Timothy P Johnson

Timothy P Johnson
University of Illinois at Chicago | UIC

PhD University of Kentucky

About

345
Publications
106,569
Reads
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12,809
Citations
Introduction
Timothy P Johnson is Professor Emeritus at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Senior Fellow at NORC at the University of Chicago.
Additional affiliations
October 2019 - present
NORC at the University of Chicago
Position
  • Fellow
July 2019 - March 2020
University of Illinois at Chicago
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
May 1996 - July 2019
University of Illinois at Chicago
Position
  • Managing Director
Education
August 1981 - May 1988
University of Kentucky
Field of study
  • Sociology
August 1977 - August 1978
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Field of study
  • Political Science

Publications

Publications (345)
Article
Full-text available
Stay-at-home-orders, online learning, and work from home policies are some of the responses governments, universities, and other institutions adopted to slow the spread of COVID-19. However, research shows these measures have increased pre-existing gender disparities in the workplace. The working conditions for women during the pandemic worsened du...
Article
Full-text available
Intercultural contact is a well-studied phenomenon and particularly relevant in the context of migration. However, research in this field often treats immigrants as independent entities and ignores their role in social structures. An approach that can account for the complex dynamics and relational interdependencies underlying immigrants’ accultura...
Article
Full-text available
Interkultureller Kontakt ist ein gut untersuchtes Phänomen und im Kontext von Migration von besonderer Relevanz. Die Forschung auf diesem Gebiet behandelt Immigrant*innen jedoch häufig als unabhängige Einheiten und lässt ihre Rolle in sozialen Strukturen außer Acht. Ein Ansatz, der der komplexen Dynamik und den Wechselbeziehungen, die den Akkultura...
Chapter
The original version of the chapter was inadvertently published with an error. The chapter has now been corrected.
Article
Background: Two decades ago, there was almost no research on alcohol use among sexual minority women (SMW, e.g., lesbian, bisexual). Since then, a growing body of scientific literature documents substantial sexual orientation-related disparities in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Research has identified multiple risk factors associated wi...
Article
The twenty-first century has seen an important transition in survey modes used for electoral polls. This transition has not ended yet. It is thus possible to examine differences between modes used in the same election. Different modes are more or less prone to social desirability and use different sampling frames and recruitment strategies that may...
Article
Full-text available
Much of the available evidence regarding COVID-19 effects on the scientific community in the U.S. is anecdotal and non-representative. We report findings from a based survey of university-based biologists, biochemists, and civil and environmental engineers regarding negative and positive COVID-19 impacts, respondent contributions to addressing the...
Article
Background Acquiescent response style (ARS) refers to survey respondents’ tendency to choose response categories agreeing to questions regardless of their content and is hypothesized as a stable respondent trait. While what underlies acquiescence is debatable, the effect of ARS on measurement is clear: bias through artificially increased agreement...
Article
Survey alert letters improve response rates and assure potential respondents that the research is legitimate and of high quality. Pre-notification by mail increases response rates for web surveys because it represents a second mode of communication and contributes to increases in respondent trust and study legitimacy. Due to work-from-home orders i...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Comparative surveys are surveys that study more than one population with the purpose of comparing various characteristics of the populations. The purpose of these types of surveys is to facilitate research of social phenomena across populations, and, frequently, over time. Researchers often refer to comparative surveys that take place in multinatio...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To compare two data sources from Wisconsin—Medicaid claims and Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) surveys—for measuring postpartum care utilization and to better understand the incongruence between the sources.Methods We used linked Medicaid claims and PRAMS surveys of Wisconsin residents who delivered a live birth during...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Large gaps exist in research on alcohol use and intimate partner aggression (IPA) among sexual minority women (SMW; e.g., lesbian, bisexual). Dyadic research with SMW and their partners can illuminate how couple-level factors operate in conjunction with individual-level factors to shape well-being in this understudied and vulnerable popu...
Article
Background Large gaps exist in research on alcohol use and intimate partner aggression (IPA) among sexual minority women (SMW; eg, lesbian, bisexual). Dyadic research with SMW and their partners can illuminate how couple-level factors operate in conjunction with individual-level factors to shape well-being in this understudied and vulnerable popula...
