Tim Reeskens

Tim Reeskens
Tilburg University | UVT · Department of Sociology

PhD

About

88
Publications
29,200
Reads
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2,558
Citations
Citations since 2017
38 Research Items
1619 Citations
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Introduction
Tim Reeskens is an Associate Professor at the Department of Sociology at Tilburg University. He obtained a PhD from KU Leuven on the relationship between ethnocultural diversity and social cohesion. He held research positions at the University of Amsterdam, KU Leuven, and Tilburg University. His research interests include the comparative study of political and social attitudes, with a focus on social capital and generalized trust, national identity, and attitudes towards the welfare state.
Additional affiliations
April 2012 - January 2014
University of Amsterdam
Position
  • PostDoc Position
October 2011 - January 2014
KU Leuven
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 2010 - September 2011
Tilburg University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 2005 - December 2009
KU Leuven
Field of study
  • Political science
September 2005 - September 2006
KU Brussels
Field of study
  • Social Statistics
September 2003 - July 2005
KU Leuven
Field of study
  • Sociology

Publications

Publications (88)
Article
As the asylum crisis hit Europe in tandem with the Great Recession, concerns about declining support for equal welfare provision to immigrants grow. Although studies on welfare deservingness show that immigrants are deemed least entitled to welfare compared to other target groups, they have fallen short of isolating welfare claimants’ identity (i.e...
Article
Full-text available
Some participants of the public debate have argued that the world before and after the coronavirus crisis will look fundamentally different. An underlying assumption is that this crisis will alter public opinion in such a way that it leads to profound societal and political change. Scholarship suggests that while some policy preferences are quite v...
Article
Full-text available
The tenuous relationship between ethnic diversity and welfare solidarity has become a central focus in sociological and political inquiry. Yet, the question whether ethnic composition of the residential environment affects welfare chauvinism (favouring an encompassing welfare state that is preserved for ingroup members) has remained fundamentally u...
Book
Full-text available
Do Europeans really feel European? Do they trust each other and are they solidary? What do they think of immigration and refugee influx? Do they want a greener and more sustainable Europe, and at what cost? Are democracy and human rights ingrained in Europe or are they under pressure? A new edition of the ‘Atlas of European Values’ answers these a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Including a large number of predictors in the imputation model underlying a multiple imputation (MI) procedure is one of the most challenging tasks imputers face. A variety of high-dimensional MI techniques can help, but there has been limited research on their relative performance. In this study, we investigated a wide range of extant high-dimensi...
Article
Full-text available
We use representative longitudinal panel data from the Dutch European Values Survey (EVS) to study whether the COVID‐19 pandemic shifted opinions about how a woman's full‐time employment impacts family life. The data was collected before the COVID‐19 pandemic in 2017 and in May 2020. The analysis focuses on groups whose unpaid and paid work situati...
Preprint
Multiple Imputation (MI) is one of the most popular approaches to addressing missing values in questionnaires and surveys. MI with multivariate imputation by chained equations (MICE) allows flexible imputation of many types of data. In MICE, for each variable under imputation, the imputer needs to specify which variables should act as predictors in...
Book
Full-text available
This book on Reflections on European Values is a Liber Amicorum honouring Loek Halman’s contribution to the European Values Study. For years, he has been a key figure in this longitudinal and cross-national research project on moral, social, and political values, dedicating his academic life to advancing the understanding of values in Europe. This...
Chapter
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic and particularly lockdowns that were imposed to curtail the spread of the novel coronavirus have had a profound impact on our sociability, restricting our sex lives as a result. Less is known, however, about the extent to which people have justified casual sex less during the pandemic. Scholarship argues that such moral values...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic is posing a threat to people all across the globe. According to traditional literature, threat perceptions induce anti-immigrant sentiments, as ingroup identity and self-interest are strengthened at the expense of the outgroup. In this study, we investigate whether the COVID-19 pandemic indeed increases anti-immigrant sentimen...
Chapter
This contribution examines how the Great Recession has affected human values, social attitudes and subjective well-being in 24 European countries between 2008 and 2016. With the European Social Survey, we have constructed a cross-national pseudo-panel wherein we follow socio-demographic peer groups based on country, cohort, gender and educational l...
