Tim C. Kinnaird

Tim C. Kinnaird
University of St Andrews · School of Earth and Environmental Science

PhD

About

61
Publications
18,011
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
685
Citations
Citations since 2017
38 Research Items
522 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
Additional affiliations
April 2017 - present
University of St Andrews
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (61)
Article
Full-text available
A series of massive geophysical anomalies, located south of the Durrington Walls henge monument, were identified during fluxgate gradiometer survey undertaken by the Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes Project (SHLP). Initially interpreted as dewponds, these data have been re-evaluated, along with information on similar features revealed by archaeological...
Article
Full-text available
Optically stimulated luminescence profiling and dating of earthworks: the creation and development of prehistoric field boundaries at Bosigran, Cornwall - Soetkin Vervust, Tim Kinnaird, Peter Herring, Sam Turner
Article
The gravel-sand transition (GST) is commonly observed along rivers. It is characterized by an abrupt reduction in median grain size, from gravel- to sand-size sediment, and by a shift in sand transport mode from wash load–dominated to suspended bed material load. We documented changes in channel stability, suspended sediment concentration, flux, an...
Article
Full-text available
In the Eastern Mediterranean, where some of the earliest known urban cities are located, relatively little is known about urban soils in archaeological contexts. Red Mediterranean Soil (RMS) is a hallmark of the Mediterranean region while the impact of long-term urbanization on RMS material is understudied. In this article we present evidence of RM...
Article
Excavation and survey of archaeological sites have in recent years generated new data on the chronology of river terraces on the River Dee between Banchory and Peterculter in Aberdeenshire. Terrace fragments have been mapped and correlated on altitudinal grounds, for the first time. Five terrace surfaces are identified and named, refining the termi...
Article
In response to Timothy Darvill's article, ‘Mythical rings?’ (this issue), which argues for an alternative interpretation of Waun Mawn circle and its relationship with Stonehenge, Parker Pearson and colleagues report new evidence from the Welsh site and elaborate on aspects of their original argument. The discovery of a hearth at the centre of the c...
Article
Palaeoenvironmental and historical approaches have often been used separately to investigate past land-use change, but they are still rarely combined, especially in places where the most suitable archives are sediment sequences. Here we used a transdisciplinary approach combining a multiproxy palaeoenvironmental study of two pedosedimentological se...
Article
The rich resources of river valleys provided a focus for much Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fisher activities across Europe. In Scotland there is one notable concentration of lithic evidence for this, at several locations along the River Dee in Aberdeenshire, but the environmental context of these sites has, to date, been poorly understood. Here we pr...
Article
Full-text available
Ruddons Point, on the Firth of Forth coastline, Scotland, is a laterally extensive terrace of glacial and marine sediment deposits raised above current sea level, situated near to Kincraig Point, a key site that records a series of stepped erosional platforms carved into the local bedrock, interpreted as post Last Glacial Maximum paleoshorelines. T...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to reconstruct the alluvial activity for the Lilas river, the second-largest catchment of Euboea Island (Central Western Aegean Sea), for approximately the last three and a half millennia. The middle reaches (Gides basin) exhibit several historical alluvial terraces that were first recognised in the 1980s but have remained poorly st...
Article
This volume presents the results of archaeological fieldwork undertaken along the River Dee, Aberdeenshire, north-east Scotland, by the Mesolithic Deeside voluntary community archaeology group between 2017 and 2019. A total of 42 fields were investigated, from which over 11,000 lithics were recovered, representing at least 15 archaeological sites a...
Article
Full-text available
Rivers have always been a magnet for human settlement, providing resources, such as water, food, and energy, and communication and travel routes. Climate- and human-made changes to the environment can easily affect the fragile balance between the 'natural' and the 'urban', causing droughts, floods, and other changes in riverine systems that challen...
