
Position
  • Staff Scientist - Statistician
June 2009 - October 2014
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (112)
Article
Full-text available
Agriculture is being challenged to provide food, and increasingly fuel, for an expanding global population. Producing bioenergy crops on marginal lands-farmland suboptimal for food crops-could help meet energy goals while minimizing competition with food production. However, the ecological costs and benefits of growing bioenergy feedstocks-primaril...
Article
Full-text available
In the United States, policy initiatives aimed at increasing sources of renewable energy are advancing bioenergy production, especially in the Midwest region, where agricultural landscapes dominate. While policy directives are focused on renewable fuel production, biodiversity and ecosystem services will be impacted by the land-use changes required...
Article
Full-text available
Integration of energy crops into agricultural landscapes could promote sustainability if they are placed in ways that foster multiple ecosystem services and mitigate ecosystem disservices from existing crops. We conducted a modeling study to investigate how replacing annual energy crops with perennial energy crops along Wisconsin waterways could af...
Article
Full-text available
Agronomic intensification has transformed many agricultural landscapes into expansive monocultures with little natural habitat. A pervasive concern is that such landscape simplification results in an increase in insect pest pressure, and thus an increased need for insecticides. We tested this hypothesis across a range of cropping systems in the Mid...
Article
Full-text available
Mandates for biofuel and renewable electricity are creating incentives for biomass production in agricultural landscapes of the Upper Midwest. Different bioenergy crops are expected to vary in their effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Here, we use data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey to forecast the impact of potential bioe...
Article
Full-text available
For many avian species, spatial migration patterns remain largely undescribed, especially across hemispheric extents. Recent advancements in tracking technologies and high‐resolution species distribution models (i.e., eBird Status and Trends products) provide new insights into migratory bird movements and offer a promising opportunity for integrati...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most pressing questions in ecology and conservation centers on disentangling the relative impacts of concurrent global change drivers, climate and land‐use/land‐cover (LULC), on biodiversity. Yet studies that evaluate the effects of both drivers on species’ winter distributions remain scarce, hampering our ability to develop full‐annual‐...
Article
The northern Gulf of Mexico is an important stopover and wintering area for many coastal waterbird species, but this region has been little-studied and a paucity of data has hampered efforts to quantify damage caused by disasters such as hurricanes and oil spills. In response, the Audubon Coastal Bird Survey (ACBS) was established to fill this data...
Article
Increasing concerns exist about possible decreased wintering duck abundance and hunting opportunities in the southern regions of the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways of North America. Researchers suggest these decreased abundances of ducks may be related to winter warming and related climatic phenomena. Accordingly, we tested predictions that duck...
Article
Evaluation of protected area effectiveness is critical for conservation of biodiversity. Protected areas that prioritize biodiversity conservation are, optimally, located and managed in ways that support relatively large and stable or increasing wildlife populations. Yet evaluating conservation efficacy remains a challenging endeavor. Here, we util...
Article
Full-text available
Several organizations run wildlife-gardening programs designed to mitigate the biodiversity loss and disconnect between humans and wildlife that commonly accompanies urbanization. The National Audubon Society runs the Plants for Birds and the Humminbirds at Home programs that, like others, recommend homeowners to establish diverse assemblages of na...
Article
Full-text available
Human land use threatens global biodiversity and compromises multiple ecosystem functions critical to food production. Whether crop yield–related ecosystem services can be maintained by a few dominant species or rely on high richness remains unclear. Using a global database from 89 studies (with 1475 locations), we partition the relative importance...
Article
Full-text available
Human land use threatens global biodiversity and compromises multiple ecosystem functions critical to food production. Whether crop yield–related ecosystem services can be maintained by a few dominant species or rely on high richness remains unclear. Using a global database from 89 studies (with 1475 locations), we partition the relative importance...
Article
Tricolored blackbird (Agelaius tricolor) is a colonial breeder, largely restricted to grasslands, wetlands, and agricultural areas of California, USA. Tricolored blackbird abundance declined considerably during the twentieth century. Recent trends have been less clear, however, hindering efforts to evaluate the conservation needs of the species. We...
Article
Full-text available
Bird counts by community volunteers provide valuable information about the conservation needs of many bird species. The statistical modeling techniques commonly used to analyze these counts provide robust, long‐term population trend estimates from heterogeneous community science data at regional, national, and continental scales. Here, we present a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human land use threatens global biodiversity and compromises multiple ecosystem functions critical to food production. Whether crop yield-related ecosystem services can be maintained by few abundant species or rely on high richness remains unclear. Using a global database from 89 crop systems, we partition the relative importance of abundance and s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tricolored blackbird (Agelaius tricolor) is a colonial breeder, largely restricted to grasslands, wetlands, and agricultural habitats of California. Tricolored blackbird abundance declined considerably during the 20th century. Recent trends have been less clear, however, hindering efforts to evaluate the conservation needs of the species. We assess...
