Tim Ken Mackey

Tim Ken Mackey
University of California, San Diego | UCSD · Global Health Program - Department of Anthropology

MAS, PhD

About

267
Publications
73,941
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,720
Citations
Introduction
Tim K. Mackey is the Director of the Global Health Policy and Data Institute, a Professor in the Global Health Program in the Department of Anthropology at UC San Diego, Director of Healthcare Research & Policy at UC San Diego - Extension, and CEO and co-Founder of S-3 Research. He holds a BA in Political Science-International Relations a Masters Degree in Health Policy & Law, and a PhD in Global Public Health.
Additional affiliations
November 2017 - present
University of California, San Diego - Extension
Position
  • Managing Director
July 2017 - present
University of California, San Diego
Position
  • Professor
November 2016 - present
BioMed Central/Springer
Position
  • Section Editor, Global Health
Education
June 2011 - June 2011
Graduate Institute of Geneva
Field of study
  • Health Diplomacy
August 2010 - June 2013
University of California, San Diego, San Diego State University
Field of study
  • Global Health
September 2007 - June 2009
University of California, San Diego, California Western School of Law
Field of study
  • Health Law

Publications

Publications (267)
Article
Full-text available
Corruption has been described as a disease. When corruption infiltrates global health, it can be particularly devastating, threatening hard gained improvements in human and economic development, international security, and population health. Yet, the multifaceted and complex nature of global health corruption makes it extremely difficult to tackle,...
Article
Full-text available
Three years have passed since the FDA announced that it had detected counterfeit versions of the injectable anticancer drug bevacizumab (Avastin®, Genentech, USA) in the US drug-supply chain. Following this discovery, almost 1,000 FDA warning letters were sent to physicians and medical practices in 48 different states and two US territories, as mor...
Article
The World Health Organization now relies upon voluntary contributions tied to specific projects, underwriting 75% of operations. A resulting cacophony of non-governmental, foundation, and private sector actors have emerged overlapping and fractionating WHO programs. In this expanding world of "global health organizations," WHO's role must be redefi...
Article
Counterfeit drugs are a global problem with significant and well-documented consequences for global health and patient safety, including drug resistance and patient deaths. This multibillion-dollar industry does not respect geopolitical borders, and threatens public health in both rich and resource-poor nations alike. The epidemiology of counterfeit...
Article
No formal system exists to review trade restrictions imposed during international public health emergencies rapidly. Failure to put one in place creates disincentives for surveillance and reporting, thereby undermining protection efforts. The 2003 SARS outbreak exposed weaknesses in global governance that caused uncoordinated public health and econ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Access to tobacco products, including vape products, from local brick-and-mortar stores influences the exposure, uptake, and use of these products in local communities. Methods Licensed tobacco retailers in California were classified as specialized tobacco/vape stores or non-specialized stores by obtaining categories published on Yelp....
Article
Technological advances have enabled the rapid generation of health and genomic data, though rarely do these technologies account for the values and priorities of marginalized communities. In this commentary, we conceptualize a blockchain genomics data framework built out of the concept of Indigenous Data Sovereignty.
Article
Introduction: The urgent need to acquire medical supplies amidst the COVID-19 pandemic has led to bypassing of controls that govern the global pharmaceutical supply chain, increasing the risk of corruption. Hence, promoting anti-corruption, transparency, and accountability (ACTA) in supply chain and procurement has never been more important. The a...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Though university smoke-free and tobacco-free campus policies have been proliferating across the US, compliance and enforcement remain challenges. This study examined perceptions and behaviors of employees and students who used tobacco products on tobacco-free campuses, to better understand policy non-compliance. Methods: Students...