Chapter
Full-text available
Tim Reeskens (Tilburg University) and Leen Vandecasteele (University of Lausanne) explored the effect that the 2008 economic crisis had on human values. This was done by focusing on Round 5 (2010/11) data collected immediately after the economic crisis and comparing it with human values data combined from several waves.
Chapter
Although European welfare states receive high levels of public support, insights into what kind of general redistributive principles Europeans would prefer to be applied in welfare provisions—equity, equality or need—is scarce and fragmented. Analysing the 2008 wave of the European Social Survey, we find that most European populations share a prefe...
Chapter
Full-text available
Inspired by Wim van Oorschot’s research on perceived welfare deservingness, we showed in earlier work that even if immigrants combine favorable criteria, like having been laid off because of a company reorganization to indicate no control over their unemployed situation or doing voluntary work as an example for reciprocity, they are never able to f...
Preprint
Full-text available
Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, governments, supported by health experts and ethicists, released guidelines about which groups should receive priority access to both (intensive) care and vaccines as resources are limited. To achieve political legitimacy, support from the general public is important, as deservingness theory informs us that not all gro...
Article
The European Values Study (EVS) was first conducted in 1981 and then repeated in 1990, 1999, 2008, and 2017, with the aim of providing researchers with data to investigate whether European individual and social values are changing and to what degree. The EVS is traditionally carried out as a probability-based face-to-face survey that takes around 1...
Chapter
Full-text available
The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has granted national governments far-reaching political powers to implement drastic non-pharmaceutical interventions to curtail the spread of the virus. For these measures to be effective, governments should be granted widespread political legitimacy. This is established when populations’ expectations from government...
Article
Full-text available
While scholarship on wage discrimination has confirmed that ‘racism’ is persistent, recent insights indicate that ‘colorism’ – the idea that lighter skin tones are rewarded more compared to darker ones, all else equal – is often more relevant in some societies where race or ethnicity are less salient markers. In this article, the following underlyi...
Article
In this study, we explore trends in sexual-ethical permissiveness in the Netherlands during the last decades. Using Dutch data from the European Values Study (1981-2017), we show that tolerance towards homosexuality, abortion, divorce, euthanasia, and suicide increased in this period. About a third of this trend can be explained by cohort replaceme...
Article
In this study, we explore differences in values between educational groups in the Netherlands. Scholars argue that, due to e.g. globalisation, these differences may have grown over time, leading to a new cleavage in society. Using Dutch data from the European Values Study (1999-2017), we assess whether this cleavage exists in the Netherlands. In ad...
Article
Full-text available
Recent insights have shown subjective status to impact health and health behavior. It is however unclear how this exactly happens. In this study we explore two mechanisms: this of a direct, mediating effect of subjective status explaining the impact of material class on health outcomes and behavior and an indirect, moderating impact on the relation...
Data
Descriptives of the ELSA and Whitehall II-sample. (PDF)
Data
Material class and subjective social status regressed on the separate health biomarkers with control variables. (PDF)
Article
The traditional approach to class voting has largely ignored the question whether material class positions coincide with subjective class identification. Following Sosnaud et al. (2013), this study evaluates party preferences when Europeans' material and subjective social class do not coincide. Seminal studies on voting behavior have suggested that...
Book
Full-text available
This book addresses new perspectives on the perceived popular deservingness of target groups of social services and benefits, offering new insights and analysis to this quickly developing field of welfare attitudes research. It provides an up-to-date state of the art in terms of concepts, theories, research methods and data. The book offers a multi...
Article
Full-text available
With the aftermath of the economic crisis starting to fold out, the extent and the conditions under which the experience of economic hardship thwarts subjective well-being spark academic interest. In this paper, we examine the cushioning impact of three immaterial buffers embedded within civil society—namely social networks, religiosity, and confid...
Article
Full-text available
While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by economic shocks than social attitudes and well-being, t...
Article
