Timothy C. Hart

Timothy C. Hart
University of Tampa · Criminology and Criminal Justice

PhD

About

85
Publications
36,999
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1,781
Citations

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
The current study analyzes a sample of academic articles examining fear of crime and that were published in peer-reviewed journals during the past 25 years (n = 547). Using a systematic quantitative literature review method, results show that the fear of crime scholarship and citations to it increased significantly during this time, although most s...
Article
Full-text available
Alternatives to population-based crime rates were first introduced in 1965. Activity-based crime rates derive numerator data from activity-specific crime events, then match these to time spent in the same activities. Activity-based rates can produce a vastly different picture of risk, not captured by population-based rates. Given that numerator and...
Article
Full-text available
The current pilot study explores whether mobile technology can be leveraged in survey research to gather meaningful context-dependent data on fear of crime and risk perception formation. A series of Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) were administered to students enrolled at an Australian University (N = 20), using a smartphone application. An...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of user-defined parameters settings (e.g. interpolation method, grid cell size, and bandwidth) on the predictive accuracy of crime hotspot maps produced from kernel density estimation (KDE). Design/methodology/approach – The influence of variations in parameter settings on prospective K...
Article
Full-text available
Existing scholarship suggests that crime concentrates in close proximity to public bus stop locations. However, the importance of particular combinations of crime generators and attractors in the proximate environment around public bus stops has not been empirically documented. Drawing on previous environmental criminology research, the current stu...
Article
Full-text available
Street robbery incident location data recorded over a 3-year period were aggregated into a sample of crime panels (N = 78) and used to construct a series of prospective hot spot maps, based on kernel density estimation. Panels of crime data were analyzed to determine whether the predictive accuracy of prospective hot spot mapping varied by victims’...
Article
Full-text available
As the world continues to struggle with the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been much speculation on the impact of the virus on crime rates, especially violent crime and domestic violence. Disruptions in the patterns of daily, routine activities of life caused by lockdowns have been linked to changes in opportunities for criminal events...
Chapter
Linking crime and place has been the objective of crime mapping since the early nineteenth century. Contemporary scholars have since investigated spatio-temporal crime patterns to explain why crime concentrates in certain places during certain times. Collectively, this body of research has identified various environmental and situational factors th...
Preprint
This chapter introduces Conjunctive Analysis of Case Configurations (CACC) for the study of crime and place. After introducing CACC as an alternative approach to variable-oriented thinking, we present its conceptual underpinnings and limitations. We then provide a step-by-step tutorial on how to conduct a CACC, accompanied by an example using publi...
Article
Full-text available
Data from the 2017 National Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, consisting of 14,765 students, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years, were used to investigate patterns of cyberbullying victimization, with particular focus on understanding the interplay between traditional bullying victimization and other relevant predictors of cyberbullying. Thro...
Chapter
This Encyclopedia of Research Methods in Criminology and Criminal Justice offers a comprehensive survey of research methodologies and statistical techniques that are popular in criminology and criminal justice systems across the globe. With contributions from leading scholars and practitioners in the field, it offers a clear insight into the techni...
Article
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Using data collected from observations made of 279 properties located in two homogeneous Brisbane neighbourhoods, the current study examines guardianship intensity among Australian suburban residents. Comparisons between findings from similar studies conducted in The Hague (the Netherlands) and two U.S. cities suggest that some guardianship behavio...
Article
Studies of crime hotspot forecasts use various metrics to describe different characteristics of prediction patterns. However, few investigations consider how the stability of crime hotspot, estimated at relatively short temporal intervals, can impact hotspot policing efforts. In response, using address-level incident location data that were collect...
Book
Interest in the spatial distribution of crime and criminal opportunities has experienced a virtual explosion over the past several years. In Space, Time, and Crime, the authors provide an overview of the various theoretical explanations, crime control policies, and practical investigative tools used to identify high crime places, spaces, and times.
Code
This R package contains a set of functions to conduct a Conjunctive Analysis of Case Configurations (CACC; Miethe, Hart & Regoeczi, 2008). “cacc” is the first and foremost function. This function collects a data frame to execute a CACC. As a result, it returns another data frame that contains only the dominant profiles observed in the data, the n...
