Timothy C Bates

Timothy C Bates
The University of Edinburgh | UoE · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

224
Publications
108,425
Reads
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8,366
Citations
Citations since 2016
61 Research Items
5051 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Introduction
Timothy C Bates currently works at the Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, The University of Edinburgh. Timothy does research in Quantitative Social Research, Differential Psychology and Personality Psychology. Their current project is 'G x SES for IQ'.
Additional affiliations
August 2005 - present
The University of Edinburgh
Position
  • Professor of Individual Differences in Psychology
January 1997 - August 1998
University of Auckland
Position
  • PostDoc Position
August 1996 - August 2005
Macquarie University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (224)
Article
Conservative economic attitudes have been theorized as symptoms of low cognitive ability. Studies suggest the opposite, linking more conservative views weakly to higher, not lower, cognitive ability, but with very large between-study variability. Here, we propose and replicate a new model linking cognitive ability not to liberal or conservative eco...
Article
Full-text available
Reading Disability (RD) is often characterized by difficulties in the phonology of the language. While the molecular mechanisms underlying it are largely undetermined, loci are being revealed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In a previous GWAS for word reading (Price, 2020), we observed that top single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were...
Article
We support Uchiyama et al. in the value of genetics, sample diversification, and context measurement. Against the example of vitamins, we highlight the intransigence of many phenotypes. We caution that while culture can mask genetic differences, the dependence of behaviour on genetics is reinvented and unmasked by novel challenges across generation...
Article
Cognitive ability correlates positively with many financial outcomes but why? One important relationship to understand is the degree to which cognitive ability is associated with greater knowledge of economics, but this has not been tested extensively. Here in two large, pre-registered studies (N = 1356), we tested the relationship between cognitiv...
Article
Moral Foundations Theory (MFT) predicts that moral behaviour reflects at least five foundational traits, each hypothesised to be heritable. Here, we report two independent twin studies (total n = 2020), using multivariate multi-group common pathway models to test the following three predictions from the MFT: (1) The moral foundations will show sign...
Article
Full-text available
Mutualism–the disposition to cooperate in ways that benefit both actor and recipient–has been proposed as a key construct in the evolution of cooperation, with distinct adaptations for 1) partner choice, 2) division, 3) punishment, and 4) helping. However, no psychological validation of this 4-fold psychological structure exists, and no measure of...
Article
Test motivation has been suggested to strongly influence low-stakes intelligence scores, with for instance, a recent meta-analysis of monetary incentive effects suggesting an average 9.6 IQ point impact (d = 0.64). Effects of such magnitude would have important implications for the predictive validity of intelligence tests. We report six studies (N...
Article
Full-text available
Erikson asked what makes some people care for the future of the species and others not, calling this ‘generativity vs. stagnation’. In three studies, we addressed structure of this trait and its heritability. Study 1 ( N = 1570), using structural models of the Loyola Generativity Scale , revealed three correlated factors consisting of (1) Establish...
Preprint
Full-text available
The use of spoken and written language is a capacity that is unique to humans. Individual differences in reading- and language-related skills are influenced by genetic variation, with twin-based heritability estimates of 30-80%, depending on the trait. The relevant genetic architecture is complex, heterogeneous, and multifactorial, and yet to be in...
Article
Full-text available
The use of spoken and written language is a fundamental human capacity. Individual differences in reading- and language-related skills are influenced by genetic variation, with twin-based heritability estimates of 30 to 80% depending on the trait. The genetic architecture is complex, heterogeneous, and multifactorial, but investigations of contribu...
Article
Full-text available
Moral foundations theory posits five moral foundations, however 5-factor models provide poor fit to the data. Here, in five studies, each with large samples (total N = 11,496), we construct and replicate a well-fitting model of the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ). In study 1 (N = 2,271) we tested previously theorised models, confirming none p...
Preprint
Mutualism – the disposition to cooperate in ways that benefit both actor and recipient – has been proposed as a key construct in the evolution of cooperation, with distinct adaptations for 1) partner choice, 2) division, 3) punishment, and 4) helping. However, no psychological measure or validation of this psychological structure exists. To fill th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Reading and writing are crucial for many aspects of modern life but up to 1 in 10 children are affected by dyslexia, which can persist into adulthood. Family studies of dyslexia suggest heritability up to 70%, yet no convincing genetic markers have been found due to limited study power. Here, we present a genome-wide association study representing...
Preprint
While theory predicts fairness motivates support for redistribution, tests have yielded near-zero effects. Here we propose the relevant evolved fairness motive operates within the community sharing relation, experienced as a unity motive to treat “all as one and none as more than one”. Study 1 (N = 403) supported this model, with a moderate (𝛽 = .1...
