Timothy D Griffiths

Timothy D Griffiths
Newcastle University | NCL · Institute of Neuroscience

About

353
Publications
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Publications

Publications (353)
Article
Sensory loss in olfaction, vision, and hearing is a risk factor for dementia, but the reasons for this are unclear. This review presents the neurobiological evidence linking each sensory modality to specific dementias and explores the potential mechanisms underlying this. Olfactory deficits can be linked to direct neuropathologic changes in the olf...
Article
Full-text available
Speech-in-noise difficulty is commonly reported among hearing-impaired individuals. Recent work has established generic behavioural measures of sound segregation and grouping that are related to speech-in-noise processing but do not require language. In this study, we assessed potential clinical electroen-cephalographic (EEG) measures of central au...
Article
Pitch discrimination is better for complex tones than pure tones, but how pitch discrimination differs between natural and artificial sounds is not fully understood. This study compared pitch discrimination thresholds for flat-spectrum harmonic complex tones with those for natural sounds played by musical instruments of three different timbres (vio...
Article
The hippocampus has a well-established role in spatial and episodic memory but a broader function has been proposed including aspects of perception and relational processing. Neural bases of sound analysis have been described in the pathway to auditory cortex, but wider networks supporting auditory cognition are still being established. We review w...
Preprint
Sensory loss in olfaction, vision and hearing are risk factors for dementia but the reasons for this are unclear. This review presents the neurobiological evidence linking each sensory modality to specific dementias and explores the potential mechanisms underlying this. Olfactory deficits can be linked to direct neuropathological changes in the olf...
Article
Recent mechanistic models argue for a key role of rhythm processing in both speech production and speech perception. Patients with the non-fluent variant (NFV) of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) with apraxia of speech (AOS) represent a specific study population in which this link can be examined. Previously, we observed impaired rhythm processing...
Preprint
Objectives Cochlear implant (CI) users exhibit a large variance in understanding speech in noise (SiN). Past works in CI users found that spectral and temporal resolutions correlate with the SiN ability, but a large portion of variance has been remaining unexplained. Our group’s recent work on normal-hearing listeners showed that the ability of gro...
Preprint
Full-text available
The human brain extracts meaning from the world using an extensive neural system for semantic knowledge. Whether such broadly distributed systems crucially depend on or can compensate for the loss of one of their highly interconnected hubs is controversial. The strongest level of causal evidence for the role of a brain hub is to evaluate its acute...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have found conflicting results between individual measures related to music and fundamental aspects of auditory perception and cognition. The results have been difficult to compare because of different musical measures being used and lack of uniformity in the auditory perceptual and cognitive measures. In this study we used a gener...
Preprint
Full-text available
The hippocampus has a well-established role in spatial and episodic memory but a broader function has been proposed including aspects of perception and relational processing. Neural bases of sound analysis have been described in the pathway to auditory cortex, but wider networks supporting auditory cognition are still being established. We review w...
Article
Full-text available
We recorded neural responses in human participants to three types of pitch-evoking regular stimuli at rates below and above the lower limit of pitch using magnetoencephalography (MEG). These bandpass filtered (1–4 kHz) stimuli were harmonic complex tones (HC), click trains (CT), and regular interval noise (RIN). Trials consisted of noise-regular-no...
Article
Full-text available
Whether human and nonhuman primates process the temporal dimension of sound similarly remains an open question. We examined the brain basis for the processing of acoustic time windows in rhesus macaques using stimuli simulating the spectrotemporal complexity of vocalizations. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake macaques to i...
Preprint
Full-text available
The perception of pitch requires the abstraction of stimulus properties related to the spectrotemporal structure of sound. Previous studies utilizing both animal electrophysiology and human imaging have indicated the presence of a center for pitch representation in the auditory cortex. Recent data from our own group - examining local field potentia...
