Tim Valentine

Tim Valentine
Goldsmiths, University of London · Department of Psychology

Doctor of Philosophy

About

108
Publications
36,933
Reads
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7,456
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Additional affiliations
January 1997 - September 2015
Goldsmiths, University of London
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (108)
Article
Full-text available
The medium used to present lineup members for eyewitness identification varies according to the location of the criminal investigation. Although in some jurisdictions live lineups remain the default procedure, elsewhere this practice has been replaced with photo or video lineups. This divergence leads to two possibilities: Either some jurisdictions...
Article
Full-text available
The recent National Research Council report on eyewitness identification evidence includes fifteen recommendations intended to improve the procedures used to obtain eyewitness identification evidence, strengthen its value in court, and improve the scientific basis of research. The report includes some important insights on the applied research and...
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapter provides practical recommendations for best practice of facial identification based on the current state of scientific knowledge and established procedure. Before considering the various procedures individually, an ubiquitous psychological bias that affects all of forensic science and other areas of human judgement is provided. Confirma...
Chapter
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This chapter describes the manner in which courts, across a number of different jurisdictions, have responded to the use of images for the purposes of identification. It primarily focuses on facial comparison or facial “mapping” analysts. The analysts recognized by courts as experts have tended to rely upon three broad techniques: photo-anthropomet...
Chapter
Full-text available
It has long been known that human memory is fallible, and that this can create legal controversies when a police investigation relies upon eyewitness testimony. Witnesses also regularly fail to identify the true offender from an identity parade or lineup. There are many important forensic and security situations for which no memory is required, and...
Book
Forensic Facial Identification discusses the latest scientific and technical advancements in the field and their implications for practice in psychology, criminology, and law. Provides an up-to-date set of best practices for forensic facial identification. Reviews current procedures for different facial identification methods and their reliability....
Chapter
In an adversarial system, for example in the UK, US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, the defence have the right to test the testimony of prosecution witnesses through cross-examination. Courts have long acknowledged that a mistaken eyewitness may give convincing identification evidence. The problem of distinguishing accurate from inaccurate iden...
Article
Full-text available
A street identification or live show-up provides an eyewitness with an opportunity to identify a suspect shortly after a crime. In England, the majority of suspects identified are subsequently included in a video line-up for the same witness to view. In Study 1, robbery squad data from three English police forces recorded 696 crimes, the identifica...
Article
Abstract The concept of a multi-dimensional psychological space, in which faces can be represented according to their perceived properties, is fundamental to the modern theorist in face processing. Yet the idea was not clearly expressed until 1991. The background that led to Valentine's (1991a) face-space is explained and its continuing influence o...
Article
Full-text available
Trying to remember something now typically improves your ability to remember it later. However, after watching a video of a simulated bank robbery, participants who verbally described the robber were 25% worse at identifying the robber in a lineup than were participants who instead listed U.S. states and capitals—this has been termed the “verbal ov...
Article
Full-text available
Trying to remember something now typically improves your ability to remember it later. However, after watching a video of a simulated bank robbery, participants who verbally described the robber were 25% worse at identifying the robber in a lineup than were participants who instead listed U.S. states and capitals—this has been termed the “verbal ov...
Article
Trying to remember something now typically improves your ability to remember it later. However, after watching a video of a simulated bank robbery, participants who verbally described the robber were 25% worse at identifying the robber in a lineup than were participants who instead listed U.S. states and capitals—this has been termed the “verbal ov...
Article
Full-text available
The use of street identification procedures - informal procedures in which witnesses attempt to identify an offender, usually soon after the commission of a crime and close to where it occurred-has attracted significant concern. These procedures are generally thought to give rise to a greater risk of mistaken identification because they lack the sa...
Article
The age of acquisition (AoA) and the amount of biographical information known about celebrities have been independently shown to influence the processing of famous people. In this experiment, we investigated the facilitative contribution of both factors to famous name processing. Twenty-four mature adults participated in a familiarity judgement tas...
Article
Full-text available
The age of acquisition (AoA) effect refers to the processing advantage that words, objects, and people learnt earlier in life hold over those acquired later. We explored the long-term effects of AoA on performance, using naturally occurring famous names, acquired by participants cumulatively over three decades. We manipulated AoA by selecting celeb...
Article
Full-text available
A live showup (known as a street identification in the UK) allows the perpetrator to be identified shortly after a street crime. If the suspect disputes the identification, a video line‐up often ensues. Four experiments examined the reliability of live showups and their influence on a subsequent video line‐up using realistic procedures and conditio...
