Timothy Ackland

Timothy Ackland
University of Western Australia | UWA · School of Sport Science, Exercise and Health

PhD, FASMF

About

251
Publications
98,461
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8,294
Citations
Citations since 2016
36 Research Items
4206 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
Additional affiliations
January 1988 - December 2013
University of Western Australia

Publications

Publications (251)
Article
Background Longer term outcomes after matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) are lacking, while early postoperative weightbearing (WB) management has traditionally been conservative. Purpose To investigate the longer term clinical and radiological outcomes after an 8-week (vs 12-week) WB protocol after MACI. Study Design Random...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Fat is a metabolic fuel, but excess body fat is ballast mass, and therefore, many elite athletes reduce body fat to dangerously low levels. Uncompressed subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness measured by brightness-mode ultrasound (US) provides an estimate of body fat content. Methods The accuracy for determining tissue borders i...
Article
Background: Physical therapy is considered routine practice following total shoulder arthroplasty. To date, current regimens are based on clinical opinion, with evidence-based recommendations. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of total shoulder arthroplasty physical therapy programmes with a view to inform current...
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Full-text available
Background Preventing and mitigating the risk of reinjury after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) rest on variables including age, surgical restoration of knee stability, adequate physical function, and thorough and complete postoperative rehabilitation, but to what degree these factors influence return to sport is unclear. Purpose...
Article
Background: Limb symmetry after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may be evaluated using maximal strength and hop tests, which are typically reported using Limb Symmetry Indices (LSIs) which may overestimate function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the Back in Action (BIA) test battery to standard hop and muscle streng...
Chapter
Additional resources to support the content in Best Practice Protocols for Physique Assessment in Sport are available at the J.E. Lindsay Carter Kinanthropometry Clinic and Archive (JELCKCA) website jelckca-bodycomp.com, which links you to the YouTube channel http://tinyurl.com/YouTubeChannel-ProfPatria. YouTube videos include introduction of exper...
Chapter
Large-scale surveys of world-class athletes have been conducted at Olympic Games and World Championship events for over 60 years. These projects have provided valuable data for identifying the unique physique characteristics for sports and events. There are many challenges in undertaking these studies, and strong scientific rigour should always und...
Chapter
The ultrasound technique for measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue and embedded fibrous structures employs image capture from any standard brightness mode ultrasound machine followed by an image analysis procedure. The technique avoids compression of the tissues and movement that occurs when using skinfold calipers. The ultrasound method only...
Chapter
Nutrition status is manifest in body size, shape, and composition. Clinic/field techniques for physical assessment of body size and shape (girths, waist:hip circumference ratios, breadths, somatotype) and body composition (skinfolds) as recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry are outlined. Advantages, disadv...
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Background The anatomy of the articularis genus muscle has prompted speculation that it elevates the suprapatellar bursa during extension of the knee joint. However, its architectural parameters indicate that this muscle is not capable of generating enough force to fulfill this function. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anato...
Article
Purpose: To investigate strength and functional symmetry during common tests in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), and its association with post-operative rehabilitation. Methods: At a median 11.0 months post-surgery (range 10-14), 111 ACLR patients were assessed. A rehabilitation grading tool was employed to evalua...
Article
Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been applied as an adjunct to rotator cuff repair to improve tendon-bone healing and potentially reduce the incidence of subsequent tendon retears. Purpose: To investigate whether the midterm clinical and radiographic outcomes of arthroscopic supraspinatus repair are enhanced after repeated postoperativ...
Article
The tensor of the vastus intermedius (TVI) is a newly described component of the extensor apparatus of the knee joint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the appearance of the TVI on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and its association with the adjacent vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles and to compare these findings...
Article
Study Design Systematic review. Background Electromyography (EMG) has previously been used to guide postoperative rehabilitation progression following rotator cuff repair, to prevent deleterious loading of early surgical repair. Objective To review the current literature investigating EMG during rehabilitation exercises in normal shoulders, to iden...
Article
Background: Elite cello playing requires complex and refined motor control. Cellists are prone to right shoulder and thoracolumbar injuries. Research informing injury management of cellists and cello pedagogy is limited. The aims of this study were to quantify the torso, right shoulder, and elbow joint movement used by elite cellists while perform...
Article
Background: Hip abductor tendon tears are a common cause of Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome. Conservative treatments are often ineffective and surgical reconstruction may be recommended. This study investigated the improvement in clinical outcomes and frontal plane two-dimensional biomechanics during a 30-second single leg stance test, in patie...
Article
Purpose: Although the vastus medialis (VM) is closely associated with the vastus intermedius (VI), there is a lack of data regarding their functional relationship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anatomical interaction between the VM and VI with regard to their origins, insertions, innervation and function within the extensor appa...
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Background Published data regarding the structure of the quadriceps tendon are diverse. Dissection of the quadriceps muscle group revealed that beside the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius and vastus medialis a fifth muscle component– named the tensor vastus intermedius consistently fused into quadriceps tendon. It can be hypothe...
Article
Background: Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) has demonstrated encouraging outcomes in treating patients with knee cartilage defects. Postoperatively, the time required to attain full weightbearing (WB) remains conservative. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients would have no significant clinical or radiological diffe...