Article
Background: Hemorrhoids are common and affect mainly the young and middle-aged populations. Current guidelines recommend treating grade I and II hemorrhoids with office-based procedures. These therapies usually require multiple applications. Hemorrhoid energy therapy treats the hemorrhoids at one treatment session. Objective: It was to evaluate...
Article
Full-text available
Accessible summary What is known on the subject? • Established research from the United States and other Western countries has found that lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) populations are at an elevated risk for suicide. • Suicidality among LGBT individuals is understudied in Thailand and other Asian countries, warranting additional r...
Chapter
This chapter investigates a set of hypotheses linking dimensions of social status, power, diversity and culture to survey item nonresponse. Cross-national data drawn from 35 countries and 48,720 respondents who participated in the 2016 International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) are examined, along with a series of relevant country-level indicator...
Chapter
Awareness that culture may influence survey response behavior has a long history. Early recognition that social surveys may be influenced by cultural processes dates back to the late 1940s when cross-national survey research studies were first fielded. During the ensuing decades, the rapid growth and development of social survey methodologies, coup...
Chapter
This chapter investigates a set of hypotheses linking dimensions of social status, power, diversity and culture to survey item nonresponse. Cross-national data drawn from 35 countries and 48,720 respondents who participated in the 2016 International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) are examined, along with a series of relevant country-level indicator...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To compare patterns of routine postpartum health care utilization for women in Wisconsin with continuous Medicaid eligibility versus pregnancy-only MedicaidMethods This analysis used Medicaid records and linked infant birth certificates for Medicaid paid births in Wisconsin during 2011–2015 (n = 105,718). We determined if women had contin...
Article
Full-text available
Survey alert letters improve response rates and assure potential respondents that the research is legitimate and high quality. Pre-notification by mail increases response rates for web surveys because of the multi-mode use and increases in respondent trust. Due to the work-from-home orders in response to COVID-19, postal alert letters are unlikely...
Article
Purpose: Surveys are an important research modality in ophthalmology, but their quality has not been rigorously assessed. This study evaluated the quality of published ophthalmic surveys. Methods: Three survey methodologists, three senior ophthalmologists, and two research assistants developed a survey evaluation instrument focused on survey develo...
Article
Full-text available
Physician surveys are now commonly conducted online, although there is little information currently available regarding the practice of online survey research with health care professionals. We addressed this concern by conducting an overview and assessment of the methodologies disclosed in a sample of 200 published papers that report findings from...
Article
Objective: We designed a survey study to assess the presence and severity of climacteric symptoms, in addition to better understand patients' knowledge and understanding of hormone therapy (HT). Methods: We administered a 23-question survey during a patient's clinic visit or over the phone. Study enrollment spanned from March, 2019 to May, 2019....
Article
Figure A17.A.1: Manipulation of Question Characteristics (Example Questions Shown) Figure A17.A.2: Response Latency Validity Options Provided to Interviewers after Each Question where Response Latencies were Measured Figure A17.A.3: Interviewer Behavior Codes Used to Identify Question Latency Problems Appendix 17.B: Measurement of Response and Ques...
Article
Background: Community-level health data are needed to identify and prioritize the most pressing health issues at the local level. Objectives: To conduct a community-driven probability health survey of disadvantaged Chicago communities in 2015-2016. Methods: A safety-net hospital completed questionnaire development and dissemination in close pa...
Article
Objective: Individuals in transitional housing programs often have a goal of reaching stable employment, but the unique needs and barriers for achieving this warrants further study. Methods: A structured interview guide was administered orally and descriptive data analysis was done for this exploratory mixed-methods study. Results: Commonly re...
Chapter
Surveys administered by interviewers, either by telephone or face‐to‐face, offer a number of advantages relative to surveys employing other modes of data collection. This chapter focuses on the effect of interviewers' race or ethnicity – one usually observable characteristic that may influence respondents' decisions about whether or not to particip...
