Timo Gnambs

Timo Gnambs
Leibniz Institute for Educational Trajectories · Educational Measurement

Doctor of Psychology

About

139
Publications
142,020
Reads
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3,229
Citations
Citations since 2016
99 Research Items
3003 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220200400600
Additional affiliations
March 2018 - February 2021
Johannes Kepler University Linz
Position
  • Professor
September 2016 - August 2022
Leibniz Institute for Educational Trajectories
Position
  • Head of Research Unit
September 2015 - August 2016
Leibniz Institute for Educational Trajectories
Position
  • Head of operations

Publications

Publications (139)
Article
Full-text available
Dependability coefficients such as test-retest correlations quantify transient error in test scores due to occasion-specific variations in, for example, current mood or feelings. The meta-analysis summarizes 682 test-retest correlations collected within an interval of up to two months from 74 samples (total N = 14,923) across different measures of...
Article
Full-text available
In surveys, individuals tend to misreport behaviors being in contrast to prevalent social norms or regulations. Several design features of the survey procedure have been suggested to counteract this problem; particularly, computerized surveys are supposed to elicit more truthful responding. This assumption was tested in a meta-analysis of survey ex...
Article
Full-text available
There is consensus that the ten items of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) reflect wording effects resulting from positively and negatively keyed items. The present study examined the effects of cognitive abilities on the factor structure of the RSES with a novel, non-parametric latent variable technique called Local Structural Equation Models...
Article
Full-text available
A major challenge for representative longitudinal studies is panel attrition, because some respondents refuse to continue participating across all measurement waves. Depending on the nature of this selection process, statistical inferences based on the observed sample can be biased. Therefore, statistical analyses need to consider a missing-data me...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing nonresponse rates are a pressing issue for many longitudinal panel studies. Respondents frequently either refuse participation in single survey waves (temporary dropout) or discontinue participation altogether (permanent dropout). Contemporary statistical methods that are used to elucidate predictors of survey nonresponse are typically l...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the development of reading and mathematical competence in early secondary education and aims at identifying distinct profiles of competence development. Since reading and mathematical competences are highly correlated both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, we expected to find a generalized profile of competence development...
Article
Full-text available
Reading comprehension in bilingual children depends on the extent to which each language is used in daily life. To date, most bilingual studies have focused on children who learn the majority language as their second language (L2 bilingual children). In contrast, bilingual children learning the majority language as their first language (L1 bilingua...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores how researchers' analytical choices affect the reliability of scientific findings. Most discussions of reliability problems in science focus on systematic biases. We broaden the lens to emphasize the idiosyncrasy of conscious and unconscious decisions that researchers make during data analysis. We coordinated 161 researchers in...
Article
Full-text available
Alexithymia is defined as the inability of persons to describe their emotional states, to identify the feelings of others, and a utilitarian type of thinking. The most popular instrument to assess alexithymia is the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Despite its widespread use, an ongoing controversy pertains to its internal structure. The TAS-20...
Article
Full-text available
Children with special educational needs in the area of learning (SEN-L) have severe learning disabilities and often exhibit substantial cognitive impairments. Therefore, standard assessment instruments of basic cognitive abilities that were designed for regular school children are frequently too complex for them and, thus, are unable to provide rel...
Article
Full-text available
Response styles (RSs) such as acquiescence represent systematic respondent behaviors in self-report questionnaires beyond the actual item content. They distort trait estimates and contribute to measurement bias in questionnaire-based research. Although various approaches were proposed to correct for the influence of RSs, little is known about their...
Article
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The representation of women in cultural products is a main concern to the social sciences and humanities and a topic that many citizens care about. We analyzed female characters in the 30 worldwide highest grossing movies per year, for the last 40 years, amounting to 1200 movies. Our study was based on the Bechdel-Wallace test (BWT, Bechdel test):...
Article
Full-text available
Reading and mathematical competencies are important cognitive prerequisites for children’s educational achievement and later success in society. An ongoing debate pertains to potential transfer effects between both domains and whether reading and mathematics influence each other over time. Therefore, the present study on N = 5185 students from the...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale: High body mass and obesity are frequently linked to the use of sedentary media, like television (TV) or non-active video games. Empirical evidence regarding video gaming, however, has been mixed, and theoretical considerations explaining a relationship between general screen time and body mass may not generalize to non-active video gami...
