Timothée Bruel

Timothée Bruel
Institut Pasteur · Department of Virology

PhD

About

143
Publications
18,267
Reads
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7,793
Citations
Citations since 2017
116 Research Items
7634 Citations
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Introduction
Enthusiastic scientist working on HIV and antibodies
Additional affiliations
September 2013 - present
Institut Pasteur International Network
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2009 - May 2013
Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission
Position
  • PhD Student
December 2008 - July 2009

Publications

Publications (143)
Article
Full-text available
The Fc region of HIV-1 Env-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is required for suppressing viraemia, through mechanisms which remain poorly understood. Here, we identify bNAbs that exert antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in cell culture and kill HIV-1-infected lymphocytes through natural killer (NK) engagement. These anti...
Article
The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins protect cells from diverse virus infections by inhibiting virus-cell fusion. IFITM proteins also inhibit HIV-1 replication through mechanisms only partially understood. We show that when expressed in uninfected lymphocytes, IFITM proteins exert protective effects during cell-free virus infection...
Article
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IFN-I production is a characteristic of HIV/SIV primary infections. However, acute IFN-I plasma concentrations rapidly decline thereafter. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are key players in this production but primary infection is associated with decreased responsiveness of pDC to TLR 7 and 9 triggering. IFNα production during primary SIV infect...
Preprint
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Targeting multiple viral proteins is pivotal for sustained viral suppression. In recent years, several broadly neutralizing antibodies that target the influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase glycoproteins have been developed. However, the impact of dual neutralization of these two glycoproteins on the course of infection has not been thorou...
Article
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Convergent evolution of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2, BA.4, and BA.5 lineages has led to the emergence of several new subvariants, including BA.2.75.2, BA.4.6. and BQ.1.1. The subvariant BQ.1.1 became predominant in many countries in December 2022. The subvariants carry an additional and often redundant set of mutations in the spike, likely responsible...
Preprint
Full-text available
Convergent evolution of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2, BA.4 and BA.5 lineages has led to the emergence of several new subvariants, including BA.2.75.2, BA.4.6. and BQ.1.1. The subvariants BA.2.75.2 and BQ.1.1 are expected to become predominant in many countries in November 2022. They carry an additional and often redundant set of mutations in the spike,...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of Omicron sublineages impact the therapeutic efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Here, we evaluate neutralization and ADCC activities of 6 therapeutic mAbs against Delta, BA.2, BA.4 and BA.5. The Omicron subvariants escape most antibodies but remain sensitive to Bebtelovimab and Cilgavimab. Consistent with their...
Article
Background Since early 2022, Omicron BA.1 has been eclipsed by BA.2, which was in turn outcompeted by BA.5, that displays enhanced antibody escape properties. Methods Here, we evaluated the duration of the neutralizing antibody (Nab) response, up to 18 months after Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccination, in individuals with or without BA.1/BA.2 breakthrough...
Article
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Anti‐CD20 monoclonal antibodies such as Rituximab, Ofatumumab and Obinutuzumab are widely used to treat lymphomas and autoimmune diseases. They act by depleting B cells, mainly through Fc‐dependent effectors functions. Some patients develop resistance to treatment but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we performed a genome‐wide...
Article
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Background The protective immunity against omicron following a BNT162b2 Pfizer booster dose among elderly individuals (ie, those aged >65 years) is not well characterised. Methods In a community-based, prospective, longitudinal cohort study taking place in France in which 75 residents from three nursing homes were enrolled, we selected 38 resident...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emergence of novel Omicron lineages, such as BA.5, may impact the therapeutic efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Here, we evaluated the neutralization and ADCC activity of 6 therapeutic mAbs against Delta, BA.2, BA.4 and BA.5 isolates. The Omicron sub-variants escaped most of the antibodies but remained sensi...
Preprint
Since early 2022, Omicron BA.1 has been eclipsed by BA.2, which was in turn outcompeted by BA.5, that displays enhanced antibody escape properties. Here, we evaluated the duration of the neutralizing antibody (Nab) response, up to 16 months after Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccination, in individuals with or without BA.1/BA.2 breakthrough infection. We measur...
Article
Full-text available
Serological assays capable of measuring antibody responses induced by previous infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been critical tools in the response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we use bead-based multiplex assays to measure IgG and IgA antibodies and IgG avidity to five SARS-CoV-2 antigens...