Article
Full-text available
For future landscapes to be sustainable, significant changes in land-use and management practices will be needed. This article argues that landscape archaeology can make distinctive contributions to sustainability in two ways: firstly, by researching what were and were not sustainable ways of life in the past, and secondly by using this knowledge t...
Article
Full-text available
Roman metal use and related extraction activities resulted in heavy metal pollution and contamination, in particular of Pb near ancient mines and harbors, as well as producing a global atmospheric impact. New evidence from ancient Gerasa (Jerash), Jordan, suggests that small-scale but intense Roman, Byzantine and Umayyad period urban, artisanal, an...
Article
Full-text available
The Storegga tsunami, dated in Norway to 8150±30 cal. years BP, hit many countries bordering the North Sea. Run‐ups of >30 m occurred and 1000s of kilometres of coast were impacted. Whilst recent modelling successfully generated a tsunami wave train, the wave heights and velocities, it under‐estimated wave run‐ups. Work presented here used luminesc...
Article
Full-text available
The history of agricultural terraces remains poorly understood due to problems in dating their construction and use. This has hampered broader research on their significance, limiting knowledge of past agricultural practices and the long-term investment choices of rural communities. The authors apply OSL profiling and dating to the sediments associ...
Article
The discovery of a dismantled stone circle—close to Stonehenge's bluestone quarries in west Wales—raises the possibility that a 900-year-old legend about Stonehenge being built from an earlier stone circle contains a grain of truth. Radiocarbon and OSL dating of Waun Mawn indicate construction c. 3000 BC, shortly before the initial construction of...
Chapter
Full-text available
This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-2007-2013) (Grant agreement No. 323727).
Article
Full-text available
The Upper Palaeolithic is characterised by the appearance of iconographic expressions most often depicting animals, including anthropomorphic forms, and geometric signs. The Late Upper Palaeolithic Magdalenian saw a flourishing of such depictions, encompassing cave art, engraving of stone, bone and antler blanks and decoration of tools and weapons....
Article
The development of functional portable optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) readers over the last decade has provided practitioners with the capability to acquire luminescence signals from geological materials relatively rapidly, which allows for expedient preliminary chronostratigraphic insight when working with complex depositional systems of...
Article
Full-text available
Doggerland was a landmass occupying an area currently covered by the North Sea until marine inundation took place during the mid-Holocene, ultimately separating the British landmass from the rest of Europe. The Storegga Event, which triggered a tsunami reflected in sediment deposits in the northern North Sea, northeast coastlines of the British Isl...
Article
Full-text available
Wallington in central Northumberland is a late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century country house with associated pleasure grounds. Much of the surrounding estate is agricultural land, though there are also expanses of moorland and conifer plantation. The character of Wallington’s landscape, now divided into fifteen separate farm holdings, was...
Preprint
Full-text available
Doggerland was a land mass occupying an area currently covered by the North Sea until marine inundation took place during the mid-Holocene, ultimately separating the British land mass from the rest of Europe. The Storegga Slide, which triggered a tsunami reflected in sediment deposits in the Northern North Sea, North East coastlines of the British...
Article
Full-text available
Sedimentary rocks in the Alanya Window document pulsed Permian-Triassic rifting in a proximal basin setting, adjacent to the Tauride continental unit (Geyik Dağ). Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician clastic sediments accumulated along the north margin of Gondwana on a variable shallow-marine shelf. Above an unconformity related to rift-shoulder uplift,...
Article
To improve the knowledge about the Quaternary tectonic landforms, their potential level of activity, and the associated inherent seismic hazards in the Cordillera Oriental of northwestern Argentina we analyzed the Lomas de Carabajal area along the western border of the Lerma valley. In this region, Pliocene to Pleistocene synorogenic conglomerates...
Article
Full-text available
This interdisciplinary study addresses issues of urban-riverine hinterland relationships in semi-arid environments over millennia at Gerasa/Jerash in Jordan, presenting research that stimulates new lines of enquiry with much broader implications than those relating to this single site. Through the presentation of new data on wadi-sediment responses...