Preprint
Meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) combines the strengths of meta-analysis with the flexibility of path models to address multivariate research questions using summary statistics. Because many research questions refer to latent constructs, measurement error can distort effect estimates in MASEMs if the unreliability of study variabl...
Article
Full-text available
Although web-based cognitive assessments have gained increasing attention in recent decades, it is still debated whether unstandardized test settings allow for comparable measurements as compared to proctored testing, particularly for speeded cognitive tests. Therefore, two within-subject experiments (N = 73 and N = 72) compared differences in mean...
Article
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Whilst writing this editorial, we are looking back at almost 2 years of crisis due to the COVID-19-pandemic. From a first unprecedented lockdown in March 2020, after the first cases of this new virus disease were detected, to a series of more lockdowns, and hygiene regulations, it seems worthwhile to summarize findings that shed light on the situat...
Article
Full-text available
Valid information on early social-emotional competence is essential to diagnose, treat, and prevent behavioral problems in children and adolescents. Particularly in young children, social-emotional competence is frequently measured using parent and teacher ratings that frequently exhibit low agreement. Therefore, the present study on n = 532 three-...
Preprint
The product-moment correlation is a central statistic in exploratory and confirmatory research including longitudinal and meta-analytic applications. Unfortunately, it has a rather complex sampling distribution which leads to sample correlations that are biased indicators of the respective population correlations. Moreover, there seems to be some u...
Preprint
Reading and mathematical competencies are important cognitive prerequisites for children’s educational achievement and later success in society. An ongoing debate pertains to potential transfer effects between both domains and whether reading and mathematics influence each other over time. Therefore, the present study on N = 5,185 students from the...
Preprint
Method effects on the item level can be modeled as latent difference variables in longi-tudinal data. These item-effect variables represent interindividual differences associated with responses to a specific item when assessing a common construct with multi-item scales. In latent variable analyses, their inclusion substantially improves model fits...
Preprint
Although web-based cognitive assessments have gained increasing attention in recent decades, it is still debated whether unstandardized test settings allow for comparable measurements as compared to proctored testing, particularly for speeded cognitive tests. Therefore, two within-subject experiments (N = 73 and 72) compared differences in means, c...
Article
Full-text available
Careless responding is a bias in survey responses that disregards the actual item content, constituting a threat to the factor structure, reliability, and validity of psychological measurements. Different approaches have been proposed to detect aberrant responses such as probing questions that directly assess test-taking behavior (e.g., bogus items...
Preprint
Meta-analyses of treatment effects in randomized control trials are often faced with the problem of missing information required to calculate effect sizes and their sampling variances. Particularly, correlations between pre- and posttest scores are frequently not available. As an ad-hoc solution, researchers impute a constant value for the missing...
Article
Full-text available
In the field of human-robot interaction, the well-known uncanny valley hypothesis proposes a curvilinear relationship between a robot’s degree of human likeness and the observers’ responses to the robot. While low to medium human likeness should be associated with increased positive responses, a shift to negative responses is expected for highly an...
Article
Full-text available
Background After elementary school, students in Germany are separated into different school tracks (i.e., school types) with the aim of creating homogeneous student groups in secondary school. Consequently, the development of students’ reading achievement diverges across school types. Findings on this achievement gap have been criticized as dependi...
Article
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In order to draw pertinent conclusions about persons with low reading skills, it is essential to use validated standard-setting procedures by which they can be assigned to their appropriate level of proficiency. Since there is no standard-setting procedure without weaknesses, external validity studies are essential. Traditionally, studies have asse...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the field of human-robot interaction, the well-known uncanny valley hypothesis proposes a curvilinear relationship between a robot’s degree of human likeness and the observers’ responses to the robot. While low to medium human likeness should be associated with increasingly positive responses, a shift to negative responses is expected for highly...
Article
Full-text available
The Brief COPE (Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced) is a frequently used questionnaire assessing 14 theoretically derived coping mechanisms, but psychometric research has suggested inconsistent results concerning its factor structure. The aim of this study was to investigate primary and secondary order factor structures of the Brief COPE du...
Article
Full-text available
The registered report was targeted at identifying latent profiles of competence development in reading and mathematics among N = 15,012 German students in upper secondary education sampled in a multi-stage stratified cluster design across German schools. These students were initially assessed in grade 9 and provided competence assessments on three...
Article
Full-text available
In large-scale educational assessments, interviewers should ensure standardized settings for all participants. However, in practice many interviewers do not strictly adhere to standardized field protocols. Therefore, systematic interviewer effects for the measurement of mathematical competence were examined in a representative sample of N = 5,139 G...