Article
In this paper, we introduce a new generative model for an active inference account of preparatory and selective attention, in the context of a classic 'cocktail party' paradigm. In this setup, pairs of words are presented simultaneously to the left and right ears and an instructive spatial cue directs attention to the left or right. We use this gen...
Article
Full-text available
Auditory object analysis requires the fundamental perceptual process of detecting boundaries between auditory objects. However, the dynamics underlying the identification of discontinuities at object boundaries are not well understood. Here, we employed a synthetic stimulus composed of frequency modulated ramps known as "acoustic textures", where b...
Preprint
Musical engagement may be associated with better listening skills, such as the perception of and working memory for notes, in addition to the appreciation of musical rules. The nature and extent of this association is controversial. In this study we assessed the relationship between musical engagement and both sound perception and working memory. W...
Preprint
Full-text available
Musical engagement may be associated with better listening skills, such as the perception of and working memory for notes, in addition to the appreciation of musical rules. The nature and extent of this association is controversial. In this study we assessed the relationship between musical engagement and both sound perception and working memory. W...
Article
Full-text available
Figure-ground segregation, the brain’s ability to group related features into stable perceptual entities, is crucial for auditory perception in noisy environments. The neuronal mechanisms for this process are poorly understood in the auditory system. Here, we report figure-ground modulation of multi-unit activity (MUA) in the primary and non-primar...
Article
Full-text available
Misophonia is a common disorder characterized by the experience of strong negative emotions of anger and anxiety in response to certain everyday sounds, such as those generated by other people eating, drinking and breathing. The commonplace nature of these ‘trigger’ sounds makes misophonia a devastating disorder for sufferers and their families. Ho...
Preprint
In this paper, we introduce a new generative model for an active inference account of preparatory and selective attention, in the context of a classic ‘cocktail party’ paradigm. In this setup, two talkers speak simultaneously and an instructive spatial cue directs attention to the left or right talker. We use this generative model to test competing...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding speech in noise (SiN) is a complex task that recruits multiple cortical subsystems. There is a variance in individuals’ ability to understand SiN that cannot be explained by simple hearing profiles, which suggests that central factors may underlie the variance in SiN ability. Here, we elucidated a few cortical functions involved durin...
Article
Full-text available
Aphasia affects at least one third of stroke survivors, and there is increasing awareness that more fundamental deficits in auditory processing might contribute to impaired language performance in such individuals. We performed a comprehensive battery of psychoacoustic tasks assessing the perception of tone pairs and sequences across the domains of...
Article
Full-text available
Information from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is useful for diagnosis and treatment management of human neurological patients. MRI monitoring might also prove useful for non-human animals involved in neuroscience research provided that MRI is available and feasible and that there are no MRI contra-indications precluding scanning. However, MRI m...
Article
Full-text available
Human brain pathways supporting language and declarative memory are thought to have differentiated substantially during evolution. However, cross-species comparisons are missing on site-specific effective connectivity between regions important for cognition. We harnessed functional imaging to visualize the effects of direct electrical brain stimula...
Article
Full-text available
This work examines how sounds are held in auditory working memory (AWM) in humans by examining oscillatory local field potentials (LFPs) in candidate brain regions. Previous fMRI studies by our group demonstrated blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response increases during maintenance in auditory cortex, inferior frontal cortex and the hippoc...
Article
In patients with apraxia of speech (AOS), we observed impaired perceptual timing abilities, which lead us to propose a shared mechanism of impaired timing processing underlying both impaired perceptual processing and motor speech output [1]. Given that white matter damage is often observed in AOS, we here investigate whether white matter changes ar...
Article
Full-text available
In our everyday lives, we are often required to follow a conversation when background noise is present ("speech-in-noise" [SPIN] perception). SPIN perception varies widely-and people who are worse at SPIN perception are also worse at fundamental auditory grouping, as assessed by figure-ground tasks. Here, we examined the cortical processes that lin...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated auditory processing in a young patient who experienced a single embolus causing an infarct in the right middle cerebral artery territory. This led to damage to auditory cortex including planum temporale that spared medial Heschl's gyrus, and included damage to the posterior insula and inferior parietal lobule. She reported chronic d...