Article
Kathmandu’s medieval cities and shrines are exceptional architectural and artistic achievements underpinned by centuries of seismic adaptation. They host urban infrastructure of tangible and intangible value and play vital roles of cohesion in the life of thousands of people. They also represent portals where the heavens touch earth and individuals...
Article
Full-text available
We present major new findings on the stability of Norse landing places on the island of Unst, Shetland, using a combination of geomorphology, OSL dating, fetch analysis, and sediment transport modeling. Islanders needed reliable access to the sea, and exploited sandy beaches as safe landing places. The persistence of beaches was important for long-...
Chapter
This chapter concerns the use of luminescence methods as geochronological tools for dating Late Quaternary sediments in the Red Sea region. The dating methods all use stimulated luminescence to register signals developed in mineral systems in response to long term exposure to ionising radiation in the environment. The principles of luminescence dat...
Article
Geoarchaeological survey on the island of Gozo combined with test excavations and new chronometric dating of two Neolithic temple sites at Santa Verna and Ġgantija on the Xagħra plateau have revealed well-preserved buried soils which tell a new story of soil development and change for the early-mid-Holocene period. Micromorphological analysis has s...
Article
Previous studies have suggested that excess variations from single-photon counting systems used in luminescence dating may result in underestimation of errors and profoundly influence age models. In this study ten different photon counting systems have been investigated to explore this effect with a greater number of photomultiplier types and instr...
Article
Full-text available
To understand why historic landscapes changed in the past researchers need to identify when and where changes took place, but in rural landscapes, the origins and development of many historic elements including field systems, roads, terraces and other earthworks remain poorly understood. This paper outlines a practical interdisciplinary method usin...
Article
A high-resolution chronostratigraphy has been established for an eroding Atlantic round house at Sloc Sàbhaidh (North Uist, Scotland), combining detailed OSL profiling and dating of sediments encompassing the main bracketing events associated with the monument, radiocarbon AMS dates on bone recovered from excavated features and fills within it, and...
Article
The strand-plain of the Usumacinta and Grijalva rivers is the largest of the Gulf of Mexico as it is characterized by a sequence of well-preserved beach-dune ridges (n > 100) distributed ∼150 km along the shoreline. This prominent coastal landform is part of the delta plain of Tabasco and Campeche. We present geochronological data of the beach-dune...
Article
Full-text available
Dating agricultural terraces is a notoriously difficult problem for archaeologists. The frequent occurrence of residual material in terrace soils and the potential for post-depositional disturbance mean that conventional artefactual and lab-based dating methods often provide unreliable dates. In this paper we present a new technique using luminesce...
Article
Full-text available
The Kyrenia Range underwent tectonically driven uplift during the Pliocene to Pleistocene in response to the interaction of various tectonic processes. To understand the tectonic processes driving the uplift and how this is related to uplift of other areas of the Eastern Mediterranean, uranium-series disequilibrium and optically stimulated luminesc...
Conference Paper
The strand-plain of the Usumacinta and Grijalva rivers is one of the largest strand-plains of the Gulf of Mexico. The strand-plain is located at southern Mexico and comprises flood plains, lagoons and a deltaic plain of more than 150 km wide that is composed by beach-dune ridges parallel and subparallel to the current coastal line. These ridges are...
Article
We use three different approaches of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) to study young fluvial sediments located at the main channels of one of the largest fluvial systems of North America: the Usumacinta-Grijalva. We use the pulsed photo-stimulated luminescence (PPSL) system also known as portable OSL reader, full OSL dating and profiling OSL...
Article
This paper aims to date the construction and demise of the medieval Bridge at Avignon by integrating sedimentological and stratigraphic evidence with geophysical surveys (ERT), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon chronologies. In this way the palaeo-environments of Barthelasse Island (Avignon) and the Labadie Plain (Villeneuve-l...