Preprint
Full-text available
Continent-wide bird counts by community volunteers provide valuable information about the conservation needs of many bird species. The statistical modeling techniques commonly used to analyze these counts provide robust long-term trend estimates from heterogeneous community science data at regional, national, and continental scales. Here we present...
Article
Full-text available
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win-win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on p...
Article
Count data suggest that Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) has locally variable but globally stable populations. A simple, stage-based matrix population model for Black Oystercatcher was built and Monte Carlo simulations of the model were conducted using vital rates from peer-reviewed and gray literature. Simulations yielded a distribution o...
Article
Full-text available
Successful management of wildlife populations requires accurate estimates of abundance. Abundance estimates can be confounded by imperfect detection during wildlife surveys. N-mixture models enable quantification of detection probability and often produce abundance estimates that are less biased. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use...
Article
Full-text available
1.Perennial bioenergy systems, such as switchgrass and restored prairies, are alternatives to commonly used annual monocultures such as maize. Perennial systems require lower chemical input, provide greater ecosystem services such as carbon storage, greenhouse gas mitigation, and support greater biodiversity of beneficial insects. However, biomass...
Article
Full-text available
Noxious species, i.e. crop pest or invasive alien species, are major threats to both natural and managed ecosystems. Invasive pests are of special importance, and knowledge about their distribution and abundance is fundamental to minimize economic losses and prioritize management activities. Occurrence models are a common tool used to identify suit...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic activities are altering levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3). These changes can alter phytochemistry, and in turn, influence ecosystem processes. We assessed the individual and combined effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on the phytochemical composition of two tree species common to early successional, no...
Article
Full-text available
Simplification of agricultural landscapes is expected to have positive effects on many crop pests and negative effects on their natural enemies, potentially leading to increased pest pressure, decreased crop yield, and increased insecticide use. While many intermediate links in this causal chain have empirical support, there is mixed evidence for u...
Data
Maps depicting the proportion of harvested cropland in soybean and wheat production. (TIF)
Data
Maps depicting the spatial distribution of farmer annual net income. (TIF)
Data
Maps depicting the spatial distribution of residuals from Model 6. (TIF)
Data
Maps depicting the proportion of harvested cropland in corn for grain and silage. (TIF)
Data
Maps depicting the spatial distribution of average farm size. (TIF)
Data
Maps depicting the spatial distribution of annual growing degree days. (TIF)
Data
Maps depicting the proportion of harvested cropland in orchards, vegetable, and cotton production. (TIF)
Data
Maps depicting the spatial distribution of proportion of county in harvested cropland, i.e., landscape simplification. (TIF)
Data
R code and data necessary to reproduce the full analysis. (ZIP)
Article
Full-text available
Ecologists and farmers often have contrasting perceptions about the value of natural habitat in agricultural production landscapes, which so far has been little acknowledged in ecology and conservation. Ecologists and conservationists often appreciate the contribution of natural habitat to biodiversity and potential ecosystem services such as biolo...
Article
Increases in natural or non-crop habitat surrounding agricultural fields have been shown to be correlated with declines in insect crop pests. However, these patterns are highly variable across studies suggesting other important factors, such as abiotic drivers, which are rarely included in landscape models, may also contribute to variability in ins...
Article
The soybean aphid,Aphis glycinesMatsumura, an exotic species in North America that has been detected in 21 U.S. states and Canada, is a major pest for soybean that can reduce maximum photosynthetic capacity and yields. Our existing knowledge is based on relatively few studies that do not span a wide variety of environmental conditions, and often fo...
Article
Agricultural lands have experienced rapid changes during the last decade. In the absence of preventative crop change policies, these changes can affect multiple ecosystem services simultaneously. The objective of this paper is to describe a web-based spatial decision support system (SDSS), which we call the SmartScape™, that helps policymakers to e...
Article
Increased demand and government mandates for bioenergy crops in the United States could require a large allocation of agricultural land to bioenergy feedstock production and substantially alter current landscape patterns. Incorporating bioenergy landscape design into land-use decision making could help maximize benefits and minimize trade-offs amon...