Chapter
This chapter first describes what repeated cross‐sectional surveys are and their uses. It then briefly reviews how changes in both questionnaire design best practices and language norms impact question wording over time. Next, the chapter summarizes the results of discussions about this topic with more than 20 experts in the field of survey methods...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Increasing opioid use among young people contributes to multiple harms including overdose, and HIV and hepatitis C virus infections. OBJECTIVE We conducted a pilot study to address challenges in recruiting young suburban residents for research on opioid use and risk behavior. METHODS We used a multi-pronged advertising strategy to recr...
Article
Acquiescence is often defined as the systematic selection of agreeable (“strongly agree”) or affirmative (“yes”) responses to survey items, regardless of item content or directionality. This definition implies that acquiescence is immune to item characteristics; however, the influence of item characteristics on acquiescence remains largely unexplor...
Article
Background: Through its influence on social interactions, simpatía may have a wide-ranging influence on Latinx health. Simpatía-which does not have a direct English translation-refers to being perceived as likeable, pleasant, and easygoing. Research to investigate the influence simpatía on Latinx health is limited, likely due to a lack of options...
Book
This book examines the most recent advances in methodology and operations as well as the technical developments in international survey research. With contributions from a panel of international experts, the text includes information on the use of Big Data in concert with survey data, collecting biomarkers, the human subject regulatory environment,...
Article
The pace at which interviewers read survey questions may vary considerably across interviewers (e.g., Cannell, Miller, & Oksenberg, 1981) and as a function of interviewer experience (Olson and Petchev, 2007). The pace at which interviews are conducted can influence respondent perceptions of the importance of interaction (Fowler, 1966). Interviewer...
Article
Full-text available
Aims Little is known about the potential health impact of police encounters despite a ubiquitous police presence in many disadvantaged urban environments. In this paper, we assess whether persistent or aggressive interactions with the police are associated with poor mental health outcomes in a sample of primarily low-income communities of colour in...
Article
Personalismo may have a broad influence on the well-being of U.S. Latinos by shaping social networks and, in turn, access to information and resources. However, research on personalismo is currently constrained by the lack of a psychometrically sound measure of this cultural construct. This research used a mixed-methods approach to develop a person...
Article
We conducted qualitative semi-structured telephone interviews with the directors of the 10 National Institutes of Health Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (NIH/CPHHD) to identify factors that were associated with the sustainability of 19 interventions developed to address cancer disparities and 17 interventions developed to addre...
Article
This study examines the effects of legislatively mandated changes in terminology for National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) questions on proxy and self-reports of an important condition. Specifically, we examine changes from the use of the term "mental retardation" to "intellectual disability" that were mandated by what is now known as "Rosa's Law...
Chapter
Behavior coding is a method by which the overt verbal and/or nonverbal behaviors of respondents and interviewers are systematically and unobtrusively observed, coded, and analyzed. The key advantage of behavior coding is the fact that it is a relatively objective and unobtrusive methodology, one that is able to demonstrate how respondents, intervie...
Chapter
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book provides insights and examples of the effective use of geographic information system (GIS) technology as part of household sample designs in developing nations. It presents an overview of questionnaire design and testing within the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is the sixth report in a series begun in 1984 that conducts world-wide assessments of national laws and regulations that restrict the right to conduct and report findings from public opinion surveys. These reports have been conducted under the joint auspices of ESOMAR and WAPOR (the World Association for Public Opinion Research).
Article
Research indicates that Latino survey respondents are more likely to acquiesce than non-Latino European Americans (EAs), thereby decreasing the potential for measurement invariance across cultural groups. To better understand what drives this culturally patterned response style, we examined the influence of respondent and interviewer characteristic...
Conference Paper
Introduction Adverse effects on individual well-being as a result of unemployment are well-documented. Individuals in transitional housing programs often have a goal of reaching stable employment, but the unique needs and barriers for achieving re-employment among this diverse population (includes individuals that may be homeless, formerly incarcer...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction This study examined the relationships between experiences of childhood and adulthood victimization and current smoking among heterosexual and sexual minority women (SMW). The main hypothesis was that victimization experiences would predict current smoking status. Further, we hypothesized that the effect of childhood victimization on se...