Article
Background TikTok is a microvideo social media platform currently experiencing rapid growth and with 60% of its monthly users between the ages of 16 and 24 years. Increased exposure to e-cigarette content on social media may influence patterns of use, including the risk of overconsumption and possible nicotine poisoning, when users engage in trendi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Exposure to pro-tobacco and electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) social media content can lead to overconsumption, increasing the likelihood of nicotine poisoning. This study aims to examine trends and characteristics of nicotine sickness content on Twitter between 2018–2020. Methods Tweets were collected retrospectively from th...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Synthetic cannabinoids are a significant public health concern, especially among incarcerated populations due to increased reports of abuse. Recent news reports have highlighted the severe consequence of K2/Spice, a synthetic cannabinoid, on the prison population in the United States. Despite regulations against cell phone use, inmates u...
Preprint
BACKGROUND N/A OBJECTIVE N/A METHODS N/A RESULTS N/A CONCLUSIONS N/A CLINICALTRIAL N/A
Article
Smoke- and tobacco-free university polices have been expanding throughout the United States. In spite of the benefits of such policies, policy compliance remains a challenge. A better understanding of campus community enforcement approaches is needed to inform future policy implementation to bring about greater adherence to university smoke- and to...
Article
Full-text available
Various tobacco vendors, including alternative tobacco product sellers, are listed on the popular crowdsourced business listing platform Yelp. Yelp is used to rate and choose tobacco, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) goods/services and includes self-reporting of user experiences with shops and products. We cross-referenced California Dep...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: We sought to determine school and community characteristics associated with proximity to tobacco and ENDS storefronts within a 0.5-kilometer radius in California. Methods: A list of licensed tobacco retailers was obtained from the California Department of Tax and Fee Administration; retailer names and addresses were used to scrape Yelp i...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Among racial and ethnic minority groups, the risk of HIV infection is an ongoing public health challenge. PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) is highly effective for preventing HIV when taken as prescribed. However, there is a need to understand experiences, attitudes, and barriers of PrEP for racial and ethnic minority populations, and sexu...
Article
Background Increased public health and regulatory scrutiny concerning the youth vaping epidemic has led to greater attention to promotion and sales of vaping products on social media platforms. Objectives We used unsupervised machine learning to identify and characterise sale offers of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and associated pro...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The objective of this study was to develop an inductive coding approach specific to characterizing user-generated social media conversations about transition of use of different tobacco and alternative and emerging tobacco products (ATPs). Results A total of 40,206 tweets were collected from the Twitter public API stream that were geocod...
Article
Full-text available
Background In response to recent policy efforts to regulate tobacco and vaping products, the vaping industry has been aggressive in mobilizing opposition by using a network of manufacturers, trade associations, and tobacco user communities, and by appealing to the general public. One strategy the alternative tobacco industry uses to mobilize politi...
Article
Full-text available
Growing popularity of electronic nicotine-delivery systems (ENDS) has coincided with a need to strengthen tobacco-control policy. In response, the ENDS industry has taken actions to mobilize against public health measures, including coordination on social media platforms. To explore this phenomenon, data mining was used to collect public posts on t...
Preprint
BACKGROUND TikTok is a microvideo social media platform currently experiencing rapid growth and with 60% of its monthly users between the ages of 16 and 24 years. Increased exposure to e-cigarette content on social media may influence patterns of use, including the risk of overconsumption and possible nicotine poisoning, when users engage in trendi...
Article
Background: Shortly after Pfizer and Moderna received emergency use authorizations from the Food and Drug Administration, there were increased reports of COVID-19 vaccine-related deaths in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). In January 2021, Major League Baseball legend and Hall of Famer, Hank Aaron, passed away at the age of 86 ye...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Shortly after Pfizer and Moderna received emergency use authorizations from the Food and Drug Administration, there were increased reports of COVID-19 vaccine-related deaths in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). In January 2021, Major League Baseball legend and Hall of Famer, Hank Aaron, passed away at the age of 86 year...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The number of colleges and universities with smoke- or tobacco-free campus policies has been increasing. The effects of campus smoking policies on overall sentiment, particularly among young adult populations, are more difficult to assess owing to the changing tobacco and e-cigarette product landscape and differential attitudes toward...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The number of colleges and universities with smoke- or tobacco-free campus policies has been increasing. The effects of campus smoking policies on overall sentiment, particularly among young adult populations, are more difficult to assess owing to the changing tobacco and e-cigarette product landscape and differential attitudes toward po...