Article
Full-text available
Speech-in-noise (SiN) perception is a critical aspect of natural listening, deficits in which are a major contributor to the hearing handicap in cochlear hearing loss. Studies suggest that SiN perception correlates with cognitive skills, particularly phonological working memory: the ability to hold and manipulate phonemes or words in mind. We consi...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemiological studies identify midlife hearing loss as an independent risk factor for dementia, estimated to account for 9% of cases. We evaluate candidate brain bases for this relationship. These bases include a common pathology affecting the ascending auditory pathway and multimodal cortex, depletion of cognitive reserve due to an impoverished...
Article
Full-text available
We employed Mendelian randomization (MR) to evaluate the causal relationship between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (n = ~ 38,000 for LTL and ~ 81,000 for ALS in the European population; n = ~ 23,000 for LTL and ~ 4,100 for ALS in the Asian populat...
Preprint
Full-text available
This work examines how sounds are held in auditory working memory (AWM) in humans by examining oscillatory local field potentials (LFPs) in candidate brain regions. Previous fMRI studies by our group demonstrated blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response increases during maintenance in auditory cortex, inferior frontal cortex and the hippoc...
Article
Full-text available
The human arcuate fasciculus pathway is crucial for language , interconnecting posterior temporal and inferior frontal areas. Whether a monkey homolog exists is controversial and the nature of human-specific specialization unclear. Using monkey, ape and human auditory functional fields and diffusion-weighted MRI, we identified homologous pathways o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cognitive pathways supporting human language and declarative memory are thought to have uniquely evolutionarily differentiated in our species. However, cross-species comparisons are missing on site-specific effective connectivity between regions important for cognition. We harnessed a new approach using functional imaging to visualize the impact of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aphasia affects at least one third of stroke survivors, and there is increasing awareness that more fundamental deficits in auditory processing might contribute to impaired language performance in such individuals. We performed a comprehensive battery of psychoacoustic tasks assessing the perception of tone pairs and sequences across the domains of...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigated auditory processing in a young patient who experienced a single embolus causing an infarct in the right middle cerebral artery territory. This lead to damage to auditory cortex including planum temporale that spared medial Heschl’s gyrus, and included damage to the posterior insula and inferior parietal lobule. She first reported di...
Article
Full-text available
MRI experiments have revealed how throat singers from Tuva produce their characteristic sound.
Article
Full-text available
Using fMRI and multivariate pattern analysis, we determined whether spectral and temporal acoustic features are represented by independent or integrated multivoxel codes in human cortex. Listeners heard band-pass noise varying in frequency (spectral) and amplitude-modulation (AM) rate (temporal) features. In the superior temporal plane, changes in...
Article
Figure-ground segregation, the brain’s ability to group related features into stable perceptual entities, is crucial for auditory perception in noisy environments. The neuronal mechanisms for this process are poorly understood in the auditory system. Here, we report figure-ground modulation of multi-unit activity (MUA) in the primary and non-primar...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: In some patients with apraxia of speech (AOS), we observed impaired perceptual timing abilities, which lead us to propose a shared mechanism of impaired perceptual timing underlying impaired rhythm discrimination (perceptual processing) and AOS (motor speech output). Given that considerable white matter damage is often observed in these...
Article
We tested the popular, unproven theory that tinnitus is caused by resetting of auditory predictions towards a persistent low-intensity sound. Electroencephalographic mismatch negativity responses, which quantify the violation of sensory predictions, to unattended tinnitus-like sounds were greater in response to upward than downward intensity devian...
Poster
Full-text available
Understanding the impact of surgical disconnection on neural responses in the human brain has the potential to advance models of normal neurophysiology and its disruption by pathology. We present data from four patients who underwent surgical disconnection of the anterior temporal lobe as part of the procedure to treat intractable epilepsy. In two...