Preprint
Moral foundations theory posits five moral foundations, however 5-factor models provide poor fit to the data. Here, in five studies, each with large samples (total N = 11,496), we construct and replicate a well-fitting model of the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ). In study 1 (N = 2,271) we tested previously theorised models, confirming none p...
Article
Background: Prior studies have estimated heritability of around 0.25 for the trait of handedness, with studies of structural brain asymmetry giving estimates in a similar or lower range. Little is known about heritability of functional language lateralization. This report describes heritability estimates using functional language laterality and han...
Article
Debate over wealth redistribution plays a prominent role in society, but the causes of differences in support for redistribution remain contested. A recent three-person two-situation model suggests these differences are shaped by evolved motivational systems of self-interest, compassion, and dispositional envy. We conducted a close replication test...
Article
Recounts how our collaboration with Nick Martin was shaped over two decades, leading to the first studies of predictions from the ‘Dual Route Cascaded’ computational model of reading in twins, and extending into the molecular work, first linkage, fine mapping of genes identified in pedigree studies, into now the genomewide association study era and...
Article
Full-text available
Reading and language abilities are critical for educational achievement and success in adulthood. Variation in these traits is highly heritable, but the underlying genetic architecture is largely undiscovered. Genetic studies of reading and language skills traditionally focus on children with developmental disorders; however, much larger unselected...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Prior studies have estimated heritability of around 0.25 for the trait of handedness, with studies of structural brain asymmetry giving estimates in a similar or lower range. Little is known about heritability of functional language lateralization. This report describes heritability estimates using functional language laterality and han...
Article
Full-text available
With climate change and its consequences believed to be among the most vital challenges for humanity and the Earth’s ecosystem, it is important to understand why individuals (do not) adopt pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. Personality traits are well suited for this purpose. Because no recent work has systematically combined the accumulati...
Article
Full-text available
Here we provide an update of the 2013 report on the Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry (NTSR). The major aim of the NTSR is to understand genetic and environmental influences and their interplay in psychological and mental health development in Nigerian children and adolescents. Africans have the highest twin birth rates among all human populations...
Chapter
A unique overview of the human language faculty at all levels of organization. Language is not only one of the most complex cognitive functions that we command, it is also the aspect of the mind that makes us uniquely human. Research suggests that the human brain exhibits a language readiness not found in the brains of other species. This volume br...
Article
Full-text available
Background: It is widely assumed that individual differences in language lateralisation have a strong genetic basis, yet prior studies show low heritability (around 0.25) for the related trait of handedness, and two twin studies of structural brain asymmetry obtained similarly low estimates. This report describes heritability estimates from a twin...
Article
Full-text available
To improve global human capital, an understanding of the interplay of endowment across the full range of socioeconomic status (SES) is needed. Relevant data, however, are absent in the nations with the most abject poverty (Tucker-Drob & Bates, 2016), where the lowest heritability and strong effects of SES are predicted. Here we report the first stu...
Article
Full-text available
Mindset theory predicts that a growth mindset can substantially improve children's resilience to failure and enhance important outcomes such as school grades. We tested these predictions in a series of studies of 9-13-year-old Chinese children (n = 624). Study 1 closely replicated Mueller and Dweck (1998). Growth mindset manipulation was associated...
Article
Background and aims: The non-medical use of over-the-counter or prescribed analgesics (NMUA) is a significant public health problem. Little is known about the genetic and environmental etiology of NMUA and how these risks relate to other classes of substance use and misuse. Our aims were to estimate the heritability NMUA and sources of genetic and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Among the main topics of individual differences research is the associations of personality traits with life outcomes. Relying on recent advances of personality conceptualizations and drawing parallels with genetics, we propose that representing these associations with individual questionnaire items (markers of personality “nuances”) can provide in...
Data
Model fitting results from testing the equality of means, variances and covariances for each variable.
Data
Full Cholesky decomposition standardized parameter estimates with 95% confidence intervals.
Article
Full-text available
Generativity—showing concern to establish and guide future generations—has been argued to be a biological adaptation central to cumulative culture and survival, but also, in turn, to be a cultural adaptation dependent on norms. From the perspective of human agency, concern for the future has played a key role in raising agency for generations that...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine whether phonemic decoding skill (deficits of which characterize dyslexia) shares genetic and/or environmental covariance with scholastic abilities independent of general intelligence. Non-word reading ability, verbal and non-verbal IQ, and standardized academic achievement (Queensland Core Skills Test; QCST) wer...
Article
Full-text available
Structural equation modeling (SEM) is an important research tool, both for path-based model specification (common in the social sciences) and also for matrix-based models (in heavy use in behavior genetics). We developed umx to give more immediate access, relatively concise syntax and helpful defaults for users in these two broad disciplines. umx s...