Article
Full-text available
Background Vitamin D has been identified as a potential protective factor in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We expect to see a stronger association of ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure and CRC crude rates with increasing age since chronic vitamin D deficiency leads to sustained molecular changes that increase cancer risk. The DINOMIT (disju...
Article
Background: Growing use of social media has led to the emergence of virtual controlled substance and illicit drug marketplaces, prompting calls for action by government and law enforcement. Previous studies have analyzed Instagram drug selling via posts. However, comments made by users involving potential drug selling have not been analyzed. In thi...
Article
Full-text available
The 2019 outbreak of E-cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use-Associated Lung Injury (EVALI) increased awareness of potential health risks associated with vaping among the general public. Little is known, however, about how unfolding information regarding EVALI affected knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among e-cigarette users, particularly among youn...
Article
Full-text available
The Open Payments database reports payments made to physicians by industry. Given the potential for financial conflicts of interest relating to patient outcomes, further scrutiny of these data is valuable. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze physician-industry relationships by specialty type, payment type, geospatial trend, and lo...
Article
Full-text available
Due to corruption and limited oversight, philanthropy in China has come under increasing scrutiny by both the Chinese government and public. In particular, corruption has impacted charities, resulting in operational funding declines that have also impacted legitimate charities serving the vulnerable. Hence, an increase in the number of Chinese char...
Article
Full-text available
The most recent global refugee figures are staggering, with over 82.4 million people forcibly displaced and 26.4 million registered refugees. The ongoing conflict in Syria is a major contributor. After a decade of violence and destabilization, over 13.4 million Syrians have been displaced, including 6.7 million internally displaced persons and 6.7...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Concomitant with the popularization of vaping, vape shops have dramatically proliferated over the past years. This study assesses whether vape storefronts in California are significantly associated with density of different age groups, and whether this differs between tobacco storefronts or non-specific tobacco retailers. Methods:...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the types of misinformation spread on Twitter that evokes scientific authority or evidence when making false claims about the antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for COVID-19. Specifically, we examined tweets generated after former U.S. President Donald Trump retweeted misinformation about the drug using an u...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Suicide and substance use disorder (SUD) pose serious public health challenges among young adults in the United States. Increasing social media use among these populations can be leveraged as an alternative method to detect characteristics of suicide-related topics and behavior among substance users. Objective: To detect and characteriz...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Early reports of COVID-19 cases and deaths may not accurately convey community-level concern about the pandemic during early stages, particularly in the United States where testing capacity was initially limited. Social media interaction may elucidate public reaction and communication dynamics about COVID-19 in this critical period, du...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: College-aged youth are active on social media yet smoking-related social media engagement in these populations has not been thoroughly investigated. We sought to conduct an exploratory infoveillance study focused on geolocated data to characterize smoking-related tweets originating from California 4-year colleges on Twitter. Methods:...
Article
Full-text available
Background In 2016, the “Act on Support for Overseas Expansion of Healthcare System and Attraction of International Patients” was enacted by the South Korean government in an attempt to accelerate growth of its medical tourism industry. However, only a few years after its implementation, the benefits are not well understood, nor have the positive o...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The potential of regenerative medicine to improve human health has led to the rapid expansion of stem cell clinics throughout the world with varying levels of regulation and oversight. This has led to a market ripe for stem cell tourism, with Tijuana, Mexico, as a major destination. In this study, we characterize the online marketing,...
Preprint
BACKGROUND In response to recent policy efforts to regulate tobacco and vaping products, the vaping industry has been aggressive in mobilizing opposition by using a network of manufacturers, trade associations, and tobacco user communities, and by appealing to the general public. One strategy the alternative tobacco industry uses to mobilize politi...
Article
In the context of blockchain technology, “off-chain” refers to computation or data that is structurally external to the blockchain network. Off-Chain Blockchain Systems (OCBS) enable this information processing and management through distributed software architecture where the blockchain network interacts with off-chain resources. Hence, OCBS are a...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Recent reports of lung injury associated with Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS) products precipitated by increasing vaping prevalence and interest in flavors among adolescents has led to policies that restrict the sale, distribution, and accessibility of ENDS products. This study assessed compliance of online ENDS vendors to...
