Tim Berners-Lee

Tim Berners-Lee
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | MIT · Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

Bachelor of Arts

About

155
Publications
61,855
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33,664
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (155)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While the Web was designed as a decentralised environment, individual authors still lack the ability to conveniently author and publish documents, and to engage in social interactions with documents of others in a truly decentralised fashion. We present dokieli, a fully decentralised, browser-based authoring and annotation platform with built-in su...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this article we describe the Linked Data Notifications (LDN) protocol, which is a W3C Candidate Recommendation. Notifications are sent over the Web for a variety of purposes, for example, by social applications. The information contained within a notification is structured arbitrarily, and typically only usable by the application which generated...
Conference Paper
The 10th Linked Data on the Web workshop (LDOW2017) was held in Perth, Western Australia on April 3, 2017, co-located with the 26th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW2017). In its 10th anniversary edition, the LDOW workshop aims to stimulate discussion and further research into the challenges of publishing, consuming, and integrating stru...
Conference Paper
The ninth workshop on Linked Data (LDOW2016) on the Web is held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada on April 12, 2016 and co-located with the 25rd International World Wide Web Conference (WWW2016). The Web is developing from a medium for publishing textual documents into a medium for sharing structured data. This trend is fueled on the one hand by the adop...
Conference Paper
Solid is a decentralized platform for social Web applications. In the Solid platform, users' data is managed independently of the applications that create and consume this data. Each user stores their data in a Web-accessible personal online datastore (or pod). Each user can have one or more pods from different pod providers, and can easily switch...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a brief summary of the eight workshop on Linked Data on the Web. The LDOW 2013 workshop is held in conjunction with the World Wide Web conference 2013. The focus is on data publishing, integration and consumption using RDF and other semantic representation formalisms and technologies.
Article
Personal data ownership and interoperability for decentralized social Web applications are currently two debated topics, especially when taking into consideration the aspects of privacy and access control. To increase data ownership, users should have the freedom to choose where their data resides and who is allowed access to it by decoupling data...
Article
This paper discusses issues that will affect the future development of the Web, either increasing its power and utility, or alternatively suppressing its development. It argues for the importance of the continued development of the Linked Data Web, and describes the use of linked open data as an important component of that. Second, the paper defend...
Article
The movement to publish government data is an opportunity to populate the linked data Web with data of good provenance. The benefits range from transparency to public service improvement, citizen engagement to the creation of social and economic value. There are many challenges to be met before the vision is implemented, and this paper describes th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The popularity and plurality of social sharing and collaboration platforms today demonstrates the demand for sharing information at a wide variety of granularities and scale — from public blogging of micro-data (e.g., microblogging posts, page “Likes”, and place-“check-ins”) to specific, full-on collaborative sharing of documents and projects. The...
Article
There is no need to fear a 'database state'. The information age will boost the economy and make life easier Data is the new raw material of the 21st century — a resource that gets more plentiful every day. In today's web-connected world it drives transactions and decisions of every kind. We need accurate data to help us to catch trains and buses o...
Conference Paper
http://dayta.me is a highly personal information recom- mender that augments a person’s online calendar with useful informa- tion pertaining to their upcoming activities. To perform this recommen- dation, it draws upon a large collection of distributed, linked-data and Web 2.0 data sources it queries live, and provides a clear, simple user in- terf...
Article
http://dayta.me is a highly personal information recom- mender that augments a person?s online calendar with useful informa- tion pertaining to their upcoming activities. To perform this recommen- dation, it draws upon a large collection of distributed, linked-data and Web 2.0 data sources it queries live, and provides a clear, simple user in- terf...
Article
Full-text available
Social networking forms an important part of online activities of Web users. Web sites such as Facebook, MySpace and Orkut have millions of users using them everyday. However, these sites present two problems. Firstly, these sites form information silos. Information on one site is not usable in the others. Secondly such sites do not allow users muc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Web has developed into a global information space consisting not just of linked documents, but also of Linked Data. In 2010, we have seen significant growth in the size of the Web of Data, as well as in the number of communities contributing to its creation. In addition to publishing and interlinking datasets, there is intensive work on develop...
Conference Paper
How can we best design Web technology to support the features we would like of our society such as: openness, justice, transparency, accountability, participation, innovation, science and democracy?
Article
The Web is critical not merely to the digital revolution but to our continued prosperity—and even our liberty. Like democracy itself, it needs defending
Article
Full-text available
With the recent uptake on the linked open data on the Web, there are many interlinked data sets on the Web today. Interesting results that might not be obvious from this raw data itself, can be derived by computing answers to rules using the data and essentially connecting the dots to see the big picture. We describe a novel method to crawl the Web...
Article
Purpose – The World-Wide Web (W3) initiative is a practical project designed to bring a global information universe into existence using available technology. This paper seeks to describe the aims, data model, and protocols needed to implement the “web” and to compare them with various contemporary systems. Design/methodology/approach – Since Vanne...
Article
A review of the use of the Semantic Web to support e-Science and e-Social Science
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A single datum or a set of a categorical data has little value on its own. Combinations of disparate sets of data increase the value of those data sets and helps to discover interesting patterns or relationships, facilitating the construction of new applications and services. In this paper, we describe an implementation of using open geographical d...