Article
Full-text available
We recently reported an association of offspring educational attainment with polygenic risk scores (PRS) computed on parent’s non-transmitted alleles for educational attainment using the second GWAS meta-analysis article on educational attainment published by the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium. Here we test the replication of these f...
Method
Full-text available
Part A of Parallel set of RAPM used in Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves cognitive performance; a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial. Proceedings of The Royal Society of London Series B 270, 2147-2150.
Method
Full-text available
Set B of parallel version of RAPM used in Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves cognitive performance; a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial. Proceedings of The Royal Society of London Series B 270, 2147-2150.
Method
Full-text available
Set C of parallel versions of RAPM used in Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves cognitive performance; a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial. Proceedings of The Royal Society of London Series B 270, 2147-2150.
Method
Full-text available
Set D of parallel version of RAPM used in Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves cognitive performance; a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial. Proceedings of The Royal Society of London Series B 270, 2147-2150.
Article
Full-text available
A number of candidate genes for reading and language impairment have been replicated, primarily in samples of children with developmental disability or delay, although these genes are also supported in adolescent population samples. The present study used a systematic approach to test 14 of these candidate genes for association with reading assesse...
Article
A number of studies have reported that higher intelligence is associated with socially liberal attitudes. Less clear, however, is whether this link extends to economic attitudes, although there are indications that higher intelligence is associated with economically conservative attitudes. Here in two large, longitudinal UK cohorts (each N > 7100)...
Article
Full-text available
Research on environmental and genetic pathways to complex traits such as educational attainment (EA) is confounded by uncertainty over whether correlations reflect effects of transmitted parental genes, causal family environments, or some, possibly interactive, mixture of both. Thus, an aggregate of thousands of alleles associated with EA (a polyge...
Preprint
Full-text available
Structural equation modeling (SEM) is an important research tool, both for path-based model specification, common in the social sciences, and also matrix-based models in heavy use in behavior genetics. We developed umx to give more immediate access, concise syntax and helpful defaults for users in these two broad disciplines. umx supports developme...
Preprint
Full-text available
Structural equation modeling (SEM) is an important research tool, both for path-based model specification, common in the social sciences, and also matrix-based models in heavy use in behavior genetics. We developed umx to give more immediate access, concise syntax and helpful defaults for users in these two broad disciplines. umx supports developme...
Article
A substantial amount of empirical research has estimated the association between brain volume and intelligence. The most recent meta-analysis (Pietschnig, Penke, Wicherts, Zeiler, & Voracek, 2015) reported a correlation of .24 between brain volume and intelligence – notably lower than previous meta-analytic estimates. This headline meta-analytic re...
Article
Full-text available
Impairments in reading and in language have negative consequences on life outcomes, but it is not known to what extent genetic effects influence this association. We constructed polygenic scores for difficulties with language and learning to read from genome-wide data in ~6,600 children, adolescents and young adults, and tested their association wi...
Article
Full-text available
Twin studies of in-group favoritism have reported roughly equal influences of genetic and environmental factors. All, however, have solely relied on cross-sectional approaches, leaving open the question of whether genetic and environmental factors have similar roles on stability and change for in-group favoritism across time. While in-group favorit...
Article
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Disentangling the putative impact of cannabis on brain morphology from other comorbid substance use is critical. After controlling for the effects of nicotine, alcohol and multi‐substance use, this study aimed to determine whether frequent cannabis use is associated with significantly smaller subcortical grey matter volumes. DE...
Preprint
Mindset theory predicts that children’s IQ and school grades are positively linked to their belief that basic ability is malleable rather than fixed. We test this prediction in three experimental studies (total n = 624 individually-tested 10-12-year-olds). Two studies included active-control conditions to test effects of fixed-ability beliefs indep...
Article
What allows groups to behave intelligently? One suggestion is that groups exhibit a collective intelligence accounted for by number of women in the group, turn-taking and emotional empathizing, with group-IQ being only weakly-linked to individual IQ (Woolley, Chabris, Pentland, Hashmi, & Malone, 2010). Here we report tests of this model across thre...
Article
Bioecological theory predicts that cognitive ability is more heritable among those raised in higher socioeconomic status (SES) families. However, the mechanism of this effect is unclear, and the effect may not be universal. We tested for gene × SES interaction effects on Full-scale IQ in 2307 adolescent Australian twins (mean age 16.2 years). Mean...
Article
Full-text available
Two themes are emerging regarding the molecular genetic aetiology of intelligence. The first is that intelligence is influenced by many variants and those that are tagged by common single nucleotide polymorphisms account for around 30% of the phenotypic variation. The second, in line with other polygenic traits such as height and schizophrenia, is...
