Timothy J Krupnik

Timothy J Krupnik
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research | CGIAR · International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)

PhD

About

189
Publications
81,760
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Introduction
Dr. Timothy Krupnik has 20 years of experience in applied agricultural research for development in Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Caribbean. He is CIMMYT’s Innovation Science for Agroecosystems and Food Systems in Asia and Country Representative f Bangladesh. He leads a multi-disciplinary, multi-cultural science team implementing a portfolio of projects that raise farmers’ productivity, increase resilience, and improve livelihoods through interdisciplinary, mixed-methods and applied research.
Additional affiliations
May 2011 - present
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Position
  • Scientist and Cropping Systems Agronomist

Publications

Publications (189)
Article
Full-text available
Changing dietary preferences and population growth in South Asia have resulted in increasing demand forwheat and maize, along side high and sustained demand for rice. In the highly productive northwesternIndo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, farmers utilize groundwater irrigation to assure that at least two ofthese crops are sequenced on the same fie...
Article
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Intended to test broad hypotheses and arrive at unifying conclusions, meta-analysis is the process of extracting, assembling, and analyzing large quantities of data from multiple publications to increase statistical power and uncover explanatory patterns. This paper describes the ways in which meta-analysis has been applied to support claims and co...
Chapter
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In this chapter, biological control efforts for management of Fall armyworm (FAW) are discussed using two case studies—India and Bangladesh. The principles and protocols could be applicable across the FAW-affected countries in Asia.
Article
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Considerable progress has been made in establishing climate service capabilities over the last few decades, but the gap between the resulting services and national needs remains large. Using climate services for agriculture in Bangladesh as a case study example, we highlight mismatches between local needs on the one hand, and international initiati...
Article
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The demand for nitrogen (N) for crop production increased rapidly from the middle of the twentieth century and is predicted to at least double by 2050 to satisfy the on-going improvements in productivity of major food crops such as wheat, rice and maize that underpin the staple diet of most of the world’s population. The increased demand will need...
Preprint
This study assessed the impact of climate change and management scenarios, on surface and groundwater resources and crop production in Nepal. Irrigation-led intensification is currently being championed as a crucial pillar for achieving food security and poverty in Nepal. But the payoffs and sustainability of this development strategy under future...
Preprint
Insufficient irrigation with existing water resources constitutes a major reason for low agricultural productivity levels in Nepal. Since large irrigation projects are costly and often prove difficult to manage, small and farmer-led irrigation practices are critical for improving agricultural productivity and profitability. However, the potential i...
Article
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Among alternative tillage practices, conservation tillage (CT) is a prominent greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategy advocated in wheat cultivation, largely because of its low energy consumption and minimum soil disturbance during cultural operations. This paper examines the agricultural production and GHG emission trade-off of CT vis-à-vis tradi...
Article
The ways in which farmers implement conservation agricultural (CA) practices – which entail reduced tillage, maintenance of soil cover, and crop rotations – varies considerably in different environments, farming systems, and by the intensity with which farmers administer management practices. Such variability requires an efficient tool to evaluate...
Article
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The occurrence of high temperature and heavy rain events during the monsoon season are a major climate risk affecting aquaculture production in Bangladesh. Despite the advances in the seasonal forecasting, the development of operational tools remains a challenge. This work presents the development of a seasonal forecasting approach to predict the n...
Article
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With economic development agricultural systems in the Global South transform from subsistence farming to higher productivity with market integration and increase in rural income and food security. In Nepal, agriculture continues to provide livelihoods for two-thirds of the predominantly rural population, largely at a subsistence-level. Rice is the...
Article
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A large database of individual farmer field data (n = 4,107) for rice production in the Northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plains of India was used to decompose rice yield gaps and to investigate the scope to reduce nitrogen (N) inputs without compromising yields. Stochastic frontier analysis was used to disentangle efficiency and resource yield gaps, wher...
Article
A large database of individual farmer field data (n = 4,107) for rice production in the Northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plains of India was used to decompose rice yield gaps and to investigate the scope to reduce nitrogen (N) inputs without compromising yields. Stochastic frontier analysis was used to disentangle efficiency and resource yield gaps, wher...
Article
Full-text available
Appreciating and dealing with the plurality of farmers' perceptions and their contextual knowledge and perspectives of the functioning and performance of their agroecosystems-in other words, their 'mental models'-is central for appropriate and sustainable agricultural development. In this respect, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) aim to era...
