Tim Martineau

Tim Martineau
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine · International Health Group

About

84
Publications
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Publications

Publications (84)
Article
Full-text available
Background Since 2017, PERFORM2Scale, a research consortium with partners from seven countries in Africa and Europe, has steered the implementation and scale-up of a district-level health management strengthening intervention in Ghana, Malawi and Uganda. This article presents PERFORM2Scale’s theory of change (ToC) and reflections upon and adaptatio...
Article
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Background The scale-up of successfully tested public health interventions is critical to achieving universal health coverage. To ensure optimal use of resources, assessment of the scalability of an intervention is recognized as a crucial step in the scale-up process. This study assessed the scalability of a tested health management-strengthening i...
Article
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Background A cohesive and strategic governance approach is needed to improve the health workforce (HW). To achieve this, the WHO Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health (HRH) promotes mechanisms to coordinate HRH stakeholders, HRH structures and capacity within the health sector to support the development and implementation of a comprehensive...
Preprint
Background: A cohesive and strategic governance approach is needed to improve the health workforce (HW). To achieve this, the WHO Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health(HRH)promotesmechanisms to coordinate HRHstakeholders,HRH structures and capacity within the health sector to support the development and implementation of a comprehensive HW...
Article
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Background Decentralisation has been adopted by many governments to strengthen national systems, including the health system. Decision space is used to describe the decision-making power devolved to local government. Human resource Management (HRM) is a challenging area that District Health Management Teams (DHMT) need some control over its functio...
Article
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Background Midwifery plays a vital role in the quality of care as well as rapid and sustained reductions in maternal and newborn mortality. Like most other sub-Saharan African countries, the Democratic Republic of Congo experiences shortages and inequitable distribution of health workers, particularly in rural areas and fragile settings. The aim of...
Article
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Background Most low- and middle-income countries are experiencing challenges in maternal health in relation to accessing skilled birth attendants (SBA). The first step in addressing this problem is understanding the current situation. We aimed to understand SBA’s availability and distribution in Ituri Province, North Eastern Democratic Republic of...
Article
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Background: Community health workers (CHWs) are critical players in fragile settings, where staff shortages are particularly acute, health indicators are poor and progress towards Universal Health Coverage is slow. Like other health workers, CHWs need support to contribute effectively to health programmes and promote health equity. Yet the evidenc...
Article
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Introduction: Maternal and neonatal health are core focus areas in fragile and conflict-affected areas, and hence midwives are key actors. But there is currently very little evidence on midwives' experiences, the challenges that they face and coping strategies they employ in the challenging and fragile rural areas of Ituri Province in the north-ea...
Article
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Background Health care workers (HCWs) are essential for the delivery of health care services in conflict areas and in rebuilding health systems post-conflict. Objective The aim of this study was to systematically identify and map the published evidence on HCWs in conflict and post-conflict settings. Our ultimate aim is to inform researchers and fu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Community Health Workers (CHWs) are critical players in fragile settings, where staff shortages are particularly acute, health indicators are poor and progress towards Universal Health Coverage is slow. Like other health workers, CHWs need support to contribute effectively to health programmes and promote health equity. Yet the evidence...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Community Health Workers (CHWs) are critical players in fragile settings, where staff shortages are particularly acute, health indicators are poor and progress towards Universal Health Coverage is slow. Like other health workers, CHWs need support to contribute effectively to health programmes and promote health equity. Yet the evidence...
Article
Full-text available
Comprehensive reviews of health system strengthening (HSS) interventions are rare, partly because of lack of clarity on definitions of the term but also the potentially huge scale of the evidence. We reflect on the process of undertaking such an evidence review recently, drawing out suggestions on definitions of HSS and approaches to assessment, as...
Article
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Background: Zimbabwe experienced a socio-economic crisis from 1997 to 2008 which heavily impacted all sectors. In this context, human resource managers were confronted with the challenge of health worker shortage in rural areas and, at the same time, had to operate under a highly centralised, government-centred system which defined health worker d...
Article
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Background Universal health coverage (UHC) is growing as a national political priority, within the context of recently devolved decision-making processes in Kenya. Increasingly voices within these discussions are highlighting the need for actions towards UHC to focus on quality of services, as well as improving coverage through expansion of nationa...
Article
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Background Between 1986 and 2006, the Acholi region in Uganda experienced armed conflict which disrupted the health system including human resources. Deployment of health workers during and after conflict raises many challenges for managers due to issues of security and staff shortage. We explored how deployment policies and practices were adapted...