Data
The estimated effect size, standard error and P-values are shown for the most significant 50 SNPs for General ability. SNPs were mapped to genes based on their position in the UCSC hg18 annotation. The order that the cohorts appear in the direction of effect column is ABC, LBC1921, LBC1936, Manchester then Newcastle. A direction of effect of “?” in...
Data
Results using the gene set first analysed by Franić, et al. (2015). S1 shows the results of SNP based analysis, S2 and Table S1 show the results of gene-based analysis. S3 shows the results of the Franić, et al. (2015) gene-set when considering all the genes as the unit of association.
Data
The estimated effect size, standard error and P-values are shown for the most significant 50 SNPs for fluid ability. SNPs were mapped to genes based on their position in the UCSC hg18 annotation. The order that the cohorts appear in the direction of effect column is ABC, LBC1921, LBC1936, Manchester then Newcastle. A direction of effect of “?” indi...
Data
The estimated effect size, standard error and P-values are shown for the most significant 50 SNPs for crystallised ability. SNPs were mapped to genes based on their position in the UCSC hg18 annotation. The order that the cohorts appear in the direction of effect column is ABC, LBC1921, LBC1936, Manchester then Newcastle.
Article
Full-text available
A core hypothesis in developmental theory predicts that genetic influences on intelligence and academic achievement are suppressed under conditions of socioeconomic privation and more fully realized under conditions of socioeconomic advantage: a Gene × Childhood Socioeconomic Status (SES) interaction. Tests of this hypothesis have produced apparent...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract. Maximizing the translation of ability into accomplishment is of considerable interest. A two-factor construct of ‘‘grit’’ as perseverance and consistency of interest has been argued to predict accomplishment over and above personality and IQ (Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly, 2007). Here we test this in linked analyses addressing th...
Article
Alternative analytic methods may help resolve the dimensionality of personality and the content of those dimensions. Here we tested the structure of personality using spectral clustering and conventional factor analysis. Study 1 analysed responses from 20,993 subjects taking the 300-item IPIP NEO personality questionnaire. For factor analysis, a fi...
Article
Full-text available
Gene × environment (G × E) interaction studies test the hypothesis that the strength of genetic influence varies across environmental contexts. Existing latent variable methods for estimating G × E interactions in twin and family data specify parametric (typically linear) functions for the interaction effect. An improper functional form may obscure...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroticism is associated with cardiovascular disease, autonomic reactivity, and depression. Here we address the extent to which neuroticism accounts for the excess heart disease risk associated with depression and test whether cardiac autonomic tone plays a role as mediator. Subjects were derived from a nationally representative sample (n = 1,255:...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has indicated that education influences cognitive development, but it is unclear what, precisely, is being improved. Here, we tested whether education is associated with cognitive test score improvements via domain-general effects on general cognitive ability (g), or via domain-specific effects on particular cognitive skills. We c...
Article
Full-text available
Optimism and pessimism are associated with important outcomes including health and depression. Yet it is unclear if these apparent polar opposites form a single dimension or reflect two distinct systems. The extent to which personality accounts for differences in optimism/pessimism is also controversial. Here, we addressed these questions in a gene...
Article
Full-text available
Greater cognitive ability in childhood is associated with increased longevity, and speedier reaction time (RT) might account for much of this linkage. Greater bodily symmetry is linked to both higher cognitive test scores and faster RTs. It is possible, then, that differences in bodily system integrity indexed by symmetry may underlie the associati...
Article
Full-text available
The new software package OpenMx 2.0 for structural equation and other statistical modeling is introduced and its features are described. OpenMx is evolving in a modular direction and now allows a mix-and-match computational approach that separates model expectations from fit functions and optimizers. Major backend architectural improvements include...
Data
Appendix S1: QQ plots and association plots of the top association signals from analysis based on PC1 and IQ-adjusted PC1. Contribution of each dataset to the strength of the association in the PC1 and IQ-adjusted PC1 meta-analysis, for the top association signals.
Data
Appendix S2: SNP-, gene- and pathway-based meta-analysis results from analysis based on PC1 and IQ-adjusted PC1. Test for independent associations within the top associated regions, after conditioning on the most significant local association signal.
Data
Appendix S3: Analyses based on PC1read and IQ-adjusted PC1read (trait loadings on PC1read, Manhattan plots, QQ plots and top associations)
Data
Appendix S4: Genotype calls and QC protocols; correlation patterns of reading and language measures; statistical analyses, commands and parameters.
Article
Full-text available
Explanatory style models of optimism focus on three aspects of attributions for the causes of positive and negative events: stability, pervasiveness, and internal–external control. These three aspects are predicted to cluster within each valence forming explanatory-style factors and these in turn are predicted to correlate negatively, in line with...