Chapter
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Wheat blast is caused by the fungus Pyricularia oryzae Triticum pathotype (PoT). Significantly damaging wheat blast epidemics are sporadic and limited to tropical wheat growing areas in South America. Unexpectedly, wheat blast was reported in Bangladesh and Zambia in 2016 and 2020, respectively. The urgent need to deal with a poorly studied disease...
Article
Full-text available
Fertilizer, though one of the most essential inputs for increasing agricultural production, is a leading cause of nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture, contributing significantly to global warming. Therefore, understanding factors affecting farmers’ use of fertilizers is crucial to develop strategies to improve its efficient use and to minimize...
Article
Intensification of groundwater irrigation is central to goals of improving food security and reducing chronic poverty faced by millions of rural households across the eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (EIGP) of Nepal and parts of eastern India. At present, levels of groundwater use and access in the EIGP lag far behind other areas of South Asia despite...
Article
China’s wheat growth from 1981 to 2015 was faster than most countries, characterized by notable linear growth and more than 100 % rise in yield. Understanding the reasons for such fast growth is essential for stakeholders in developing countries to gain insight and be able to establish efficient yield-increasing strategies for the future. Here, usi...
Article
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Large changes have taken place in smallholder farming systems in South Asia’s coastal areas in recent decades, particularly related to cropping intensity, input availability, climate risks, and off-farm activities. However, few studies have investigated the extent to which these changes have impacted farm-level crop productivity, which is a key dri...
Chapter
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With a focus on providing practical and actionable advice for extension services, and following a review of invasive species biology as it pertains to Fall armyworm (FAW), this chapter focuses on the applicability of agroecological methods to manage Fall armyworm in Asia’s diverse farming systems.
Chapter
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The fall armyworm (FAW) has been effectively managed in the Americas for decades using a Good Agricultural Practices–Integrated Pest Management (GAP-IPM) approach. GAP-IPM uses a combination of the control methods described in this manual, including host plant resistance, cultural control, biological control, and pesticides. This chapter will provi...
Chapter
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This chapter describes several methods for the detection of Fall armyworm (FAW) and the use of the Fall armyworm (FAW) incidence data in making treatment decisions (which may sometimes include the decision not to treat). Fall armyworm (FAW) incidence (pest pressure) is one component of the decision-making process. The risk of crop loss is the resul...
Article
With economies heavily dependent on agriculture, South Asia is the world's most poverty-dense region. Nepal—a country of considerable geographic variability ranging from population-dense low-elevation Terai region to the sparsely inhabited, poorly accessible Himalayan hills and mountains—has enormous environmental and socio-economic challenges to a...
Chapter
The Regional Drought Monitoring and Outlook System (RDMOS) is an operational service which produces reliable drought indicators for the south Asia region with a specific focus on Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan. The system incorporates climatic models with suitable Earth observation data and land surface models to produce drought indic...
Article
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Understanding how to improve the accessibility and timely dissemination of weather and market information can help farmers adapt their management to climate change impacts. Our objective is to use Social Network Analysis (SNA) as a tool to identify potential opportunities for improving weather and market advisory dissemination to rural communities...
Article
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CONTEXT The desire for agricultural mechanisation is mainstreaming across the Global South, yet there are limited tools through which to monitor and estimate progress made in pursuit of this. Despite Nepal enacting an agricultural development agenda focused on mechanisation to address issues of productivity, labour scarcity, inclusive economic grow...
Research
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This study has examined the status of the mechanized rice transplanters (MRTP) in Nepal’s Terai. We identified the potential drivers responsible for the slow adoption of MRTPs and suggested solutions to contribute to overcoming constraints in Nepal. Although our dataset is small, it does comprise half the total population of MRTP owners in the enti...
Article
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In Bangladesh, weeds in transplanted rice are largely controlled by labor-intensive and costly manual weeding, resulting in inadequate and untimely weed control. Labor scarcity coupled with intensive rice production has triggered increased use of herbicides. These factors warrant a cost-effective and strategic integrated weed management (IWM) appro...
Article
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Context The COVID-19 pandemic has been affecting health and economies across the world, although the nature of direct and indirect effects on Asian agrifood systems and food security has not yet been well understood. Objectives This paper assesses the initial responses of major farming and food systems to COVID-19 in 25 Asian countries, and consid...
Article
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Climate information services (CIS) are increasingly in demand to assist farmers in managing risks associated with climate variability and extremes experienced in food production. However, there are significant gaps in the availability and accessibility of these services, especially in aquatic food production in developing countries. In response, th...
Article