Article
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Perceptual speed is a basic component of cognitive functioning that allows people to efficiently process novel visual stimuli and quickly react to them. In educational studies, tests measuring perceptual speed are frequently developed using students from regular schools without considering students with special educational needs. Therefore, it is u...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of item response theory (IRT), linking the scales of two measurement points is a prerequisite to examine a change in competence over time. In educational large-scale assessments, non-identical test forms sharing a number of anchor-items are frequently scaled and linked using two􀀀 or three-parametric item response models. However, if...
Preprint
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The paper reports findings from a crowdsourced replication. Eighty-four replicator teams attempted to verify results reported in an original study by running the same models with the same data. The replication involved an experimental condition. A “transparent” group received the original study and code, and an “opaque” group received the same unde...
Preprint
Full-text available
Alexithymia is defined as the inability of persons to describe their emotional states, to identify the feelings of others, and a utilitarian type of thinking. The most popular instrument to assess alexithymia is the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Despite its widespread use, an ongoing controversy pertains to its internal structure. The TAS-20...
Preprint
Full-text available
Findings from 162 researchers in 73 teams testing the same hypothesis with the same data reveal a universe of unique analytical possibilities leading to a broad range of results and conclusions. Surprisingly, the outcome variance mostly cannot be explained by variations in researchers’ modeling decisions or prior beliefs. Each of the 1,261 test mod...
Article
Full-text available
This registered report protocol elaborates on the theory, methods, and material of a study to identify latent profiles of competence development in reading and mathematics among German students in upper secondary education. It is expected that generalized (reading and mathematical competence develop similarly) and specialized (one of the domains de...
Article
Full-text available
In large-scale social surveys, respondents are typically interviewed on different days of the week. Because previous research established systematic daily fluctuations of people’s mood, it was hypothesized that subjective well-being ratings might be similarly affected by the day the interview takes place. Therefore, an individual-participant meta-a...
Article
Full-text available
Information and communication technology (ICT) literacy represents an essential skill for adolescents to efficiently participate in a modern society. Previous research reported conflicting findings regarding gender differences in ICT literacy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was the exploration of cross-sectional and longitudinal gender eff...
Article
Full-text available
The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988 ) is a popular self-report questionnaire that is administered all over the world. Though originally developed to measure two independent factors, different models have been proposed in the literature. Comparisons among alternative models as well as analyses concerning their robus...
Article
An Erratum to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11618-020-00980-8
Article
Full-text available
Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with development of oropharyngeal cancer. Aim of this review was to assess airborne transmission risk of infectious particles from HPV lesions to airway mucosa of medical staff during established ablation procedures. Methods A systematic review of human and animal studies, published before 09/202...
Article
Full-text available
Societies have socially shared assumptions about what constitutes typically male or female attributes. Language can contribute to gender inequality by transmitting gender stereotypes. This study examines whether gender-stereotypical connotations in stimulus texts within a reading competence test might serve as a nuisance factor distorting reading c...
Article
Full-text available
Educational large-scale studies typically adopt highly standardized settings to collect cognitive data on large samples of respondents. Increasing costs alongside dwindling response rates in these studies necessitate exploring alternative assessment strategies such as unsupervised web-based testing. Before respective assessment modes can be impleme...
Preprint
Full-text available
Educational large-scale studies typically adopt highly standardized settings to collect cognitive data on large samples of respondents. Increasing costs alongside dwindling response rates in these studies necessitate exploring alternative assessment strategies such as unsupervised web-based testing. Before respective assessment modes can be impleme...
Article
Full-text available
Red color supposedly affects cognitive functioning in achievement situations and impairs test performance. Although this has been shown for different cognitive domains in different populations and cultural contexts, recent studies including close replications failed to corroborate this effect. Reported here is a random-effects meta-analysis of 67 e...
Chapter
Full-text available
Innerhalb von wenigen Jahrzehnten hat das Internet zahlreiche Lebensbereiche einschneidend verändert. Dieser Beitrag beleuchtet entsprechende Auswirkungen auf die psychologische Forschung und diskutiert Möglichkeiten qualitativer Forschungsvorhaben mithilfe internetbasierter Ansätze. Insbesondere die Besonderheiten von qualitativen Online-Interview...
Preprint
Full-text available
Careless responding is considered a bias in survey responses without regard to the actual item content which constitutes a threat to the factor structure, reliability, and validity of psychological measurements. Different approaches have been proposed to detect aberrant responses such as probing questions that directly assess test-taking behavior (...