Article
The advent of social computing on the Web has led to a new generation of Web applications that are powerful and world-changing. However, we argue that we are just at the beginning of this age of “social machines” and that their continued evolution and growth requires the cooperation of Web and AI researchers. In this paper, we show how the growing...
Article
Article describes the UK Open Government Data project which the two authors have been leading and the planned launch of data.gov.uk a single point of access for all public non-personal government datasets. It outlines the benefits that will flow from more accessible and open data. The article first appeared in The Times 18th Nov 2009 http://www.the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Web allows users to share their work very effectively leading to the rapid re-use and remixing of content on the Web including text, images, and videos. Scientific research data, social networks, blogs, photo sharing sites and other such applications known collectively as the Social Web have lots of increasingly complex information. Such inform...
Article
Full-text available
The term "Linked Data" refers to a set of best practices for publishing and connecting structured data on the Web. These best practices have been adopted by an increasing number of data providers over the last three years, leading to the creation of a global data space containing billions of assertions-the Web of Data. In this article, the authors...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While health records are increasingly stored electronically, we, as citizens, have little access to this data about ourselves. We are not used to thinking of these official records either as ours or as useful to us. We increasingly turn to the Web, however, to query any ache, pain or health goal we may have before consulting with health care profes...
Article
Full-text available
Creative Commons is a non-profit organization that has been striving to provide simple, uniform, and understand-able licenses that content creators can use to issue their con-tent under. These licenses provide a solution to the problem of copyright on the Web, while ensuring that the culture of reusing existing works to foster creativity is not hin...
Article
Full-text available
The structure of the Semantic Web gives users the power to share and collaboratively generate decentralized linked data. In many cases, though, collaboration requires some form of authentication and authorization to ensure the security and integrity of the data being generated. Traditional authorization systems that rely on centralized databases ar...
Article
Full-text available
The current Web of Data, including linked datasets, RDFa content, and GRDDL-enabled microformats is a read-only Web. Although this read-only Web of Data enables data integration, faceted browsing and structured queries over large datasets, we lack a general concept for a read-write Web of Data. That is, we need to understand how to create, update a...
Article
Full-text available
The term Linked Data refers to a set of best practices for publishing and connecting structured data on the Web. These best practices have been adopted by an increasing number of data providers over the last three years, leading to the creation of a global data space containing billions of assertions-the Web of Data. In this article we present the...
Article
Studying the Web will reveal better ways to exploit information, prevent identity theft, revolutionize industry and manage our ever growing online lives
Article
Full-text available
In the past, many knowledge representation systems failed because they were too monolithic and didn't scale well, whereas other systems failed to have an impact because they were small and isolated. Along with this trade-off in size, there is also a constant tension between the cost involved in building a larger community that can interoperate thro...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the huge success of the World Wide Web as a technology, and the significant amount of computing infrastructure on which it sits, the Web, as an entity remains surprisingly unstudied. In this article, we look at some of the issues that need to be explored to model the Web as a whole, to keep it growing, and to understand its continuing socia...
Article
Full-text available
Ease of information flow is both the boon and the bane of large-scale, decentralized systems like the World Wide Web. For all the benefits and opportunities brought by the information revolution, with that same revolution have come the challenges of inappropriate use. Such excesses and abuses in the use of information are most commonly viewed throu...
Conference Paper
The Web is increasingly understood as a global information space consisting not just of linked documents, but also of Linked Data. More than just a vision, the resulting Web of Data has been brought into being by the maturing of the Semantic Web technology stack, and by the publication of an increasing number of data sets according to the principle...
Article
Full-text available
Figure 1. The Tabulator. The first frame shows the Tabulator with an RDF source, the Open Linked Data Project open. The second frame shows information within that source expanded, the third frame shows another source within that source expanded, and finally, the last frame shows that the label of that source has been edited from "Music and artist d...
Article
Full-text available
The Web is increasingly understood as a global information space consisting not just of linked documents, but also of Linked Data. More than just a vision, the resulting Web of Data has been brought into being by the maturing of the Semantic Web technology stack, and by the publication of an increasing number of data sets according to the principle...
Article
Full-text available
The Semantic Web drives towards the use of the Web for interacting with logically interconnected data. Through knowledge models such as Resource Description Framework (RDF), the Semantic Web provides a unifying representation of richly structured data. Adding logic to the Web implies the use of rules to make inferences, choose courses of action, an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Data is often encumbered by restrictions on the ways in which it may be used. These restrictions on usage may be determined by statute, by contract, by custom, or by common decency, and they are used to control collection of data, diffusion of data, and the inferences that can be made over the data. In this paper, we present a data-purpose algebra...
Chapter
In this chapter, we describe the motivations for, and development of, a rule-based policy management system that can be deployed in the open and distributed milieu of the World Wide Web. We discuss the necessary features of such a system in creating a “Policy Aware” infrastructure for the Web and argue for the necessity of such infrastructure. We t...
