Timothy Dixon

Timothy Dixon
University of Reading · School of the Built Environment

BA Hons (Leeds); PhD (Reading)

About

120
Publications
24,526
Reads
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1,708
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2012 - September 2016
University of Reading
Position
  • Professor in Sustainable Futures in the Built Environment

Publications

Publications (120)
Article
Full-text available
In an attempt to enhance democratic governance, sustainable development goals (SDG), and Local Agenda 21 (LA21), the notion of public participation exercise (PPE) presents a range of possibilities. The PPE is observed as a method of solving the constraints faced by public parks in Malaysia, which in general suffer from two main challenges, namely (...
Article
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Saudi Arabia is a developing country that is experiencing a rapid growth in its population and level of urbanisation. Higher education (HE) in the country has developed rapidly over the last ten years, and it is still moving through numerous major reforms. Largely, the concept of sustainability has not yet been formally adopted in public institutio...
Article
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The potential benefits of green infrastructure (GI) to new neighbourhood developments are the focus of a growing body of research. Such benefits include supporting wellbeing, raising property values, reducing flood risk, and improving biodiversity. There has been less research, however, examining how GI is evaluated by practitioners during large-sc...
Article
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In the context of UK housebuilding this paper explores and critically reviews the initial measurement of social sustainability in the first phase of a new housing project on a large estate regeneration development in South Acton, London (conducted in March–April 2015). The research uses an existing “ex post” social sustainability framework adopted...
Article
Social sustainability is a growing area of debate in the built environment, particularly in relation to housing. Homebuilders in the United Kingdom have responded to organizational and policy drivers by developing ex post assessment frameworks to measure the social sustainability of new housing development. In this paper, I offer a critical perspec...
Article
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The emergence of urban (or city) foresight techniques focuses on the need to create coherent city visions to plan and manage for future long-term change and create opportunities for new investment into the local urban economy. This paper reviews the concepts of ‘co-created’ city visioning and urban foresight, setting this in the context of new and...
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to provide conclusions to the book and set the findings in the wider context of the nature of technology disruption and convergence, the emergence of key megatrends globally, and the construction sector. The chapter therefore discusses three main themes emerging from the book: (i) understanding the future, where we explor...
Chapter
Cities have become a focal point for efforts to transition towards a more sustainable, low-carbon society, with many municipal agencies championing ‘eco city’ initiatives of one kind or another. And yet, national policy initiatives frequently play an important – if sometimes overlooked – role, too. This chapter provides comparative perspectives on...
Article
Retrofitting cities provides major challenges for decision-makers and planners seeking to provide strategic management of urban transitions. Recognising the implications of disruptive innovations for the urban energy sector is key to understanding how transition management can be operationalised. This also requires an integrated urban foresight app...
Chapter
Full-text available
The existing housing stock in the UK will make a significant contribution to national carbon emissions for many decades to come. Existing houses present a significant challenge to systemic upgrades because they are influenced by a disparate set of regulations, incentives, and stakeholders. Unlike the new build industry, there is no single set of st...
Chapter
Deep energy efficient retrofit of hard to treat (HTT) properties is emerging as a major concern in the UK. A number of studies have highlighted the difficulties of effective delivery of this type of retrofit, citing issues of lower than expected performance, known as the ‘performance gap’. The aim of this study is to investigate the different facto...
Chapter
Universities have an important role to play in supporting cities through transitions to sustainability, amongst many other issues facing citizens and decision makers. The London 2062 project invited academics and students of University College London (UCL), a multi-faculty university located in central London, and partners from across London to con...
Chapter
Using Cardiff City Regions as a case study this work investigates the potential for cost effective energy and carbon saving measures at the city region scale, taking into account characteristics and constraints in each locality. Results indicate that compositional downscale using statistical information at the local authority level can provide usef...
Chapter
Research findings from the EPSRC funded Retrofit 2050 project, aim to advance and explore the theoretical and practical understandings that underpin a shift to sustainability of the UK's core city regions in 2050. Utilising a participatory backcasting and scenario building process at national and regional levels, the Retrofit 2050 project has...
Chapter
Forecasts of continued high rates of population growth for Australia's major cities is placing increased pressure on metropolitan planning strategies for more innovative urban infill solutions. To slow sprawl, infill targets of 70% or more designed to accommodate new dwelling development over the next 25 years in the established middle suburbs are...
Chapter
Among the many major challenges to the implementation of large-scale housing retrofit in the UK is combining climate change mitigation through energy efficiency upgrades with climate adaptation. Whilst the specification of increasingly airtight and insulated building envelopes is necessary to reduce carbon emissions from the domestic building secto...