Preprint
Full-text available
Careless responding is considered a bias in survey responses without regard to the actual item content which constitutes a threat to the factor structure, reliability, and validity of psychological measurements. Different approaches have been proposed to detect aberrant responses such as probing questions that directly assess test-taking behavior (...
Article
Full-text available
A growing number of studies have examined the psychological corollaries of using Social Networking Sites (SNSs) such as Facebook, Instagram or Twitter (often called social media). The interdisciplinary research area and conflicting evidence from primary studies complicate the assessment of current scholarly knowledge in this field of high public at...
Preprint
Red color supposedly affects cognitive functioning in achievement situations and impairs test performance. Although this has been shown for different cognitive domains in different populations and cultural contexts, recent studies including close replications failed to corroborate this effect. Reported here is a random-effects meta-analysis of 67 e...
Preprint
Increasing nonresponse rates are a pressing issue for many longitudinal panel studies. Respondents frequently either refuse participation in single survey waves (temporary dropout) or discontinue participation altogether (permanent dropout). Contemporary statistical methods that are used to elucidate predictors of survey nonresponse are typically l...
Technical Report
The National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) provides data on the development of various competence domains across the life span. Because research questions using these competences typically pertain to latent relationships between constructs, this paper gives an overview of the concept of plausible values and how to estimate unbiased effects that ac...
Article
Full-text available
Unproctored, web-based assessments are frequently compromised by a lack of control over the participants’ test taking behavior. It is likely that participants cheat if personal consequences are high. This meta-analysis summarizes findings on context effects in unproctored and proctored ability assessments and examines mean score differences and cor...
Article
Full-text available
Measurement invariance is a key concept in psychological assessment and a fundamental prerequisite for meaningful comparisons across groups. In the prevalent approach, multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA), specific measurement parameters are constrained to equality across groups. The degrees of freedom (df) for these models readily follo...
Article
Full-text available
In contrast to highlighting within self-regulated learning, instructed highlighting refers to the selective marking of text passages to answer given questions about texts which emerges in classroom settings or can be used in test administrations. According to literature, it requires reading processes of different complexity and focusing on and s...
Article
Full-text available
To what extent are research results influenced by subjective decisions that scientists make as they design studies? Fifteen research teams independently designed studies to answer five original research questions related to moral judgments, negotiations, and implicit cognition. Participants from two separate large samples (total N > 15,000) were th...
Article
Full-text available
Playing computer and video games is a popular pastime activity for many adolescents worldwide. However, the increasing amount of time spent on these games each day raised fears that this comes at the expense of school and, over the long run, impairs academic achievement. Extending prior research, the present study on a sample of N = 3,554 German ad...
Article
Full-text available
Colors convey meaning and can impair intellectual performance in achievement situations. Even the processing of color words can exert similar detrimental effects. In four experiments, we tried to replicate previous findings regarding the processing of the word “red” (as compared to a control color) on cognitive test scores. Experiments 1 and 2 (Ns...
Preprint
Colors convey meaning and can impair intellectual performance in achievement situations. Even the processing of color words can exert similar detrimental effects. In four experiments, we tried to replicate previous findings regarding the processing of the word “red” (as compared to a control color) on cognitive test scores. Experiments 1 and 2 (Ns...
Article
Full-text available
Autonomous robotic systems are an indispensable component of work in many industries that are on the brink of entering many other areas of people’s lives such as transportation or healthcare. Because attitudes towards new technologies shape consumers’ decision to adopt these innovations, the present study examines the public opinion toward emergent...
Article
Full-text available
Paid work offers latent benefits (e.g., social contact, time structure) that go beyond mere access to financial resources in predicting individuals’ psychological well-being. Despite the importance of the concept for organizational research and practice, available instruments measuring these latent benefits suffer either from psychometric deficienc...
Article
Full-text available
Item response theory is widely used in a variety of research fields. Among others, it is the de facto standard for test development and calibration in educational large-scale assessments. In this context, longitudinal modeling is of great importance to examine developmental trajectories in competences and identify predictors of academic success. Th...
Preprint
The involuntary loss of paid employment represents an adverse life event that has been suggested to lead to personality change. However, previous research has reported highly contradictory findings. Therefore, a replication of Boyce, Wood, Daly, and Sedikides (2015) is presented. These authors originally identified nonlinear changes in openness, ag...