Article
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Background Power imbalances are a key driver of avoidable, unfair and unjust differences in health. Devolution shifts the balance of power in health systems. Intersectionality approaches can provide a ‘lens’ for analysing how power relations contribute to complex and multiple forms of health advantage and disadvantage. These approaches have not to...
Article
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Aim To test and refine a performance‐based management system to improve health worker performance in Nepal. Methods A mixed‐methods implementation research in three districts. The study assessed health workers’ job satisfaction at the start and end of the study. Qualitative techniques were used to document processes, and routine health service dat...
Article
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Background Practices of power lie at the heart of policy processes. In both devolution and priority-setting, actors seek to exert power through influence and control over material, human, intellectual and financial resources. Priority-setting arises as a consequence of the needs and demand exceeding the resources available, requiring some means of...
Article
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Background Although human resources for health (HRH) represent a critical element for health systems, many countries still face acute HRH challenges. These challenges are compounded in conflict-affected settings where health needs are exacerbated and the health workforce is often decimated. A body of research has explored the issues of recruitment...
Article
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Devolution changes the locus of power within a country from central to sub-national levels. In 2013, Kenya devolved health and other services from central government to 47 new sub-national governments (known as counties). This transition seeks to strengthen democracy and accountability, increase community participation, improve efficiency and reduc...
Article
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Background To achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC), more health workers are needed; also critical is supporting optimal performance of existing staff. Integrated human resource management (HRM) strategies, complemented by other health systems strategies, are needed to improve health workforce performance, which is possible at district level in d...
Article
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Background Health workers are critical to the performance of health systems; yet, evidence about their coping strategies and support needs during and post crisis is lacking. There is very limited discussion about how research teams should respond when unexpected crises occur during on-going research. This paper critically presents the approaches an...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to improve understanding about how district health managers perceive and use their decision space for human resource management (HRM) and how this compares with national policies and regulatory frameworks governing HRM. The study builds upon work undertaken by PERFORM Research Consortium in Uganda using action-research to s...
Article
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Conflict and fragility are increasing in many areas of the world. This context has been referred to as the ‘new normal’ and affects a billion people. Fragile and conflict-affected states have the worst health indicators and the weakest health systems. This presents a major challenge to achieving universal health coverage. The evidence base for stre...
Article
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Background High quality health systems research (HSR) in fragile and conflict-affected states (FCAS) is essential to guiding the policies and programmes that will improve access to health services and, ultimately, health outcomes. Yet, conducting HSR in FCAS is challenging. An understanding of these challenges is essential to tackling them and to s...
Article
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Introduction: Life history is a research tool which has been used primarily in sociology and anthropology to document experiences of marginalized individuals and communities. It has been less explored in relation to health system research. In this paper, we examine our experience of using life histories to explore health system trajectories coming...
Technical Report
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This study compared implementation of posting policies in rural areas in two large employers of HRH government (HSB) and FBO in the pre-crisis, crisis and post crisis period. The results have shown that the crisis severely affected the health workforce triggering considerable attrition and distorting implementation of deployment policies which affe...
Article
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Background: Neonatal health (NH) remains a major problem in many countries. Children dying before 28 days often suffer from conditions that are preventable or treatable with proven, cost-effective interventions. The knowledge gaps are no longer about what should be done, but to understand why guidelines including these interventions are not follow...
Article
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Background Limited research on Posting and Transfer (P&T) policies and systems in the public sector health services and the reluctance for an open debate on the issue makes P&T as a black box. Limited research on P&T in India suggests that P&T policies and systems are either non-existent, weak, poorly implemented or characterized by corruption. Hen...
Article
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Background There is increasing interest amongst donors in investing in the health sectors of fragile and conflict-affected states, although there is limited research evidence and research funding to support this. Agreeing priority areas is therefore critical. This paper describes an 18-month process to develop a consultative research agenda and que...
Article
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Background India faces a critical shortage of government doctors in rural and underserved areas. Several measures have been introduced to address the shortage, but significant problems still remain. The main aim of the current research was to understand the existing recruitment-related policies and systems in place for government doctors in Gujarat...
Article
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Background With the critical shortage of government doctors serving in rural health centers in India, understanding the initial posting policies, processes, and practices become important from a retention point of view. The initial posting is a very critical stage of an employment cycle and could play an important role in influencing the key human...
Article
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Background An effective health workforce is essential for achieving health-related new Sustainable Development Goals. Odisha, one of the states in India with low health indicators, faces challenges in recruiting and retaining health staff in the public sector, especially doctors. Recruitment, deployment and career progression play an important role...