Article
Data collected from a sample of Spanish non-university students (N = 4174) were used to identify unique situational profiles of self-identified repeated online harassment victims and offenders, through a Conjunctive Analysis of Case Configurations (CACC). Repeat victim and offender profiles were constructed using individual-level factors and variab...
Chapter
As part of a contemporary look at the intersection of geography and crime, the current chapter offers a new conceptual definition of predictive policing, an overview of some of the most commonly used methods to identify crime “hot spots” retrospectively, prospective hot spot analysis, and predictive policing analytics. Police and researchers have m...
Article
Steps for conducting Conjunctive Analysis of Case Configurations (CACC) are well documented in the literature; however, methods for identifying and quantifying “situational clustering” vary and are often based on subjective interpretation of a CACC truth table. In response, the current article presents two new techniques that (a) enable researchers...
Article
Full-text available
Everyday routine activities affect the convergence in space and time of motivated offenders, suitable targets, and capable guardians. When locations of convergence are studied in this context, they tend to be viewed as part of a much larger pattern of movements through one’s normal activity space. Although our understanding of crime and victimisati...
Article
The current study describes and tests a new momentary model of victimisation worry, based on data collected from a smartphone app. We assess whether a momentary model provides further insight into the situated nature of fear of crime and risk perception. Data were collected from a sample of 72 young adults living in Southeast Queensland, Australia...
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that personal and situational characteristics influence how and when residents provide guardianship over where they live (Reynald in J Res Crime Delinq 47(3): 358–390, 2010). However, there is limited empirical scholarship regarding what motivates residents to act as guardians and control crime in different contexts. The current s...
Article
Prior research has identified gender as a significant predictor of crime fear. Specifically, women are typically more fearful of crime than men, despite being relatively less likely to be victimized. The current study examines different ways men and women may think about crime and victimization within their neighborhoods, using contemporary social-...
Article
El presente artículo constituye la primera guía paso a paso en castellano para llevar a cabo un Análisis Conjunto de Configuraciones de Caso (Miethe, Hart, & Regoeczi, 2008). Este se define como una técnica exploratoria para el análisis multivariado de datos categóricos que supone una alternativa a otros métodos tradicionales. Mediante su desarroll...
Chapter
Since crime and justice data are a key resource for many criminologists in understanding crime and the operations of the criminal justice system, the chapter introduces the reader to the sources of such data in Australia and New Zealand. Data sources covered include police, criminal court and corrective services records, coroner records, victimisat...
Article
Full-text available
Using Reynald’s guardianship in action (GIA) model, direct observations of properties along high- and low-crime street segments, within one low-crime and one high-crime suburb of Brisbane, Australia, were conducted (N = 1,113). Multiple observations of properties were recorded across multiple times of the day and day of the week, in order to determ...
Article
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The current study examines the association between fear of crime and awareness of community programs designed to prevent or reduce crime and social disorder. Data were collected from a community survey of household residents living on the Gold Coast of Australia (N = 713). Results indicate that those reportedly aware of community initiatives, fear...
Article
Drawve, Thomas, and Walker applied routine activity theory (RAT) to examine whether measures of offender motivation, target suitability, and guardianship influence the likelihood of an offender’s arrest in incidents of aggravated assault. The current study uses the method of conjunctive analysis of case configurations (CACC) to explore the robustne...
Article
Macro-level theories of punishment suggest that particular social conditions explain national imprisonment rates over place and time. Important causal factors underlying these theories include a country’s level of development, criminality, socioeconomic inequality, and political volatility. Based on a sample of 166 nations and set-theoretical metho...
Article
Most empirical research within criminology can be classified as either quantitative- or qualitative-based studies. These two approaches vary widely in the analytic methods, assumptions about the proper focus of research endeavour, and the relative emphasis on cases and variables. To date, research in criminology and criminal justice uses one of the...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to develop actionable strategies designed for law enforcement agencies seeking to reduce fear of crime among those living within their jurisdictions. A conjunctive analysis of case configurations is conducted on data collected from residents living in southeast Queensland (Australia) (N = 713) in order to identify conte...