Article
Full-text available
A first category of Semantic Web browsers were designed to present a given dataset (an RDF graph) for perusal, in various forms. These include mSpace, Exhibit, and to a certain extent Haystack. A second category tackled mechanisms and display issues around linked data gathered on the fly. These include Tabulator, Oink, Disco, Open Link Software's D...
Article
Full-text available
The work funded by DARPA and done by MIT and W3C under DAML Agent Markup Language (DAML) project between 2002 and 2005 provided key steps in the research in the Semantic Web technology, and also played an essential role in delivering the technology to industry and government in the form of open W3C standards. The Web Ontology Language (OWL), a W3C...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding and fostering the growth of the World Wide Web, both in engineering and societal terms, will require the development of a new interdisciplinary field.
Article
The article included many scenarios in which intelligent agents and bots undertook tasks on behalf of their human or corporate owners. Of course, shopbots and auction bots abound on the Web, but these are essentially handcrafted for particular tasks: they have little ability to interact with heterogeneous data and information types. Because we have...
Article
Full-text available
Attempts to address issues of personal privacy in a world of computerized databases and information networks -- from security technology to data protection regulation to Fourth Amendment law jurisprudence -- typically proceed from the perspective of controlling or preventing access to information. We argue that this perspective has become inadequat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As the necessity of flexible Web security becomes more apparent and as the notion of using policies for access control gains popularity, the number of policy languages being proposed for controlling access to Web resources increases. Instead of defining a single standard policy language, we believe that there should be a way of embracing different...
Conference Paper
The World Wide Web has been revolutionary in terms of impact, scale and outreach. At every level society has been changed in some way by the Web. This Panel will consider likely developments in this extraordinary human construct as we attempt to realise the Next Wave of the Web - a Semantic Web.Nigel Shadbolt will Chair a discussion that will focus...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With policy management becoming popular as a means of providing flexible Web security, the number of policy lan- guages being proposed for the Web is constantly increasing. We recognize the importance of policies for securing the Web and believe that the future will only bring more policy lan- guages. We do not, however, believe that users should b...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we describe the motivations for, and development of, a rule-based policy management system that can be deployed in the open and distributed milieu of the World Wide Web. We discuss the necessary features of such a system in creating a "Policy Aware" infrastructure for the Web and argue for the necessity of such infrastructure. We t...
Article
Full-text available
There is an urgent need for transparency and accountability for government use of large-scale data mining systems for law enforcement and national security purposes. We outline an information architecture for the Web that can provide transparent access to reasoning steps taken in the course of data mining, and accountability for use of personal inf...
Article
Full-text available
A web of linked RDF data may be enabled by standards specifying how links should be made in RDF and under what conditions they should be followed as well as powerful generic RDF browsers that can traverse an open web of RDF resources. The Tabulator is an RDF browser, which is designed both for new users to provoke interest in the Semantic Web and g...
Chapter
In this chapter, we describe the motivations for, and development of, a rule-based policy management system that can be deployed in the open and distributed milieu of the World Wide Web. We discuss the necessary features of such a system in creating a “Policy Aware” infrastructure for the Web and argue for the necessity of such infrastructure. We t...
Article
Full-text available
This text sets out a series of approaches to the analysis and synthesis of the World Wide Web, and other web-like information structures. A comprehensive set of research questions is outlined, together with a sub-disciplinary breakdown, emphasising the multi-faceted nature of the Web, and the multi-disciplinary nature of its study and development....
Conference Paper
The key property of the WWWW is its universality: One must be able to access it whatever the hardware device, software platform, and network one is using, and despite the disabilities one might have, and whether oner is in a "developed" or "developing" country; it must support information of any language, culture, quality, medium, and field without...
Article
The Research Councils of the UK (RCUK) propose to require that the authors of all journal articles resulting from RCUK-funded research must make them openly accessible by self-archiving them on the web in order maximise their usage and impact. ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers) claim that this will have a negative ef...
Article
Full-text available
The UK Research Funding Councils (RCUK) have proposed that all RCUK fundees should self-archive on the web, free for all, their own final drafts of all journal articles reporting their RCUK-funded research, in order to maximise their usage and impact. ALPSP (a learned publishers' association) now seeks to delay and block the RCUK proposal, arguing...
Article
The problem of updating and synchronizing data in the Se- mantic Web motivates an analog to text dis for RDF graphs. This paper discusses the problem of comparing two RDF graphs, generating a set of dierences, and updating a graph from a set of dierences. It discusses two forms of dierence information, the context-sensitive "weak" patch, and the co...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of updating and synchronizing data in the Semantic Web motivates an analog to text dis,for RDF graphs. This paper discusses the problem of comparing two RDF graphs, generating a set of dierences, and updating a graph from a set of dierences. It discusses two forms of dierence information, the context-sensitive “weak” patch, and the cont...
Article
A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a compact string of characters for identifying an abstract or physical resource. This document defines the generic syntax of URI, including both absolute and relative forms, and guidelines for their use; it revises and replaces the generic definitions in RFC 1738 and RFC 1808.
Article
Full-text available
The coming Internet revolution will profoundly affect scientific information.