Over the last decade, the topic of national-identity has gained considerable importance after various heads of states have made it an important political issue in the context of ongoing globalisation and European integration processes. There is also a large, mainly historical literature that has emphasised the role of the political elite in the for...
Article
Ever since the introduction of the national political programme of “Building a new socialist countryside” (BNSC) in the early 2000s, renewed focus has been cast on how the Chinese government manages the gap between its rural and urban areas in the new millennium. Previous research has mostly studied the social and political consequences of the BNSC...
Article
An oft-heard concern about the sustainability of the welfare state is that generous social welfare provisions serve as an important pull factor in immigrants’ consideration of their preferred country of destination. With their accumulated social risks, immigrants are averagely more likely to claim welfare benefits, suggesting that generous provisio...
Article
Empirically-oriented students of national identity have in general concerned themselves with its dimensionality and its attitudinal correlates. We develop an account of patriotism that contextualizes it in the context of national politics. The intuition behind our Politics-Pride-Public Opinion (PPP) model is simply that patriotism is not some sui g...
Article
While research has traditionally focused on first- and second-generation immigrants' socio-economic incorporation and to a lesser extent on their cultural and political integration, we analyse their affective attachment to the host country. Specifically, we assess: (1) the extent to which immigrants appear more or less ‘patriotic’ than non-immigran...
Article
As European governments have embraced the credo of austerity, the perennial discussion whether welfare states erode the quality of social networks has taken on a more prominent position on political and social science research agendas. While non-believers of this so-called ‘crowding out’ thesis argue that social networks flourish well in welfare st...
Article
Recent research on the consequences of ethnic diversity for social cohesion indicates that the effects of diversity are not necessarily universal. In this article we hypothesise that the rhetoric of political parties conditions whether diversity negatively affects generalised trust. Political campaigns might highlight the salience of cultural diver...
Article
Full-text available
As comparative research has repeatedly demonstrated that societies where people trust each other more easily are better able to generate a series of positive externalities, the study of generalized trust has taken pandemic forms. However, critical voices have warned that the levels of trust (the intensity to cooperate) are conceptually different fr...
Article
An oft-made claim is that national identity (NI) can function as social glue underpinning public support for the welfare state by encouraging the identification with co-nationals essential for redistribution. Empirical tests have largely ignored the possibility that the relationship depends on the kind of NI people hold, that various dimensions of...
Article
Full-text available
A spate of work has demonstrated tensions between ethno-cultural diversity and social capital. Some have suggested that attachment to the nation can foster cross-group trust, particularly if this national self-definition is “civic” in character rather than “ethnic” (the Miller thesis). Similarly, others have argued that civic nations are less likel...
Article
Although European welfare states receive high levels of public support, insights into what kind of welfare state individuals prefer – i.e., one based on the redistributive principle of equity, of equality or of need – is scarce and fragmented. Using the 2008 wave of the European Social Survey, we find that most European populations share a preferen...
Article
In the present ‘Age of Migration’, public policy as well as social scientists are puzzled by the ‘New Liberal Dilemma’ (Newton, 2007) of finding popular support for welfare programs that have been installed in times of cultural homogeneity. In this article, we are interested in the question of whether opinions about immigrants’ access to welfare pr...
Article
Full-text available
In the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2008, youth unemployment has risen worldwide. In cross-national perspective, research on youth employment has thus far paid attention to the transition from school to work, but underemphasized the importance of the social psychology of labour market entrance. In this article, European young adults’...
Article
Full-text available
The societal effects of the welfare state are a perennial issue in the public debate. Critics accuse the welfare state of having unintended economic and moral consequences rather than producing its intended social goals. Popular perceptions of possible consequences of the welfare state are a crucial component of welfare state legitimacy, but have r...
Article
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Recently, various attempts have been undertaken to develop a comprehensive social cohesion index to monitor the social progress of society. However, classical sociological theories predict that contemporary modern communities function according to a different type of social cohesion than traditional communities. From both a theoretical and a method...
Article