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Full-text available
Purpose: Resistance exercise is promoted in older adults for its ability to improve muscle mass, strength and, hence, in reducing falls. However, its effects on blood lipids and CVD risk are less well established, particularly in this age group. This study aimed to investigate whether a 1-year resistance exercise program improves lipid profile and...
Article
Background: Knee osteoarthritis is one of the most debilitating diseases associated with aging, and is estimated to affect 9% of men and 18% of women over 65years of age. Knee osteoarthritis affects the condylar surfaces of the joint and if left untreated generally leads to the slow and painful degeneration of the joint and surrounding structures....
Article
Background: Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) is increasingly being performed. Many patients may wish to return to high levels of sporting activity. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of isokinetic shoulder strength with level of participation in sport and recreation after RTSA. Methods: We surveyed 51 patients at a mean of 29...
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Unlabelled: The incidence of rotator cuff tears increases with age, with full-thickness rotator cuff tears present in approximately 25% of individuals in their sixties, and more than 50% of those in their eighties. While surgery is considered an effective treatment, recurrent tears at the insertion site are common, especially with degenerative tea...
Article
The quadriceps femoris is traditionally described as a muscle group composed of the rectus femoris and the three vasti. However, clinical experience and investigations of anatomical specimens are not consistent with the textbook description. We have found a second tensor-like muscle between the vastus lateralis (VL) and the vastus intermedius (VI),...
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Full-text available
Background Precise and accurate field methods for body composition analyses in athletes are needed urgently. Aim Standardisation of a novel ultrasound (US) technique for accurate and reliable measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Methods Three observers captured US images of uncompressed SAT in 12 athletes and applied a semiautomatic ev...
Article
Background: This study investigated if patients with an intact tendon repair or partial-thickness retear early after rotator cuff repair display differences in clinical evaluations and whether early tendon healing can be predicted using these assessments. Methods: We prospectively evaluated 60 patients at 16 weeks after arthroscopic supraspinatu...
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Full-text available
Forearm rotation is a key function in the upper extremity. Following distal radius fracture, residual disability may occur in tasks requiring forearm rotation. The objectives of this study are to define pronation and supination strength profiles tested through the range of forearm rotation in normal individuals, and to evaluate the rotational stren...
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Purpose Following treatment, haematological cancer (HEM) patients exhibit significant physical deconditioning and psychological distress. Exercise has been shown as a clinically effective and safe intervention for cancer patients, with the potential to reverse the deleterious effects following treatment. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of a...
Article
Background: The anterior approach to the hip joint is widely used in pediatric and adult orthopaedic surgery, including hip arthroplasty. Atrophy of the tensor fasciae latae muscle has been observed in some cases, despite the use of this internervous approach. We evaluated the nerve supply to the tensor fasciae latae and its potential risk for inj...
Article
Tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff repair directly correlates with a successful outcome. Biological therapies that elevate local growth-factor concentrations may potentiate healing after surgery. To ascertain whether postoperative and repeated application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to the tendon repair site improves early tendon healing and...
Article
Purpose Pathology of the long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon is commonly treated by tenotomy. High levels of clinical function and patient satisfaction are reported in the short-term. The purpose of this study was to investigate the midterm effects of tenotomy on biceps fatty infiltration and atrophy in active working-age male patients. Methods T...
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Dance training on floors that are not ‘sprung’ are assumed to have direct implications for injury. Standards for dance floor manufacture in Europe and North America quantify floor force reduction by measuring the impact forces of drop masses. In addition, many studies of human mechanical adaptations to varied surfaces, have quantified test surfaces...
Article
Background: Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) is an established technique for the repair of knee chondral defects. While a number of factors may affect the clinical outcome, little is known about the influence of subchondral bone abnormalities at the time of surgery on pain and graft outcomes after MACI. Purpose: To inves...
Article
Context: Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) is an established technique for the repair of knee chondral defects. Despite the reported clinical improvement in knee pain and symptoms, little is known on the recovery of knee strength and its return to an appropriate level compared with the unaffected limb. Objective: To inves...
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Full-text available
Objectives Dance floor mechanical properties have the potential to influence the high frequency of ankle injuries in dancers. However, biomechanical risk factors for injury during human movement on hard, low force reduction floors have not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the ankle joint mechanics of dancers performing drop la...
Article
Introduction: The objective of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical function of the upper arm after arthroscopic long head of biceps (LHB) tenotomy at long-term follow-up. Materials and methods: Twenty-five male subjects ranging from 30 to 63 years old were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 7.0 years after tenotomy. Bilateral isokinetic testi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) is an established technique for the repair of knee chondral defects, although the correlation between clinical and radiological outcomes after surgery is poorly understood. Purpose: To determine the correlation between clinical and radiological outcomes throughout the postoper...
Article
Full-text available
Background The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of cancer patients’ utilising complementary and integrative therapies (CIT) within integrative oncology centres across Western Australia. Methods Across four locations 135 patients accessed CIT services whilst undergoing outpatient medical treatment for cancer. Of the 135 patients...