Research
Full-text available
Effective crime control policy occurs when it derives from reasonable assumptions about the nature and distribution of criminal behavior. In the case of Senate Bill 231 (SB-231) that would allow students greater opportunities to carry concealed weapons on college campus, several assumptions about the nature and prevalence of college student victimi...
Article
Over-representation of First Nations peoples throughout criminal justice systems is an ongoing critical public policy issue. Judicial sentencing is a pivotal process, which has complex relationships with legal and extra-legal factors. In this study, we use data of serious offences from Queensland’s lower and higher courts from 2009 to 2010. First,...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The utility of configural behavior settings is explored as an alternative unit of analysis for place-based criminological research. Four research questions are addressed: (1) How do robberies cluster within certain behavior settings? (2) How are conclusions about robbery’s behavior settings influenced by the distance interval used to mea...
Chapter
Full-text available
The concentration of crime in close proximity to bus stop locations has been the focus of increased scholarly attention. From an environmental criminology perspective, public bus stops are often viewed as crime generators because they represent specific areas within communities that are exceptionally busy (Brantingham and Brantingham, 1995). If pub...
Article
Full-text available
Using national data from felony cases processed in state courts (n = 48,006), the current study investigates the nature and magnitude of contextual variability associated with sentencing outcomes. Multivariate models are first estimated to identify the main effects of various offender and offense variables on sentencing decisions. Conjunctive analy...
Article
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This research explores relationships between the spatial distribution of industrial facilities that release lead and lead compounds, community characteristics, and levels of violent and property crime in Hillsborough County, Florida. The spatial distribution of selected Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) facilities was modeled using Getis-Ord Gi* to cl...
Article
Full-text available
Bullying victimization is a growing problem for students, parents, teachers, and school administrators. Despite existing scholarship on various aspects of school bullying, certain facets of this important social issue remain underexplored. Using a pooled sample of 6 th through 12 th graders (N = 16,244), the current study analyzes the situational c...
Article
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Social disorganization theory is a macro-level approach to understanding variation in levels of neighborhood crime and delinquency. Contemporary studies of social disorganization typically rely on administratively defined geographic boundaries (i.e., census blocks, block groups, or tracts) and demographic data aggregated to corresponding areas as p...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of reference data, input address quality, and crime type on completeness and positional accuracy of street geocoded crime events. Design/methodology/approach – Existing data were analyzed using ArcGIS, including crime incident information, street network reference data, and address poi...
Article
Full-text available
Campus crime and college student victimization are important social issues. Despite the existing research in this area, little is known about whether factors that influence police notification among college students are similar to those observed among the general population. Using data from a survey of 160 college students enrolled at the Universit...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores nonfatal violent victimization of Hispanic college students using data from the National Crime Victimization Survey. It compares annual victimization rates characterizing Hispanic students to non-Hispanic students and similarly aged Hispanics not enrolled in college. Results suggest a dramatic decline in student violent victimiz...
Article
Full-text available
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) data (n = 1,431) collected from 1995 through 2005 are used to examine the situational contexts associated with violence against college students. Findings from the conjunctive analysis indicate that violence against college students occurs in a diverse yet concentrated pattern of situational contexts. The...
Book
Interest in the spatial distribution of crime and criminals has experienced a virtual explosion over the past several years. In Space, Time, and Crime, the authors provide an overview of the various theoretical explanations, crime control policies, and practical investigative tools used to identify high crime places, spaces, and times. Throughout t...
Book
A unique look at the problems in measuring crime both historically and internationally Filled with real world examples derived from media reports on crime trends and other sources, this fully updated Second Edition analyzes the specific errors that can occur in the three most common methods used to report crime—official crime data, self report, and...
Technical Report
Full-text available
On average, between FY2005 and FY2010, Nevada received more than $4.2 million in state and local JAG funds. • As a result of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, Nevada received about $23 million in additional JAG stimulus money in FY2009. • Over the past six years, JAG funds to local governments in Nevada increased 20%. • In FY2010, 21 of t...