Chapter
Engineering of future UK cities typically involves starting with an urban context shaped over hundreds of years and, whether adding new developments or regenerating existing areas, the essential process is one of retrofitting in this wider city context. In supporting citizens and city systems, civil engineers create artefacts that often function de...
Chapter
Climate change makes many challenges on suburban areas. This chapter focuses on one of the multiple problematics of climate change: the challenge of overheating. Reporting on evidence from the EPSRC-funded SNACC project (EP/G061289/1), the chapter presents results from neighbourhood modelling of potential overheating in six English neighbourhoods u...
Chapter
Commercial property produces about 10% of the UK's greenhouse gas emissions and consumes 7% of UK energy. It is estimated that UK business is overlooking a potential cost-saving of £1.6b through under-investment in energy efficiency, with the UK's commercial retrofit market potential estimated at £9.7b (or US$16b). Using the multi-level perspective...
Chapter
Full-text available
The transition of the built environment from energy consuming and unsustainable towards energy producing and sustainable is a complex, long-term challenge. One might assume that this transition will happen just because it is (increasingly) possible, affordable, desirable and just, but the speed of changes and the likely outcomes of the transition a...
Chapter
Australia needs to increase the adaptation of the existing commercial property stock to reduce building related greenhouse gas emissions. Some of these emission reductions could be achieved by retrofitting green roofs. Given that Germany had over 10 million square metres of green roofs by 1996, have we been missing an opportunity in Australia? Gree...
Chapter
This book is intended to make a significant contribution to our understanding of best practice in sustainable adaptations to existing commercial buildings in respect of green roof retrofit by offering new knowledge-based theoretical and practical insights, and models grounded in results of empirical research conducted within eight collaborative con...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the preceding chapters and the reasons why stakeholders might retrofit a green roof. Benefits include thermal performance, stormwater attenuation, species conversation, promotion of biodiversity, urban food production and provision of spaces for social engagement and interaction. Often the primary reason for green roof retrofit...
Article
Full-text available
Improving the environmental performance of non-domestic buildings is a complex and ‘wicked’ problem due to conflicting interests and incentives. This is particularly challenging in tenanted spaces, where landlord and tenant interactions are regulated through leases that traditionally ignore environmental considerations. ‘Green leasing’ is conceptua...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Improving the environmental performance of the built environment is a ‘super wicked’ problem, lacking a simplistic or straightforward response. This is particularly challenging where space is rented, in part because the relationships between the various owners, users and managers of the space is regulated – at least in a formal sense - through the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Improving the environmental performance of the built environment is a ‘super wicked’ problem, lacking a simplistic or straightforward response. This is particularly challenging where space is rented, in part because the relationships between the various owners, users and managers of the space is regulated – at least in a formal sense - through the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
see http://www.reading.ac.uk/CME/NewsItems/cme-news-SmartandSustainableUsingBigDatatoImprovePeoplesLivesinCities.aspx
Article
Improving the environmental performance of the built environment is a ‘super wicked’ problem, lacking a simplistic or straightforward response. This is particularly challenging where space is rented, in part because the relationships between the various owners, users and managers of the space is regulated – at least in a formal sense – through the...
Article
Cities, which are now inhabited by a majority of the world's population, are not only an important source of global environmental and resource depletion problems, but can also act as important centres of technological innovation and social learning in the continuing quest for a low carbon future. Planning and managing large-scale transitions in cit...
Article
Cities may be responsible for up to 70% of global carbon emissions and 75% of global energy consumption and by 2050 it is estimated that 70% of the world's population could live in cities. The critical challenge for contemporary urbanism, therefore, is to understand how to develop the knowledge, capacity and capability for public agencies, the priv...
Article
Background: Cities play a significant role globally in creating carbon emissions but, as centers of major population, innovation and social practice, they also offer important opportunities to tackle climate change. The new challenges faced by cities in an ‘age of austerity’ and decentralist agendas present substantial challenges for coordinated mu...
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Article
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The idea of retrofitting or re-engineering the existing urban environments has gained increasing prominence within research and policy agendas. City-level action requires a change in thinking and a 'scaling up' of mitigation and adaptation responses to climate change along with the allied threats of environmental degradation. An overemphasis at thi...
Article
Full-text available
Cities are responsible for up to 70% of global carbon emissions and 75% of global energy consumption. By 2050 it is estimated that 70% of the world's population will live in cities. The critical challenge for contemporary urbanism, therefore, is to understand how to develop the knowledge, capacity and capability for public agencies, the private sec...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses key contextual differences and similarities in a comparative study on brownfield regeneration in England and Japan. Over the last decade, the regeneration of large-scale ‘flagship’ projects has been a primary focus in England, and previous research has discussed policy issues and key barriers at these sites. However, further re...