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This data article provides spatially explicit data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential at various administrative levels for the whole of Bangladesh. The results arising from analysis of this database are presented in research article “Quantifying opportunities for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation using big data from smallh...
Article
Context: The COVID-19 pandemic has been affecting health and economies across the world, although the nature of direct and indirect effects on Asian agrifood systems and food security has not yet been well understood. Objectives: This paper assesses the initial responses of major farming and food systems to COVID-19 in 25 Asian countries, and consi...
Research
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This research is part of a larger effort to develop a framework for sustainable irrigation development in the FtF-ZoI considering biophysical issues as well as socioeconomic, policy, and institutional concerns, complemented by futuristic scenario modeling of irrigation development options. This document, therefore, informs these efforts and provide...
Article
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Conservation agriculture (CA) based production systems may help in achieving more sustainable intensification of cropping systems that use less labour and energy and have higher profit margins, in addition to soil conservation and environmental impact mitigation advantages. But these objectives can only be achieved when the right mechanization opti...
Research
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The agriculture sector in Nepal constitutes almost 30% of the country’s GDP and contributes 21% of employment in the country. Rice is the main crop with an average production of 3.4 metric tonnes (Mt) per hectare while wheat averages 1.6 Mt per hectare. The mechanization of harvesting is one of the main policies pursued by the Government of Nepal f...
Article
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Climate change is and will continue to have significant implications for agricultural systems. While adaptation to climate change should be the priority for smallholder production systems, adoption of cost-effective mitigation options in agriculture not only contributes to food security but also reduces the extent of climate change and future adapt...
Article
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Extreme precipitation events are a serious threat to societal well-being over rainy areas such as Bangladesh. The reliability of studies of extreme events depends on data quality and their spatial and temporal distribution, although these subjects remain knowledge gaps in many countries. This work focuses on the analysis of four satellite-based pre...
Book
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This compendium of eight chapters arose from a traveling seminar with over 40 public and private sector participants including over 20 international participants on ‘Scale-Appropriate Machinery for Cereal Crop Harvesting in South Asia’ held from 25 to 29 March 2019 in Nepal. The chapters cover the situation of agricultural mechanization particularl...
Technical Report
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This informational brief explores the hazards associated with operating combine harvesters and other tracked vehicles in wet and muddy conditions such as those in Bangladesh. Without proper operation, it is quite easy for these vehicles to become “stuck in the mud,” requiring extraction by heavy lorries using winches and chains. This paper finds th...
Article
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Imbalanced application of fertilizers is a major fiscal and environmental problem in South Asia. We review fertilizer policies and extension efforts to promote the balanced application of nutrients in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka and draw 4 important lessons. (1) Fertilizer sector reforms need to be fiscally sustainable and politically f...
Article
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Fine-textured clayey soils dominate Asian rice fields that are kept either fallow or cultivated with non-rice crops after harvest of monsoon rice. Use of seeding machinery compatible with the principles of conservation agriculture on such soils, however, has not been promising. Under these conditions – which predominate the population and poverty d...
Article
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Timely crop planting is a foundation for climate-resilient rice-wheat systems of the Eastern Gangetic Plains-a global food insecurity and poverty hotspot. We hypothesize that the capacity of individual farmers to plant on time varies considerably, shaped by multifaceted enabling factors and constraints that are poorly understood. To address this kn...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fertilizer, though one of the most essential inputs for increasing agricultural production, is a leading cause of nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture, contributing significantly to global warming. Therefore, understanding factors affecting farmers’ use of fertilizers is crucial to develop strategies to improve its efficient use and to minimize...
Article
Full-text available
CONTEXT Sustainable intensification (SI) is envisioned as an effective strategy for developing countries to increase farm productivity while reducing negative environmental and social externalities. The development of regionally appropriate SI options however requires accounting for the knowledge and preferences of key stakeholders. In Bangladesh,...
Article
Two-wheel tractors (2WTs) are widely used by resource-poor farmers to prepare land in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (EIGP). This paper demonstrates that improved tillage blade design can enhance maize crop establishment under strip tillage, which falls under the rubric of conservation agriculture (CA). In order to achieve this aim, it is necessa...
Book
Full-text available
Nepal has abundant water resources, but over 60% of irrigable lands owned by smallholder farmers don’t have irrigation access. Many smallholder farmers and women farmers lack water for agriculture, drinking, sanitation, and other domestic uses. Nepal’s Tarai region is considered an area with huge potential for surface and groundwater-based irrigati...