Article
This paper analyzes online user conversation topics and discourse on Twitter related to the "Liberate" Protest movement in reaction to social distancing guidelines at the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Interdisci-plinary approaches in big data, machine learning, content analysis, and social network analysis (SNA) were used to characterize t...
Chapter
The application of human right frameworks is an increasingly important part of efforts to accelerate progress in global mental health. Much of this has been driven by several influential legal and policy instruments, most notably the United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, as well as the World Health Organization’s Qu...
Article
Full-text available
Unstructured: The enormous pressure of the increasing case numbers during the COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to a variety of novel digital systems designed to provide solutions to unprecedented challenges in public health. Especially the field of algorithmic contact tracing, an area of research that had previously received limited attention, has...
Preprint
UNSTRUCTURED The enormous pressure of the increasing case numbers experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to a variety of novel digital systems designed to provide solutions to unprecedented challenges in public health. The field of algorithmic contact tracing, in particular, an area of research that had previously received limited...
Article
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has reached 40 million confirmed cases worldwide. Given its rapid progression, it is important to examine its origins to better understand how people’s knowledge, attitudes, and reactions have evolved over time. One method is to use data mining of social media conversations related to information exposure and self-r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Vitamin D has been identified as a potential protective factor the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We expect to see a stronger association of ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure and CRC crude rates with increasing age since chronic vitamin D deficiency leads to sustained molecular changes that increase cancer risk. The DINOMIT (disjunc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction: Local rates of COVID-19 cases and deaths may not accurately convey the variability in community-level concern about COVID-19 during the early outbreak period in the United States. Social media interaction may elucidate communication about COVID-19 in this critical period, during which communities may have formulated initial conception...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives According to current reporting, the number of active coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections is not evenly distributed, both spatially and temporally. Reported COVID-19 infections may not have properly conveyed the full extent of attention to the pandemic. Furthermore, infection metrics are unlikely to illustrate the full scope of...
Article
Full-text available
Background Corruption is a significant challenge to the future of human development, economic progress, and population health in the post millennium. Corruption, in its different forms of bribery, fraud, waste, collusion, and illicit financial flows, not only leads to waste but can also erode trust in government and public systems. Corruption is al...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND The global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is staggering as it now has eclipsed 24 million confirmed cases globally. Given its rapid progression, it is important to examine its origins to better understand how people’s knowledge, attitudes and reactions have evolved over time. One method is to use data mining of social media conversation...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction From late 2014 through 2015, Scott County, Indiana faced an HIV outbreak triggered by opioid abuse and transition to injection drug use. Investigating the origins, risk factors, and responses related to this outbreak is critical to inform future surveillance, interventions, and policymaking. In response, this retrospective infoveillanc...
Article
Full-text available
At an estimated US$19 billion, the illicit wildlife trade is a serious threat to global conservation efforts. This criminal enterprise is now digital, expanding its footprint to consumers internationally by using the Internet and social media platforms. Recent studies have detected illegal wildlife selling posts on the popular social networking sit...
Article
Full-text available
In the last two decades, global action to address noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) has accelerated, but policy adoption and implementation at the national level has been inadequate. This analysis examines the role of rationalities of governing, or governmentality, in national-level adoption of global recommendations. Critical discourse analysis was...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic is perhaps the greatest global health challenge of the last century. Accompanying this pandemic is a parallel “infodemic”, including the online marketing and sale of unapproved, illegal and counterfeit COVID-19 health products, including testing kits, treatments, and other questionable “cures”. Enabling proliferatio...
Article
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is perhaps the greatest global health challenge of the last century. Accompanying this pandemic is a parallel "infodemic", including the online marketing and sale of unapproved, illegal and counterfeit COVID-19 health products, including testing kits, treatments, and other questionable "cures". Enabling proliferat...