Article
Full-text available
Residential restrictions for sex offenders have become increasingly popular, despite the lack of empirical data suggesting that offenders’ proximity to schools or daycares contributes to recidivism. Using a matched sample of recidivists and nonrecidivists from Florida (n = 330) for the period from 2004 through 2006, the authors investigated whether...
Article
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A large number of prisoners die each year while under the custody of the state. These deaths include prisoners who are executed under state laws and other deaths in custody from a variety of causes. Nationally, 18,550 individuals died in the custody of a state prison between 2001 and 2006. This state data brief examines deaths in custody in Nevada...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In Nevada, during 2008, about 16,000 motor vehicles were stolen. • Since 1994, the Nevada motor vehicle theft rate has been far above the national average. • The most frequently stolen vehicles in Nevada are older model, popular automobiles such as the 1992 Honda Accord and 1990 Toyota Camry. • About 7% of motor vehicle thefts known to police in Ne...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A total of 149 communication intercepts were installed in Nevada. • In 2008, Nevada's per capita rate of communication intercepts authorized was 5th highest in the country. • Nevada's rate of authorized communication intercepts fluctuated over time, with a sharp increase in 2007, and a four-fold increase between 2006 and 2008. • Eighty-seven percen...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The rape rate in Nevada has been consistently higher than national rates over time.  Most arrests for sex offenses in Nevada in 2007 involve prostitution (77%) and only a small proportion of these arrests involve forcible rape (3%). Nationally, the relative proportion of arrests for rapes (13%) is higher and substantially lower for prostitution (4...
Article
Full-text available
Geocoding is commonly employed to determine the location of addresses for use in spatial analysis, including the establishment of residency restriction zones for sex offenders. Street geocoding has known limitations in terms of positional accuracy, which may adversely affect spatial analytic methods. A case study on sex offenders in Orange County,...
Article
Full-text available
As a means for analyzing categorical data, conjunctive analysis is an emerging analytic approach used in both exploratory and confirmatory research. This technique is applied in the current study to examine two important issues related to the use of firearms as a means of self-defense by crime victims. Using data from the National Crime Victimizati...
Article
Full-text available
Derived from comparative approaches in both qualitative and quantitative research, the current study describes a simple exploratory technique for the multivariate analysis of categorical data. This technique is referred to as the conjunctive analysis of case configurations. After describing the logic and underlying assumptions of this conjunctive m...
Article
Full-text available
The current research explores two important issues related to the study of bystander intervention during nonfatal violent victimization. First, using data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), conjunctive analysis of case configurations is conducted to identify the most dominant situational contexts in which a bystander is present du...
Article
Full-text available
* Abstract Sex offender registries have been established throughout the United States. To date, 16 states have adopted additional residency restriction policies, precluding registered sex offenders from living within a certain distance of places where children gather. This study quantifies the impact of residency restrictions on housing options for...
Article
Full-text available
Survey research is a popular methodology used to gather data on a myriad of phenomena. Self-report victim surveys administered by the Federal government are used to substantially broaden our understanding of the nature and extent of crime. A potential source of nonsampling error, respondent fatigue is thought to manifest in contemporary victim surv...
Article
Full-text available
For more than three decades the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)—and its predecessor the National Crime Survey (NCS)—have been used to calculate estimates of nonfatal crime in the United States. Though the survey has contributed much to our understanding of criminal victimization, some aspects of the survey’s methodology continue to be an...
Article
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This article examines issues in juvenile justice that include public opinion about the causes and the consequences of juvenile crime and violence. Data for the study were collected in 1996 by means of a telephone survey of 492 respondents from Shelby County, Tennessee. The study explores the relationships between attitudes about juvenile crime and...
Article
Full-text available
Burglary involves the unlawful breaking and entering into a home or other building with the intent to steal something within it. Nationally, about 2.2 million burglaries were known to the police in 2007 (UCR, 2007). Over the last two decades, Nevada’s burglary rate is consistently higher than the national average. There are many consequences of bur...