Article
A detailed structural analysis of the Mesozoic–Cenozoic geological development of the central segment of the Kyrenia Range in its regional tectonic context is given here. The structural evidence comes from five structural traverses, outcrop observations, small-scale structures and related regional evidence. The majority of the structures are fault...
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on the younger of a series of Quaternary terraces along the flanks of the Kyrenia Range in northern Cyprus, specifically the Kyrenia (Girne) and the Koupia terraces. The Kyrenia (Girne) terrace is tentatively correlated with oxygen isotope stage 5 (125 Ka), and the Koupia terrace with oxygen isotope stage 3 (
Article
Young sediments, with low sensitivity and low dose rates, are challenging for luminescence dating. Here, we present work on the site of Sandwick South, a Norse settlement, in which these challenges were present. Field gamma dose rates below 0.1 mGy a-1, and total dose rates of 0.4-0.5 mGy a-1, combined with expected ages of less than 1 ka, resulted...
Article
A common explanation for intense soil erosion and gullying in SE Australia is the introduction by Europeans of new land use practices following their arrival in Australia in the late 18th century. Eucalyptus woodlands were cleared to introduce farming, and valley bottoms, characterized by chains of ponds with organic-rich swampy meadow (SM) soils,...
Article
Key locations identified with the lives of important religious founders have often been extensively remodelled in later periods, entraining the destruction of many of the earlier remains. Recent UNESCO sponsored work at the major Buddhist centre of Lumbini in Nepal has sought to overcome these limitations, providing direct archaeological evidence o...
Article
We study the paraglacial activity in Gredos Gorge, a glaciated valley of Sierra de Gredos (Central Spain), using geomorphic markers, stratigraphy and an approach based on OSL. We use luminescence signals from debris flow and fluvial deposits as well as OSL dating of three deposits to detect the main paraglacial processes in Gredos Gorge. We identif...
Article
Evidence mainly from Neogene-Recent sedimentary units and penetrative structures (faults and folds) is used to constrain stress regimes in Cyprus. Following c. south-vergent folding/thrusting, a regional change to extension activated several depocentres during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Fault analysis establishes that kinematic linkages exist...
Article
Given the long history of human occupation on Cyprus, and the intensely disturbed and eroded nature of its landscape, the present-day topography has been linked to 102-3 years of human settlement and land use. Luminescence dating methods provide a chronological framework to interpret landscape processes and human-environmental interactions over thi...
Article
Excavations at Meadowsfoot Beach, Mothecombe, south Devon, between 2004 and 2011 focused on two main areas. In the first, evidence for occupation in a sand dune included successive hearths and imported early medieval finds. In the second, three phases of early medieval structures were uncovered, along with more imported finds including amphora sher...
Article
Luminescence methods were used to date a palaeoenvironmental coastal exposure on Stronsay, Orkney. The section consists of glacial sediments that are overlain by intercalated peats and windblown sands, implying varying past environmental conditions. Rapid luminescence characterisation was undertaken using screening methods in combination with quant...
Article
Full-text available
Plio-Pleistocene sediments exposed around the ophiolitic Troodos Massif document spectacular uplift from below sea level to a maximum height of c. 2000 m. Sedimentation reflects a dominant control of focused tectonic uplift, modified by the effects of glacio-eustatic sea-level change and climatic change. Understanding the uplift and controls on dep...
Thesis
The main objective of this work was to understand fundamental processes related to incipient continental collision through studying the tectonostratigraphic evolution of Cyprus, in its Easternmost Mediterranean context. This was achieved by compiling structural, sedimentological and stratigraphic evidence from Late Cenozoic to Recent sequences, and...
Article
Full-text available
The Torridonian succession of NW Scotland comprises three groups, deposited during late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic time, the Stoer, Sleat and Torridon. Previous workers have interred that each was formed in a rift basin and that each is internally conformable. New fieldwork and detrital zircon age data indicate that this model is incor...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Project (1)
Project
https://research.ncl.ac.uk/terrasage/aboutourproject/