Article
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Like any other health worker, community health workers (CHWs) need to be supported to ensure that they are able to contribute effectively to health programmes. Management challenges, similar to those of managing any other health worker, relate to improving attraction, retention and performance. Exploratory case studies of CHW programmes in the Demo...
Conference Paper
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Background Many countries face the challenge of inadequate number of doctors, their inequitable distribution and poor motivation among the doctors to join rural health centres that lead to health service provider's dissatisfaction, absenteeism and poor health system responsiveness. One of the main reasons for poor responsiveness of the health syste...
Article
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Human resources for health are self-evidently critical to running a health service and system. There is, however, a wider set of social issues which is more rarely considered. One area which is hinted at in literature, particularly on fragile and conflict-affected states, but rarely examined in detail, is the contribution which health staff may or...
Conference Paper
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Background: Most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) lack an adequate, well-performing health workforce to move towards a people-centred health system and achieve universal health coverage. Improving the performance of existing and future health workforce will complement scale up initiatives and also strengthen general management capacity. The PE...
Article
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In post-conflict settings, severe disruption to health systems invariably leaves populations at high risk of disease and in greater need of health provision than more stable resource-poor countries. The health workforce is often a direct victim of conflict. Effective human resource management (HRM) strategies and policies are critical to addressing...
Article
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Fragile and Conflict Affected States present difficult contexts to achieve health system outcomes and are neglected in health systems research. This report presents key debates from the Consultation of the Collaboration for Applied Health Research and Delivery, Liverpool, June, 2014.
Article
The literature on the use of evidence-based practice is sparse, both in the public and private sectors in middle-and low-income countries, and the present literature shows that physician understanding and use of evidence-based practice is poor. The study aimed to explore the perception of medical practitioners in the private for-profit, private not...
Article
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The failure to meet health goals such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is partly due to the lack of appropriate resources for the effective implementation of health policies. The lack of coherence between the health policies and human resource (HR) strategy is one of the major causes. This article explores the relationship and the degree o...
Article
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Background: The last decade has seen widespread retreat from user fees with the intention to reduce financial constraints to users in accessing health care and in particular improving access to reproductive, maternal and newborn health services. This has had important benefits in reducing financial barriers to access in a number of settings. If th...
Article
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The single biggest barrier for countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to scale up the necessary health services for addressing the three health-related Millennium Development Goals and achieving Universal Health Coverage is the lack of an adequate and well-performing health workforce. This deficit needs to be addressed both by training more new heal...
Article
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Background: Job satisfaction is an important focal attitude towards work. Understanding factors that relate to job satisfaction allows interventions to be developed to enhance work performance. Most research on job satisfaction among nurses has been conducted in acute care settings in industrialized countries. Factors that relate to rural nurses a...
Article
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Kenya experienced rapid scale up of HIV testing and counselling services in government health services from 2001. We set out to examine the human resource policy implications of scaling up HIV testing and counselling in Kenya and to analyse the resultant policy against a recognised theoretical framework of health policy reform (policy analysis tria...
Article
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This article reports on a comparative analysis to assess and explain the strengths and weaknesses of policy processes based on 9 case-studies of maternal health in Vietnam, India and China. Policy processes are often slow, inadequately coordinated and opaque to outsiders. Use of evidence is variable and, in particular, could be more actively used t...
Technical Report
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One of the key issues in increasing health service provision to populations in remote areas of Vietnam is the lack of qualified health workers. Remote areas – such as the Northern Uplands provinces (NUP) or Central Highlands (CEH) – have fewer health workers per capita, relative to MOH staffing norms, and relative to funded positions. For example,...
Data
Table S1: The Case studies. This table summarises the details of the selected case studies
Article
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Published practical examples of how to bridge gaps between research, policy and practice in health systems research in Sub Saharan Africa are scarce. The aim of our study was to use a case study approach to analyse how and why different operational health research projects in Africa have contributed to health systems strengthening and promoted equi...
Conference Paper
Health policy processes in developing countries are less robust than is desirable. The China study of SBA, ARH and DV policy focused to understand the cause of the Know-Do gap, to explore the complex interplay between different influences on the policy process, and to examine the key determinants in the policy process. In the context of globaliza...
Conference Paper
Background: Strategic human resource (HR) planning is key to solving the global health workforce crisis, but this needs to be integrated with health service planning. This study looked at HR planning in the context of policy development and implementation in the area of maternal health. Methods: Case studies of maternal health policies on skilled b...
Article
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Many countries in middle- and low-income countries today suffer from severe staff shortages and/or maldistribution of health personnel which has been aggravated more recently by the disintegration of health systems in low-income countries and by the global policy environment. One of the most damaging effects of severely weakened and under-resourced...