Article
Both autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and tibial tubercle transfer (TTT) have been used to treat chondral defects in the patellofemoral joint resulting in clinical improvement. Our study investigates the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) graft at 5-year follow-up to...
Article
Full-text available
Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) has become an established technique for the repair of chondral defects in the knee. MACI has traditionally required an open arthrotomy, though now lends itself to an arthroscopic technique, which may decrease the associated co-morbidity of arthrotomy, potentially allowing for faster rehabili...
Article
Purpose Following cancer treatment haematological patients exhibit significant physical deconditioning and psychological distress resulting from the treatment and the disease. Exercise has been shown as a safe and effective method of rehabilitation in cancer patients, with the potential to reverse the deleterious effects following diagnosis. Our ai...
Article
Full-text available
A focus on low body weight and body fat content, combined with regulations in some weight-sensitive sports, are considered risk factors for extreme dieting, eating disorders (EDs) and related health consequences among athletes. At present there are, from a health perspective, no generally accepted optimum values for body weight or percentage of fat...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a Galeazzi fracture on the strength of pronation and supination at a mean of two years after surgical treatment. The strength of pronation and supination was measured in varying rotational positions of the forearm of ten male patients (mean age 38.9 years (21 to 64)) who had undergone plate fixat...
Article
Full-text available
Synopsis: Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has become an established technique for the repair of full-thickness chondral defects in the knee. Matrix-induced ACI (MACI) is the third and current generation of this surgical technique, and, while postoperative rehabilitation following MACI aims to restore normal function in each patient as qu...
Chapter
Body composition, which is an important health and athletic performance variable. Assessing human body composition has formed a central part of medical research for the best part of a century. Laboratory methods are often used for assessing body composition of athletes, but there exists wide variation in their accuracy and precision. This chapter r...
Article
Background: Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) has become an established technique for the repair of full-thickness chondral defects in the knee. However, little is known about what variables most contribute to postoperative clinical and graft outcomes as well as overall patient satisfaction with the surgery.
Article
Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) has become an established technique for the repair of full thickness chondral defects in the knee. Until recently, the implantation of these grafts was only possible via an open mini-arthrotomy. However, while the MACI technique permits an arthroscopic approach and several arthroscopic techn...
Article
Full-text available
Unloading knee braces often are used after tibiofemoral articular cartilage repair. However, the experimental basis for their use in patients with normal tibiofemoral alignment such as those undergoing cartilage repair is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of varus and valgus adjustments to one commercially available u...
Article
Successful performers in weight-sensitive sports are characterised by low body mass (BM) and fat content. This often requires chronic energy restriction and acute weight loss practices. To evaluate current use of body composition (BC) assessment methods and identify problems and solutions with current BC approaches. A 40-item survey was developed,...
Article
BACKGROUND:Patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are employed to assess outcomes after matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI), although the PRO most responsive to change after surgery remains unknown. PURPOSE:To compare the responsiveness of 4 commonly used PRO instruments at 5 years after MACI. STUDY DESIGN:Cohort study (di...
Article
Very low body mass, extreme mass changes, and extremely low per cent body fat are becoming increasingly common in many sports, but sufficiently reliable and accurate field methods for body composition assessment in athletes are missing. Nineteen female athletes were investigated (mean (SD) age: 19.5 (±3.3) years; body mass: 59.6 (±7.6) kg; height:...
Article
Background: Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) has become an established technique for the repair of full-thickness chondral defects in the knee, although best patient outcomes appear limited by a lack of evidence-based knowledge on how to progressively increase postoperative weightbearing (WB) and rehabilitation exercises....
Article
Full-text available
In order to effectively target and provide individualised patient support strategies it is crucial to have a comprehensive picture of those presenting for services. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics and patient rated outcomes of individuals presenting to SolarisCare cancer support centres and their choices regarding com...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The mechanical properties of the floors used by dancers have often been suggested to be associated with injury, yet limited etiological evidence is available to support this hypothesis. The dance floors at three theatres regularly used by a touring professional ballet company were mechanically quantified with the aim of comparing floor...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) has become an established technique for the repair of full-thickness chondral defects in the knee. However, little is known about what variables most contribute to postoperative clinical and graft outcomes as well as overall patient satisfaction with the surgery. Purpose: To e...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of the Aerobic Power Index (API) submaximal cardiorespiratory exercise test, as well as associated variables of oxygen uptake (ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in cancer patients who are generally unable to complete maximal or lengthy aerobic fitness tests. Twent...
Article
Objectives: In 1997, anthropometry measures were made to determine the body size and shapes of both senior and junior elite triathletes. Since then, the junior event distance has changed and the optimal morphology of participants may have evolved. Thus the objective of this study was to compare the morphology of 1997 World championship junior elit...
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Full-text available
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rates have increased by ∼50% over the last 10 years. These figures suggest that ACL focused research has not been effective in reducing injury rates among community level athletes. Training protocols designed to reduce ACL injury rates have been both effective (n = 3) and ineffective (n = 7). Although a ratio...