Article
Full-text available
Memory B-cell and antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein contribute to long-term immune protection against severe COVID-19, which can also be prevented by antibody-based interventions. Here, wide SARS-CoV-2 immunoprofiling in Wuhan COVID-19 convalescents combining serological, cellular, and monoclonal antibody explorations revealed humo...
Preprint
Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies such as Rituximab, Ofatumumab and Obinutuzumab are widely used to treat lymphomas and autoimmune diseases. They act by depleting B cells, mainly through Fc-dependent effectors functions. Some patients develop resistance to treatment but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we performed a genome-wide...
Article
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 sublineage has been supplanted in many countries by the BA.2 sublineage. BA.2 differs from BA.1 by about 21 mutations in its spike. Here, we first compared the sensitivity of BA.1 and BA.2 to neutralization by 9 therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In contrast to BA.1, BA.2 was sensitive to Cilgavimab, partly inhibi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Population-level immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is growing through vaccination as well as ongoing circulation. Given waning immunity and emergence of new variants, it is important to dynamically determine the risk of re-infection in the population. For estimating immune protection, neutralization titers are most informative, but these assays are difficult...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Clinical candidate monoclonal antibody J08 binds the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) S-protein independent of known escape mutations and is able to potently neutralize most variants of concern (VoCs). Here, we explore these properties using cell-based assays and structural studies. A relatively small epitop...
Article
Full-text available
Interferon restricts SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell culture, but only a handful of Interferon Stimulated Genes with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 have been identified. Here, we describe a functional CRISPR/Cas9 screen aiming at identifying SARS-CoV-2 restriction factors. We identify DAXX, a scaffold protein residing in PML nuclear bodies kn...
Preprint
Full-text available
Memory B-cell and antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein contribute to long-term immune protection against severe COVID-19, which can also be prevented by antibody-based interventions. Here, wide SARS-CoV-2 immunoprofiling in COVID-19 convalescents combining serological, cellular and monoclonal antibody explorations, revealed humoral im...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The protective immunity against Omicron following a BNT162b2 Pfizer booster dose among elderly is not well characterized. Methods Thirty-eight residents from three nursing homes were recruited for the study. Antibodies targeting the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 were measured with the S-Flow assay. Neutralizing activities in sera were mea...
Preprint
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 variant has been supplanted in many countries by the BA.2 sub-lineage. BA.2 differs from BA.1 by about 21 mutations in its spike. Human anti-spike monoclonalantibodies(mAbs)areusedforpreventionortreatmentofCOVID-19. However, the capacity of therapeutic mAbs to neutralize BA.1 and BA.2 remains poorly characterized. Here,...
Article
Full-text available
Background SARS-CoV-2 lineages are continuously evolving. As of December 2021, the AY.4.2 Delta sub-lineage represented 20 % of sequenced strains in the UK and had been detected in dozens of countries. It has since then been supplanted by Omicron. The AY.4.2 spike displays three additional mutations (T95I, Y145H and A222V) in the N-terminal domain...
Article
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant was first identified in November 2021 in Botswana and South Africa1–3. It has since then spread to many countries and is expected to rapidly become dominant worldwide. The lineage is characterized by the presence of about 32 mutations in the spike, located mostly in the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the receptor binding...
Article
Full-text available
Background SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections after complete vaccination are increasing whereas their determinants remain uncharacterized. Methods We analyzed two cases of post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infections by α and β variants, respectively. For each participant both humoral (binding and neutralizing antibodies) and cellular (activation marker...
Article
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Increasingly, antibodies are being used to treat and prevent viral infections. In the context of HIV, efficacy is primarily attributed to dose-dependent neutralization potency and to a lesser extent Fc-mediated effector functions. It remains unclear whether augmenting effector functions of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) may improve their c...
Article
Full-text available
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) targeting the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) are promising molecules for therapeutic or prophylactic interventions. Beyond neutralization, bNAbs exert Fc-dependent functions including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and activation of the complement. Here, we show that a subset of bNAbs targeting t...
Article
Background: Patients on maintenance hemodialysis have an increased risk of severe COVID-19 and a reduced response to vaccines. Data are needed to identify immune correlates of protection in this population. Methods: Following a COVID-19 outbreak among vaccinated patients in a hemodialysis unit, clinical data and serological response to BNT162b2...
Article
Objectives The emergence of strains of SARS-CoV-2 exhibiting increase viral fitness and immune escape potential, such as the Delta variant (B.1.617.2), raises concerns in immunocompromised patients. We aimed to evaluate seroconversion, cross-neutralisation and T-cell responses induced by BNT162b2 in immunocompromised patients with systemic inflamma...