The traditional distinction between civic and ethnic citizenship continues to dominate the study of citizenship concepts. In recent years, various authors have questioned the dichotomous character of these concepts. In this article, we empirically investigate the applicability of this dichotomy based on an analysis of International Social Survey Pr...
Article
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In recent years, various governments and education agencies have developed stricter policies to reduce truancy levels, mainly based on the argument that truancy is associated with risk behaviour, crime and substance abuse. In this article, we use a large, 28-nation comparative survey among 14 year olds to detect general patterns in consequences and...
Article
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While most current research documents a negative relation between ethnic diversity and generalized trust, it has to be acknowledged that these results often originate from one-country analyses in North America. In this article, attitudinal measurements from the European Social Survey are combined with Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Deve...
Article
Various theoretical approaches have provided us with insights to explain the pattern of migration flows. Economic theory considers migration to be a reaction to labor market and economic incentives. Cultural theories predict that migration flows will occur according to a center-periphery pattern, while social network analysis assumes that migrants...
Article
Full-text available
Generalized trust features as the most prominent attitudinal element of social capital, and as such the concept is widely used in comparative research. In this article we investigate the cross-cultural equivalence of the three-item scale on generalized trust that is included in the European Social Survey 2002 and 2004 waves. The use of metric equiv...
Article
Various theoretical approaches have provided us with insights to explain the pattern of migration flows. Economic theory considers migration to be a reaction to labor market and economic incentives. Cultural theories predict that migration flows will occur according to a center-periphery pattern, while social network analysis assumes that migrants...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, various authors have tried to develop a comprehensive explanation for the electoral success of extreme-right parties in Europe. While some authors stress individual-level factors (ethnocentrism, political cynicism, distrust), others stress macro-level variables (party strategy, electoral system). In this field of research cross-nat...
Article
Full-text available
In this research note we report on the results of an experimental study among 469 respondents in Belgium. The study shows that the familiar gender differences in political knowledge can be substantially reduced when including more questions on female politicians. Using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory measurements, we can obser...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
IDO Working Paper nr. 7 De registratie van niet-EU-kiezers voor de gemeenteraadsverkiezingen van 8 oktober 2006 Een analyse van de gemeentelijke performantieverschillen
Article
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Recently, students of attitudes toward ethnic minorities, immigrants and immigration have shown considerable interest in contextual factors that shape these attitudes. Various studies lead to the conclusion that ethnic diversity has a general negative effect on immigration attitudes. Yet, the currently available research has some shortcomings, as m...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most abundantly used concepts in contemporary social sciences and among policy experts is 'social cohesion'. However, it is difficult to grasp how social cohesion is defined or measured. In this paper, we follow the line of reasoning of urban sociologists Kearns and Forrest (2000), who ascribed five dimensions to social cohesion. Althoug...
Article
Amidst the worldwide financial crisis, European governments are in the grip of severe budget cutbacks, with also the welfare state target of severe reforms. In the ‘Age of Austerity,’ the aim of this paper is to assess whether respondents at the political right – traditionally against state intervention – are more supportive for redistribution afte...

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Projects (3)
Project
Confronted with covid-19 and tight measures to contain it, the Netherlands is confronted with several insecurities for which studies suggest that they impact relevant values and attitudes. Insecurities would increase reliance on authority and yield in-group at the expense of out-group solidarity, to give two examples. Our study extends the European Values Study 2017 Netherlands with two follow-ups to be fielded in May and October to detect (1) if values have changed, and (2) how persistent this shift is. This project is funded by a grant of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO grant 440.20.005).
Project
In this PhD-project I focus on the sources and outcomes of class discordance. This phenomenon refers to non-coinciding material and subjective social positions. The first working paper focusses on the factors influencing this mismatch while further papers focus on the consequences this has for political, cultural and health behavior and outcomes.