Article
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Reducing energy use in tenanted commercial property requires a greater understanding of 'buildings as communities'. Tenanted commercial properties represent: (1) the divergent communities that share specific buildings; and (2) the organizational communities represented by multi-site landlord and tenant companies. In any particular tenanted space th...
Chapter
Background and ContextBuildings and Climate Change: A Global ChallengeSize of the Market for Sustainable PropertySustainable Property Drivers and BarriersThe Investment Thesis for Sustainable PropertySustainable Property Investment OpportunitiesFuture Trends and Risk: A Perfect Storm?Notes
Chapter
This chapter explores the current shape and form of the UK property industry and new approaches to urban regeneration in an era of change, focusing on both commercial and residential development. It examines key players and patterns of land and property ownership and the causes and implications of the credit crunch. It assesses a variety of develop...
Article
Hardcore, or long-term derelict and vacant brownfield sites which are often contaminated, form a significant proportion of brownfield land in many cities, not only in the UK but also in other countries. The recent economic recession has placed the economic viability of such sites in jeopardy. This paper compares the approaches for bringing back har...
Chapter
IntroductionThe surveying professionRICS sustainability policy principlesCurrent issues in surveying practicePossible future developmentsA case from practiceConclusions and recommendationsReferences
Chapter
Urban regeneration is a key focus for public policy throughout Europe. This book examines social sustainability and analyses its meaning and significance – an area of research which has, until now, been comparatively neglected. The authors offer a comprehensive European perspective to identify best practice in sustainable urban regeneration in five...
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IntroductionUrban development and declinePolicy contextThe regeneration of South Rotterdam and partnership arrangementsSocial sustainabilityConclusions
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IntroductionUrban development and declineThe policy contextUrban regeneration and partnership arrangementsSocial sustainabilityConclusions
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IntroductionImpact assessment and social sustainability assessmentA brief overview of sustainability indicators and social sustainability toolsTraditional social indicators versus emerging social sustainability indicatorsConclusions
Article
The first part of this review examines what is meant by ‘urban land and property’ (ULP) and looks at the background of ULP in the light of trends in UK urban areas over the past 50 years.Key conceptual approaches to the ULP ‘ownership issue’ are identified, together with the constraints to empirical analysis, which include a lack of data and patchy...
Article
‘Sustainable’ or ‘green’ commercial buildings are frequently seen as a growth sector in the property investment market. This research examines the emergence of sustainable commercial buildings in both the UK and overseas. The empirical part of the paper is based on a telephone survey of 50 UK corporate (private sector) occupiers taking leased and o...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – This study seeks to provide a review of the background and context to the engagement of RICS members with the sustainability agenda, and to examine the extent to which the surveying profession uses relevant information, tools and techniques to achieve the key objectives of sustainable development (or sustainability). Design/methodology/a...
Chapter
IntroductionThe nature and challenge of brownfield developmentThe role of the UK property development industry in brownfield regenerationSurvey and interview findingsLearning from practice: Thames Gateway and Greater ManchesterTowards best practice?A checklist for developersConclusions Acknowledgements5A.1 Appendix 1 National Developer Interviewees...
Chapter
Background Aims and objectivesStructure of the bookNotes
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IntroductionEvidence of Impacts of Climate Change on Contaminated Land SystemsModelling potential impacts of climate change and the creation of greenspace on contaminated landClimate change mitigation and adaptationTechnical adaptation and risk management strategiesStakeholder adaptation key issues and findingsConclusions AcknowledgementsReferences
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IntroductionSustainable brownfield regenerationSustainability in actionConstructing Cross-Disciplinary Research: Lessons from the Subr: IM ExperienceConclusions References
Book
Sustainable Brownfield Regeneration presents a comprehensive account of UK policies, processes and practices in brownfield regeneration and takes an integrated and theoretically-grounded approach to highlight best practice. Brownfield regeneration has become a major policy driver in developed countries. It is estimated that there are 64,000 hectare...
Article
Purpose – The paper aims to present the findings of a “situation review” of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD), focusing on energy performance certificates (EPCs) to highlight areas of specific importance for the UK property investment community. The paper is based on research commissioned by the Investment Property Forum (IPF) an...
Article
Private sector commercial property represents some 400 bn, or 34% of total UK business assets and is a vital fabric for housing commercial enterprise. Yet social and economic forces for change, linked with new technology, are making owners and occupiers question the very nature and purpose of property and real estate. Printing, steam power; canals...