Chapter
The increasing availability of organic Big Data has prompted questions regarding its usefulness as an auxiliary data source that can enhance the value of design-based survey data, or possibly serve as a replacement for it. Big Data’s potential value as a substitute for survey data is largely driven by recognition of the potential cost savings assoc...
Article
This paper examines how human and social capital affect the production of medical innovation outputs along the translational research continuum. Despite efforts like the NIH CTSA program to institutionalize translational research, significant gaps exist between the different stages of the translational process due in large part to the compartmental...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to validate the Korean American Parental Depression Literacy Scale (Parental D-Lit Scale), which was modified from Griffith's Depression Literacy Scale based on expert reviews, individual and focus group interviews, and a cross-sectional, self-administered survey. Survey participants included Korean American mothers...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the use of biological measures for assessing illicit drugs, such as cocaine, marijuana, opiates, amphetamines, as well as for assessing legal drugs with high potential for abuse in “field” studies. Field studies are defined as those that are done in real-life settings. An overview of the major biological tests is provided. S...
Chapter
Research on substance abuse has a long history in the United States. This chapter seeks to examine the development of the field, beginning with the latter part of the nineteenth century to present. While establishing an accurate historical timeline for the field’s development during this period is somewhat difficult, there are some clear chronologi...
Chapter
Population-based estimates of substance use patterns have been regularly reported for several decades. Concerns with the quality of the survey methodologies employed to produce these estimates, however, date back almost as far. These concerns have led to a considerable body of research specifically focused on understanding the nature and consequenc...
Article
Background: National trends show dramatic increases in the incidence of HPV-related head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) among black and white males. Using cases identified through the National Cancer Data Base, we assessed factors associated with HPV 16- or 16/18 positive HNSCCs among non-Hispanic black and white males diagnosed in the...
Poster
We employ individual- and aggregate-level data from 19 years of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to investigate the effects of a legislatively mandated change in the use of medical terminology on self-reports of an important mental health measure. This case focuses specifically on a change from use of the term “mental retardation” to “in...
Article
We evaluated how regulatory support services provided by University of Illinois at Chicago’s Center for Clinical and Translational Science may reduce Institutional Review Board (IRB) turnaround times. IRB applications were categorized by receipt of any regulatory support and amount of support received. Turnaround time included total turnaround time...
Presentation
In this paper, we employ publicly available data resources to examine the effects of a change in the survey question terminology used to measure the prevalence of intellectual disabilities, previously referred to as mental retardation, in the United States over a period of 20 years. The change in question wording was implemented in the National Hea...
Article
Objectives: Our two study objectives were: (1) to understand the relationship between the perception of a previous negative health-care experience and race/ethnicity, and how socio-demographic, access-to-health-care, and self-reported health variables modified this relationship; and (2) to assess how many behaviors participants reported changing as...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual minority identity (bisexual, lesbian) is a known risk factor for depression in women. This study examined a facet of minority stress prevalent among women-sexual identity mobility-as an identity-related contributor to higher levels of depressive symptoms. We used three waves of data from the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study...
Article
Background: Although sexual minority women (SMW) are at increased risk of hazardous drinking (HD), efforts to validate HD measures have yet to focus on this population. Objectives: Validation of a 13-item Hazardous Drinking Index (HDI) in a large sample of SMW. Methods: Data were from 700 adult SMW (age 18-82) enrolled in the Chicago Health an...
Article
Full-text available
Cultural differences in the relations between perceived stress and mental and physical health, and the role of social support in buffering these relations, are examined in a survey of multiple U.S. cultural/ethnic groups. Findings from a health survey of N = 603 adults comprising approximately equal numbers of non-Hispanic Whites, Mexican Americans...
Article
Full-text available
Aims and objectives: This study draws on a life course perspective to evaluate in a sample of sexual minority women: (1) the relationship between age at reaching sexual identity milestones and risk of suicidal ideation, (2) developmental stages or stages of sexual identity development that represent greatest risk and (3) the relationship between a...
Article
Full-text available
Respondents, interviewers, and questions are all sources of potential error in responses to survey questions. Using behavior coding to measure respondent problems and interviewer errors, we assess whether question characteristics influences these behaviors. We also assess whether interviewer errors may help to explain the impact of question charact...