Article
Full-text available
SummaryA live showup (known as a street identification in the UK) allows the perpetrator to be identified shortly after a street crime. If the suspect disputes the identification, a video line-up often ensues. Four experiments examined the reliability of live showups and their influence on a subsequent video line-up using realistic procedures and c...
Article
Cross-examination permits styles of questioning that increase eyewitness error (e.g. leading questions). Previous research has shown that under cross-examination children change many of their initially accurate answers. An experiment is reported in which the effect of cross-examination on accuracy of adult eyewitness testimony was investigated. Twe...
Article
The proponents of exemplar models of categorization and memory have claimed that recognition judgements are based on familiarity computed by summing the similarity between a probe and all exemplars in memory. A probe which is highly similar to many previously seen exemplars should be recognized more accurately or faster than a more dissimilar probe...
Article
Full-text available
Morrison, Bruce, and Burton (2001) report a simulation of the phenomenon of provoked overt recognition (POR) of known faces in prosopagnosia using the IAC model. We note that the simulation demonstrates person recognition but requires modification to clearly demonstrate face recognition. The simulation requires the introduction of the concept of an...
Article
Full-text available
Expert witnesses using facial comparison techniques are regularly required to disambiguate cases of disputed identification in CCTV images and other photographic evidence in court. This paper describes a novel software-assisted photo-anthropometric facial landmark identification system, DigitalFace tested against a database of 70 full-face and prof...
Article
Full-text available
Student participant-witnesses produced 4 composites of unfamiliar faces with a system that uses a genetic algorithm to evolve appearance of artificial faces. Morphs of 4 composites produced by different witnesses (between-witness morphs) were judged better likenesses (Experiment 1) and were more frequently named (Experiment 2) by participants who w...
Book
Investigative interviewing, and the information obtained from witnesses and victims, plays a vital role in criminal investigations. This comprehensive handbook explores current developments taking place in this rapidly developing field. • An authoritative handbook created by prestigious editors and an international team of recognised authors • Inte...
Article
Full-text available
The experiments reported in this paper investigated simultaneous identity matching of unfamiliar people physically present in person with moving video images typical of that captured by CCTV. This simulates the decision faced by a jury in court when the identity of somebody caught on CCTV is disputed. Namely, “is the defendant in the dock the perso...
Article
Full-text available
Four experiments with faces support the original interpretation of categorical perception (CP) as only present for familiar categories. Unlike in the results of Levin and Beale (2000)27. Levin , D. T. and Beale , J. M. 2000. Categorical perception occurs in newly learned faces, other-race faces, and inverted faces. Perception & Psychophysics, 62:...
Conference Paper
Background: Impairments of social functioning are the primary diagnostic criteria for autism with children and adults displaying a lack of interest in, and attention to, social objects. However, adults on the autism spectrum form social stereotypes (White et al.,2006) and similarly affected children demonstrate a viewing preference for people over...
Article
Twenty patients with impairments of face recognition, in the context of a broader pattern of cognitive deficits, were administered three new training procedures derived from contemporary theories of face processing to enhance their learning of new faces: semantic association (being given additional verbal information about the to-be-learned faces);...
Article
It has been argued (Luus & Wells, 1991) that matching lineup foils to the description of the culprit, rather than the appearance of the suspect, brings benefits to witness performance on identification tasks, in particular by increasing the rate of correct identifications of the culprit. Recently, live identification procedures in the United Kingdo...
Article
Live identification procedures in England and Wales have been replaced by use of video, which provides a sequential presentation of facial images. Sequential presentation of photographs provides some protection to innocent suspects from mistaken identification when used with strict instructions designed to prevent relative judgements (Lindsay, Lea,...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to evaluate criminal barristers' opinions and perceptions of clinical psychologists and psychiatrists as expert witnesses. A questionnaire was developed and posted to 148 criminal barristers; 62 (42%) were returned. As predicted, the respondents reported significantly more contact with psychiatrists than clinical psych...
Article
Knowledge of familiar people is essential to guide social interaction, yet there is uncertainty about whether semantic knowledge for people is stored in a categorical structure as for objects. Four priming experiments using hard-to-perceive primes investigated whether occupation forms a category connecting famous persons in semantic memory. Primes...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments investigated the effects of masked happy and angry faces exposed for only 17 ms. Three questions were posed: do happy and angry faces attract attention equally to their spatial location? Does explicit detection of facial emotionality differ between happiness and anger? Do happy or angry faces give rise to stronger perceptual impress...