Preprint
Understanding speech in noise (SiN) is a complex task that recruits multiple cortical subsystems. There is a variance in individuals' ability to understand SiN that cannot be explained by simple hearing profiles, which suggests that central factors may underlie the variance in SiN ability. Characterizing central functions that exhibit individual di...
Poster
Full-text available
Understanding how the brain binds complex information distributed over time is a challenging problem facing the neuroscientific community, requiring computationally and neurobiologically informed approaches to solve. The combinatorial binding problem is particularly salient in language, whereby human syntactic knowledge supports the encoding and de...
Poster
Full-text available
In this study, we show direct electrophysiological evidence of figure-ground segregation in primary and non-primary auditory cortex, with a systematic effect of figure saliency in the anterior, non-primary areas.
Article
Background. Understanding the factors that influence language recovery in aphasia is important for improving prognosis and treatment. Chronic comprehension impairments in Wernicke’s aphasia (WA) are associated with impairments in auditory and phonological processing, compounded by semantic and executive difficulties. This study investigated whether...
Article
This work sought correlates of pitch perception, defined by neural activity above the lower limit of pitch (LLP), in auditory cortical neural ensembles, and examined their topographical distribution. Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded in eight patients undergoing invasive recordings for pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Stimuli consisted of bur...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying the mechanisms through which genetic risk causes dementia is an imperative for new therapeutic development. Here, we apply a multistage, systems biology approach to elucidate the disease mechanisms in frontotemporal dementia. We identify two gene coexpression modules that are preserved in mice harboring mutations in MAPT, GRN and other...
Article
Full-text available
Segregating the key features of the natural world within crowded visual or sound scenes is a critical aspect of everyday perception. The neurobiological bases for auditory figure-ground segregation are poorly understood. We demonstrate that macaques perceive an acoustic figure-ground stimulus with comparable performance to humans using a neural sys...
Article
Full-text available
Non-human primate neuroimaging is a rapidly growing area of research that promises to transform and scale translational and cross-species comparative neuroscience. Unfortunately, the technological and methodological advances of the past two decades have outpaced the accrual of data, which is particularly challenging given the relatively few centers...
Data
TE, echo time; TR, repetition time; PE, phase encoding; RO, read out direction; Reconstructed resolution (RR; mm) and image dimensions refer to the images after they have been reconstructed from the k-space data, the matrix size, and resolution used for the acquisition may differ. For these categories, RO, read out direction; PE, phase encoding dir...
Data
FA, flip angle; TE, echo time; TR, repetition time; BW, bandwidth per pixel; ES, echo spacing; PA, parallel acquisition; PF, partial Fourier (half scan); PE, phase encoding direction; FS, fat suppression; SO, slice orientation; SA, slice acquisition order; Gap, gap between slices; RO, read out direction; Nacq, number of volumes collected; Ndisc, nu...
Data
FA, flip angle; TI, inversion time; TE, echo time; ES, echo spacing; BW, bandwidth per pixel; TR, repetition time; PA, parallel acquisition; PF, partial Fourier (half scan); SO, slice orientation; PE, phase encoding direction; RO, read out direction; SL, slice direction. Reconstructed resolution (RR; mm) and image dimensions (RID; px) refer to the...
Poster
Introduction This work addresses how cues for the perception of auditory objects are represented in the macaque auditory cortex. We focus on how timbral cues are represented in the macaque auditory cortex: specifically the spectral flux dimension of timbre corresponding to the change in spectrum over time. Previous human work suggests differences i...
Article
Full-text available
Predicting the occurrence of future events from prior ones is vital for animal perception and cognition. Although how such sequence learning (a form of relational knowledge) relates to particular operations in language remains controversial, recent evidence shows that sequence learning is disrupted in frontal lobe damage associated with aphasia. Al...