Poster
Full-text available
In this paper we used a large “eco-informatics” dataset (collected by others for surveillance purposes), where abundance data (non-detection included) were collected using a standard protocol over an 11-year period. We selected biologically meaningful variables based on previous eco-physiological studies (i.e., responses to maximum and minimum temp...
Article
Full-text available
During 2007, counties across the Midwestern US with relatively high levels of landscape simplification (i.e., widespread replacement of seminatural habitats with cultivated crops) had relatively high crop-pest abundances which, in turn, were associated with relatively high insecticide application. These results suggested a positive relationship bet...
Article
Increased demand and government mandates for bioenergy crops in the United States could require a large allocation of agricultural land to bioenergy feedstock production and substantially alter current landscape patterns. Incorporating bioenergy landscape design into land-use decision making could help maximize benefi ts and minimize trade-offs amo...
Article
The strength and prevalence of trophic cascades, defined as positive, indirect effects of natural enemies (predatory and parasitic arthropods) on plants, is highly variable in agroecosystems. This variation may in part be due to the spatial or landscape context in which these trophic cascades occur. In 2011 and 2012, we conducted a natural-enemy ex...
Article
Full-text available
Stimulation of forest productivity by elevated concentrations of CO2 is expected to partially offset continued increases in anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, multiple factors can impair the capacity of forests to act as carbon sinks; prominent among these are tropospheric O3 and nutrient limitations. Herbivorous insects also influence carbon an...
Conference Paper
Corn stover will soon be harvested for cellulosic ethanol. To prevent losses of soil organic carbon, winter cover crops may be integrated into continuous corn systems. Cover crops “green up” early in the spring, at a time when few other resources are available to natural enemies (especially in landscapes dominated by annual crops). These cover crop...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Conversion of marginal agricultural lands to perennial crops for bioenergy production in the Midwestern United States has the potential to help sustainably meet energy needs without sacrificing food production. It has become clear that perennial grasslands can contain a greater diversity of pollinator and natural enemy...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Perennial grasslands generally support a higher abundance and diversity of beneficial insects compared to conventional biofuel crops such as corn, at both the local and landscape scales. However, harvesting grasslands for biofuel production might have negative consequences for beneficial insects by serving as ecologica...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) are known to alter tree physiology and growth, but the cascading effects on herbivore communities and herbivore-mediated nutrient cycling are poorly understood.We sampled herbivore frass, herbivore-mediated greenfall, and leaf-litter deposition in temperate forest stands under...
Conference Paper
Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines) are invasive, non-native crop pests. Their range and damage to crops may increase with warmer winters and increased plant stress due to changing precipitation patterns. Soybean aphid feeding causes dramatic effects on soybeans. Plants have been observed to have lower yield, lower photosynthetic rates and stunted grow...
Article
Though an abundance of research has focused on direct interactions between birds and plants, relatively few studies have reported on indirect interactions. Of those reports, all have focused on positive indirect effects of birds on plants through predation of plant natural enemies. We conducted an observational study along the Middle Rio Grande in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods Trophic cascades occur when variation in predator communities cascade down the food chain to influence communities at lower trophic levels. While the existence of trophic cascades has been well documented, the prevalence of trophic cascades is largely dependent on food web structure. Because landscape context has been...
Article
Thermoregulation by modern industrial humans is unique among endothermic animals, in that it is largely accomplished by controlling the temperature of our external environment. The objective of this study was to view the relationship between thermoregulatory energy use and environmental temperature in modern humans from the perspective of comparati...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Natural enemies provide important biocontrol services by suppressing pests that reduce crop yields. Due to the expansion of bioenergy crops, agricultural landscapes in the Midwest will undergo important changes. To understand how these changes will affect ecosystem services in the region, we are studying how intensific...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Ecosystem services in the form of natural pest suppression by predatory arthropods and pollination by bees are critical to agroecosystems. Since bioenergy crops will affect both landscape-level and within-farm changes, how and where we use bioenergy cropping systems can have important consequences for a landscape’s abi...
Article
Full-text available
Biomass crops grown on marginal soils are expected to fuel an emerging bioenergy industry in the United States. Bioenergy crop choice and position in the landscape could have important impacts on a range of ecosystem services, including natural pest-suppression (biocontrol services) provided by predatory arthropods. In this study we use predation r...
Data
Sampling stations. Prototype of the canopy platform and ground cage placed at each of four sampling stations, at each of 32 study sites, twice during the growing season of 2010. Note in panel (A) the (1) bottom platform raised approximately 50 cm off of the ground, (2) location of the corn earworm egg card (on underside of platform), (3) locations...
Data
Comparing biocontrol index to insecticide use. (DOC)