Article
Full-text available
Matching stimuli across a range of influencing variables is no less important for studies of face recognition than it is for those of word processing. Whereas a number of corpora exist to allow experimenters to select a carefully controlled set of word stimuli, similar databases for famous faces do not exist. This article, therefore, provides resea...
Article
Full-text available
The prior production of an alternative name increases the time taken to name a famous face. For example, naming a picture of the comedy actor "John Cleese" by the name of the character he played in the TV series Fawlty Towers (Basil Fawlty) increases the time required to subsequently produce the name "John Cleese". This effect has been termed the "...
Article
Full-text available
Impairments of face recognition after acquired brain injury (ABI) are not restricted to prosopagnosia but commonly arise in association with other cognitive deficits and can be psychosocially debilitating. Despite this, the prevalence and cognitive concomitants of such impairments after ABI have not been systematically investigated. We tested 91 ad...
Article
Participants who were unable to detect familiarity from masked 17 ms faces (Stone and Valentine, 2004 and Stone and Valentine, in press-b) did report a vague, partial visual percept. Two experiments investigated the relative strength of the visual percept generated by famous and unfamiliar faces, using masked 17 ms exposure. Each trial presented si...
Article
Stone and Valentine (2004) presented masked 17 ms faces in simultaneous pairs of one famous and one unfamiliar face. Accuracy in selecting the famous face was higher when the famous person was regarded as "good" or liked than when regarded as "evil" or disliked. Experiment 1 attempted to replicate this phenomenon, but produced a different pattern o...
Article
Full-text available
The nonconscious orientation of attention to famous faces was investigated using masked 17 ms stimulus exposure. Each trial presented a simultaneous pair of one famous and one unfamiliar face, matched on physical characteristics, one each in left visual field (LVF) and right visual field (RVF). These were followed by a dot probe in either LVF or RV...
Article
Memory for familiar people is essential to understand their identity and guide social interaction. Nevertheless, we know surprisingly little about the structure of such memory. Previous research has assumed that semantic memory for people has a categorical structure, but recently it was proposed that memory for people consists only of associations...
Article
Full-text available
The nonconscious recognition of facial identity was investigated in two experiments featuring brief (17-msec) masked stimulus presentation to prevent conscious recognition. Faces were presented in simultaneous pairs of one famous face and one unfamiliar face, and participants attempted to select the famous face. Subsequently, participants rated the...
Article
Full-text available
Images of faces manipulated to make their shapes closer to the average are perceived as more attractive. The influences of symmetry and averageness are often confounded in studies based on full-face views of faces. Two experiments are reported that compared the effect of manipulating the averageness of female faces in profile and full-face views. U...
Article
The phonological completeness hypothesis situates the effects of age of acquisition (AoA) at speech output. The prediction exists that age of acquisition will affect other perceptual classifications of any familiar stimulus class. We report two object classification experiments, where participants were required to decide whether the pictures of obj...
Article
Data were analysed from 640 attempts by eyewitnesses to identify the alleged culprit in 314 lineups organised by the Metropolitan Police in London. Characteristics of the witness, the suspect, the witness’s opportunity to view the culprit, the crime and the lineup were recorded. Data analysis, using mixed effects multinomial logistic regression, re...
Article
Analysis of lineups from criminal cases has demonstrated that video technology can produce lineups that are less biased against the suspect than live lineups, and that White suspects are less likely to be identified from a live lineup than suspects of other ethnic origins. The present study assessed the fairness of video lineups of White Europeans...
Article
The two papers by Bobes et al. (2003, this issue) and by Sperber and Spinnler (2003, this issue) add to the large body of literature demonstrating covert face recognition in prosopagnosia. This viewpoint will offer some perspectives on this interesting phenomenon. First, a re-analysis of the empirical literature will indicate an important misconcep...
Article
Full-text available
Covert face recognition in neurologically intact participants was investigated with the use of very brief stimulus presentation to prevent awareness of the stimulus. In Experiment 1, skin conductance response (SCR) to photographs of celebrity and unfamiliar faces was recorded; the faces were displayed for 220 msec and for 17 msec in a within-partic...
Article
Full-text available
Theoretical models of proper-name processing have been primarily derived from studies of people's names; however, they are thought to generalize to all classes of proper name. Five experiments are reported that use repetition priming to compare different classes of proper names. It was found that for people's names and landmark names, (a) productio...
Article
SUMMARY Mistaken eyewitness identification is a major source of miscarriages of justice. In England and Wales, procedures for obtaining identification evidence are set out in legislation. The vast majority of identifications are obtained using a traditional 'live' identity parade (or line-up). However, in some circumstances video identifications ar...