Preprint
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 lineages are continuously evolving. As of December 2021, the AY.4.2 Delta sub-lineage represented 20 % of sequenced strains in UK and has been detected in dozens of countries. It has since then been supplanted by the Omicron variant. AY.4.2 displays three additional mutations (T95I, Y145H and A222V) in the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the...
Preprint
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant was first identified in November 2021 in Botswana and South Africa. It has in the meantime spread to many countries and is expected to rapidly become dominant worldwide. The lineage is characterized by the presence of about 32 mutations in the Spike, located mostly in the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the receptor bindi...
Article
Introduction La restauration immunitaire induite par les inhibiteurs de checkpoints immunitaires ont révolutionné le pronostic des cancers métastatiques [1]. La contribution de cette stratégie thérapeutique pour la prise en charge des infections reste toutefois controversée, malgré quelques études en faveur de leur utilisation, notamment dans le co...
Article
Introduction L’émergence de nouvelles souches du SARS-CoV-2, telles que le variant Delta, présentant une réplication virale augmentée et la capacité d’échapper à la réponse immune soulève des inquiétudes chez les patients immunodéprimés. Cette étude avait pour objectif d’évaluer le taux de séroconversion, de neutralisation de différents variants, e...
Preprint
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In immunocompetent subjects, the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines against the delta variant appears three-to five-fold lower than that observed against the alpha variant. Additionally, three doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccines might be unable to elicit a sufficient immune response against any variant in immunocompromised kidney transplant r...
Article
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All data and code used for reproducing the results is freely available on GitHub: https://github.com/MWhite-InstitutPasteur/SARSCoV2_AB_kinetics.
Article
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Coordinated local mucosal and systemic immune responses following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection either protect against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathologies or fail, leading to severe clinical outcomes. To understand this process, we performed an integrated analysis of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific ant...
Article
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Background: The dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant shedding and immune responses at the nasal mucosa remain poorly characterised. Methods: We measured infectious viral release, antibodies and cytokines in 426 PCR+ nasopharyngeal swabs from individuals harboring non-alpha or alpha variants. Findings: With both lineages, viral titers were vari...
Article
Full-text available
The role of the complement system in HIV-1 immunity and pathogenesis is multifaceted, and an improved understanding of complement activities mediated by HIV-1-specific antibodies has the potential to inform and advance clinical development efforts. A seminal nonhuman primate challenge experiment suggested that complement was dispensable for the pro...
Preprint
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As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, there is a strong need for highly potent monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are resistant against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VoCs). To date there have been four major variants (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta) that have tested the efficacy...
Preprint
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Serological tests are important for understanding the physiopathology and following the evolution of the Covid-19 pandemic. Assays based on flow cytometry (FACS) of tissue culture cells expressing the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 have repeatedly proven to perform slightly better than the plate-based assays ELISA and CLIA (chemiluminescent immuno...
Article
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Background Assessment of the kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is essential in predicting risk of reinfection and durability of vaccine protection. Methods This is a prospective, monocentric, longitudinal, cohort clinical study. Healthcare workers (HCW) from Strasbourg University Hospital were enrolled between April 6th and May 7th, 2020 and follo...
Article
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Achieving sufficient worldwide vaccination coverage against SARS-CoV-2 will require additional approaches to currently approved viral vector and mRNA vaccines. Subunit vaccines may have distinct advantages when immunizing vulnerable individuals, children and pregnant women. Here, we present a new generation of subunit vaccines targeting viral antig...
Article
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The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617 lineage was identified in October 2020 in India1–5. It has since then become dominant in some indian regions and UK and further spread to many countries6. The lineage includes three main subtypes (B1.617.1, B.1.617.2 and B.1.617.3), harbouring diverse Spike mutations in the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the receptor binding dom...
Preprint
Full-text available
Assessing the duration of humoral and cellular immunity remains key to overcome the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, especially in understudied populations in least developed countries. Sixty-four Cambodian individuals with laboratory-confirmed infection with asymptomatic or mild/moderate clinical presentation were evaluated for humoral immune response...