Chapter
IntroductionThe socio-technical frameworkNew types of real estateImplications of ICT transformation for existing real estatePolicy issuesFuture visionsIs there still a future for real estate in the new economyNotes
Chapter
Half TitleTitleCopyrightContentsThe AuthorsForeword by Paul McNamara, Prudential PropertyInvestment ManagersPrefaceTable of Responsibilities
Chapter
IntroductionUnderstanding corporate changeICT and the design of organisationsGeneric business processesProcurementOperational managementMarketingCustomer relationship managementAccountingRecruitmentStock managementFinancial managementMapping processes to propertySummaryNotes
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IntroductionThe paradox of location in the new economyPhysical form and virtual realityTransactions in spacePersonal spacePrivate spaceSummaryNotes
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IntroductionSalesProcessingManufacturingDistributionLeisure and livingSummaryNotes
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IntroductionWhat is the new economyThe evidence for a new economyThe role of real estate in the new economySummaryNotes
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IntroductionThe changing context of real estate investmentThe owner's managerThe occupier's managerAppraisersBrokersSummaryNotes
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IntroductionTechnology diffusionImplications of ICT diffusion for consumers, businesses and governmentInternet-driven business activities: eBusiness, eCommerce and eWorkSome implications of ICT adoption for real estateSummaryNotes
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IntroductionUnderstanding the role of technological change in societyTowards an information society and the new economyThe role of knowledge and innovation in policyInformation society policy development in the UKMeasuring the information societyImplications of the development of an information societySummaryNotes
Article
Full-text available
The findings of the Barker review, which examined the reasons for the undersupply of UK housing, have important implications for the devolved constituents of the UK, including Scotland. This paper traces the emergence of the brownfield regeneration policy agenda across the UK and examines how the Barker review connects with this brownfield policy f...
Article
In recent years sustainability has gained increased recognition as a new development paradigm for environmental, economic and societal systems of several countries worldwide. As a result, professional bodies have increasingly realised that sustainable development (SD) is not only a key issue for their work but also has implications for the wider re...
Article
For some sustainability is a buzzword while for others it is the future to a better world. Either way it’s a tangle of different aims and priorities that is confusing to almost everyone.
Article
Full-text available
The property development industry is a key actor in UK brownfield regeneration projects. UK policy has attempted to interlink `sustainable development' and `sustainable brownfield' policy agendas, which have found an additional focus through the UK government's `Sustainable Communities Plan', part of a growing international emphasis on sustainable...
Article
Purpose – This study aims to provide a review of brownfield policy and the emerging sustainable development agenda in the UK, and to examine the development industry's (both commercial and residential) role and attitudes towards brownfield regeneration and contaminated land. Design/methodology/approach – The paper analyses results from a two-stage...
Article
Purpose – This paper seeks to summarise the main research findings from a detailed, qualitative set of structured interviews and case studies of Real Estate Partnership (REP) schemes in the UK, which involve the construction of built facilities. The research, which was funded by the Foundation for the Built Environment, examines the evolution of RE...
Article
In the UK and elsewhere the use of the term ‘sustainable brownfield regeneration’ has resulted from the interweaving of two key policy themes, comprising ‘sustainable development’ and ‘brownfield regeneration’. This paper provides a critical overview of brownfield policy within the context of the emerging sustainable development agenda in the UK, a...
Article
Based on surveys undertaken with local authorities and valuers who provide the valuations on which purchase prices for local authority houses under the Right to Buy are based, this paper reports on research which aims to establish the reasons for the differences between the initial valuations provided by the local authority valuers and those provid...
Article
Purpose – This paper summarises the main research findings from a detailed, qualitative set of structured interviews and case studies of private finance initiative (PFI) schemes in the UK, which involve the construction of built facilities. The research, which was funded by the Foundation for the Built Environment, examines the emergence of PFI in...
Article
Recent 'best practice’ research and guidance has emphasised the important role that can be played by retail-led urban regeneration projects, particularly in 'under-served markets’ in the UK. This builds on ideas first formulated in the USA by Michael Porter through his close relationship with the Initiative for the C...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – This paper aims to provide a brief re´sume´ of previous research which has analysed the impact of e-commerce on retail real estate in the UK, and to examine the important marketing role of the internet for shopping centre managers, and retail landlords. Design/methodology/approach – Based on the results from a wider study carried out in 2...
Article
Full-text available
The New Economy, founded on Information and Communications Technology (ICT), is a cornerstone of technology-driven frameworks for economic growth, and can not only potentially recombine existing physical spaces to produce new urban forms, but also impact on real estate, in terms of space requirements and speed of turnover. The paper examines some k...