Article
Lewis (1999) argued that effects of age of acquisition (AoA) are entirely attributable to cumulative frequency. He reported an instance-based model in which the number of instances of the stimulus stored in memory predicts reaction time. We note four aspects of the literature on AoA that cannot be explained by this instance-based approach. Firstly,...
Article
Three experiments are reported in which the effects of viewpoint on the recognition of distinctive and typical faces were explored. Specifically, we investigated whether generalization across views would be better for distinctive faces than for typical faces. In Experiment 1 the time to match different views of the same typical faces and the same d...
Article
Full-text available
Information acquired early in life is processed faster than information acquired late in life. Moore and Valentine (1998) report naming celebrities' faces follows the same pattern of results. This is problematic for the account of age of acquisition (AoA) based on language development because knowledge of celebrities is acquired after early represe...
Article
Full-text available
Brédart, Valentine, Calder and Gassi (1995) described an interactive activation and competition (IAC) model in which the lexical representations of people's names have inhibitory connections between each other, but do not receive inhibition from the representation of biographical properties. The model predicts that people would be slower to name a...
Article
Full-text available
In four experiments, we examined the effects of frequency and age of acquisition on auditory and visual lexical decision. Word frequency affected visual, but not auditory, lexical decision speed (Experiments 1 and 3). Age of acquisition affected lexical decision speed in both modalities (Experiments 2 and 4). We suggest that previous reports of eff...
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments examined whether famous faces would be affected by the age at which knowledge of the face was first acquired (AoA). Using a multiple regression design, Experiment 1 showed that rated familiarity and AoA were significant predictors of the time required to name pictures of celebrities' faces and the accuracy of producing their names...
Article
Three experiments examined whether famous faces would be affected by the age at which knowledge of the face was first acquired (AoA). Using a multiple regression design, Experiment 1 showed that rated familiarity and AoAwere significant predictors of the time required to name pictures of celebrities' faces and the accuracy of producing their names....
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments are reported that tested predictions derived from the framework of face, object, and word recognition proposed by Valentine, Brennen, and Brédart (1996). The findings were as follows: (1) Production of a celebrity’s name in response to seeing the celebrity’s face primed a subsequent familiarity decision to the celebrity’s printed na...
Article
Cohen (1990) hypothesised that the retrieval of proper names is particularly difficult because proper names convey little information about their bearers' attributes. In the present study, this hypothesis was evaluated by using a face naming task. Faces were those of cartoon and comic-strip characters bearing either arbitrary names or descriptive n...
Article
Previous studies have compared the performance of young adult eyewitnesses with that of children or elderly eyewitnesses, but few studies have allowed direct comparison of the performance of all three age groups. The accuracy and suggestibility of accounts of a video recording of a kidnapping were investigated using an experimental eyewitness parad...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, some authors have claimed that a double dissociation between an "anomia for proper names" and a "selective sparing of proper names" has been demonstrated in the cognitive neuropsychology literature (e.g. Cohen & Burke, 1993; Hittmair-Delazer, Denes, Semenza,& Mantovan,1994; Semenza& Zettin, 1989). The aim of the present paper is to evalua...
Book
This is a synthesis of research on the processing of proper names. The book includes a proposal for a model of proper name processing (name recognition and name production)
Article
The effects of the frequency of a surname in the population and of the distinctiveness of a face on the latency to name famous faces were explored. Distinctive faces were named more quickly than were typical faces. Celebrities with low-frequency surnames were named faster than celebrities with high-frequency surnames, but only if their faces were d...
Article
Although previous studies have demonstrated that faces of one's own race are recognized more accurately than are faces of other races, the theoretical basis of this effect is not clearly understood at present. The experiment reported in this paper tested the contact hypothesis of the own-race bias in face recognition using a cross-cultural design....
Article
Surnames of celebrities that are English words (e.g. “Wood”, “Bush”, “Sleep”) were used to explore the relationship between production of common names and proper names that share the same phonology. No effect of priming of face naming latency was found from a prime task in which a written common name was presented and was read aloud, even when subj...
Article
Burton and Bruce's (1992) model of face naming predicts a "fan effect", in which naming of famous people about whom many descriptive properties are known should be slower than naming of celebrities about whom few properties are known. An experiment is reported that showed that, contrary to this prediction, knowledge of many descriptive properties f...
Article
This is a case-study of a patient (ET) who suffers from prosopagnosia, in the context of impairment to cognitive functions, following traumatic brain injury. Despite severe perceptual difficulties in tests involving non-face stimuli and matching unfamiliar faces, ET showed evidence of "covert" recognition of familiar faces in a number of tasks. Alt...