Preprint
Background. The emergence of strains of SARS-CoV-2 exhibiting increase viral fitness and immune escape potential, such as the Delta variant (B.1.617.2), raises concerns in immunocompromised patients. To what extent Delta evades vaccine-induced immunity in immunocompromised individuals with systemic inflammatory diseases remains unclear. Methods. We...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multiple myeloma (MM) patients are at risk of fatal outcome after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Preliminary data suggest that MM patients have an impaired response to vaccination. This prospective study analyzed the humoral and cellular immune responses to two doses of BNT162b2 in 72 MM patients, including 48 receiving anti-CD38 immunotherapy. Results evid...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has spread worldwide, yet the role of antiviral T cell immunity during infection and the contribution of immune checkpoints remain unclear. By prospectively following a cohort of 292 patients with melanoma, half of which treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), we identified 15 patients with acute or convalescent COVI...
Article
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Cases of SARS-CoV-2 acquisition after vaccination with BNT162b2 have been described but the risk of secondary transmission from fully-vaccinated individuals remains ill-defined. Herein we report a confirmed transmission of SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant (B.1.1.7) from a symptomatic immunocompetent woman 4 weeks after her second dose of BNT162b2, despite...
Article
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Background: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a complex antibody response that varies by orders of magnitude between individuals and over time. Methods: We developed a multiplex serological test for measuring antibodies to five SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the Spike proteins of seasonal coronaviruses....
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how SARS-CoV-2 spreads within the respiratory tract is important to define the parameters controlling the severity of COVID-19. Here we examine the functional and structural consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a reconstructed human bronchial epithelium model. SARS-CoV-2 replication causes a transient decrease in epithelial barrier...
Article
Introduction: Olfactory and taste disorders (OTDs) have been reported in COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the mechanisms of which remain unclear. We conducted a detailed analysis of OTDs as part of 2 seroepidemiological investigations of COVID-19 outbreaks. Methods: Two retrospective cohort studies...
Preprint
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617 lineage emerged in October 2020 in India. It has since then become dominant in some indian regions and further spread to many countries. The lineage includes three main subtypes (B1.617.1, B.1617.2 and B.1.617.3), which harbour diverse Spike mutations in the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) which...
Preprint
Full-text available
The mechanisms that allowed for the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant to rapidly outcompete pre-existing variants in many countries remain poorly characterized. Here, we analyzed viral release, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and cytokine production in a retrospective series of 427 RTqPCR+ nasopharyngeal swabs collected in COVID-19 patients harbouring either n...
Preprint
Full-text available
Assessment of the kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is essential to predict protection against reinfection and durability of vaccine protection. Here, we longitudinally measured Spike (S) and Nucleocapsid (N)-specific antibodies in 1,309 healthcare workers (HCW) including 393 convalescent COVID-19 and 916 COVID-19 negative HCW up to 405 days. From...
Preprint
Full-text available
While interferon restricts SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell culture, only a handful of Interferon Stimulated Genes with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 have been identified. Here, we describe a functional CRISPR/Cas9 screen aiming at identifying SARS-CoV-2 restriction factors. We identified DAXX, a scaffold protein residing in PML nuclear bodie...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants were first identified in the United Kingdom and South Africa, respectively, and have since spread to many countries. These variants harboring diverse mutations in the gene encoding the spike protein raise important concerns about their immune evasion potential...
Article
Full-text available
Background Children’s role in SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology remains unclear. We investigated an initially unnoticed SARS-CoV-2 outbreak linked to schools in northern France, beginning as early as mid-January 2020. Aims This retrospective observational study documents the extent of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, linked to an affected high school (n = 664 parti...
Article
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Background: Humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 occurs within the first weeks after COVID-19. Those antibodies exert a neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2, whose evolution overtime after COVID-19 as well as efficiency against novel variants are however poorly characterized. Methods: In this prospective study, sera of 107 patients hospitalized wi...
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A large proportion of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals remains asymptomatic. Little is known about the extent and quality of their antiviral humoral response. Here, we analyze antibody functions in 52 asymptomatic infected individuals, 119 mild and 21 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We measured anti-Spike IgG, IgA and IgM levels with the S-Flow assa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a complex antibody response that varies by orders of magnitude between individuals and over time. Waning antibody levels lead to reduced sensitivity of serological diagnostic tests over time. This undermines the utility of serological surveillance as the SARS-CoV-2...
Article
We measured Anti-Spike (S), Nucleoprotein (N) and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in sera from 308 RT-qPCR + healthcare workers with mild disease, collected at two time-points up to 6 months after symptom onset. At Month 1 (M1), anti-S and N antibody levels were higher in males > 50 years or with a body mass index (BMI) > 25. At M3-6, anti-S and ant...