Tim Bartley

Tim Bartley
Washington University in St. Louis | WUSTL , Wash U · Sociology

See https://sites.google.com/site/tbsoc2/

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42
Publications
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3,602
Citations

Publications

Publications (42)
Book
Full-text available
Activists have exposed startling forms of labor exploitation and environmental degradation in global industries, leading many large retailers and brands to adopt standards for fairness and sustainability. This book is about the idea that transnational corporations can push these rules through their global supply chains, and in effect, pull factorie...
Article
http://ser.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/10/21/ser.mwv023.short?rss=1 Scholars often rely on static and distant images of “decoupling” to describe the limited influence of “corporate social responsibility,” among other organizational and global scripts. New insights can be gained by looking closely at how local advocates seek to leverage...
Book
What does it mean when consumers “shop with a conscience” and choose products labeled as fair or sustainable? Does this translate into meaningful changes in global production processes? To what extent are voluntary standards implemented and enforced, and can they really govern global industries? Looking behind the Label presents an informative intr...
Article
After two decades in which transnational governance of production processes has typically meant voluntary subscription to privately developed standards, some transnational rulemaking projects are promoting mandatory compliance with law. The emerging timber legality regime is one example of this, and scholars' efforts to theorize this regime have pr...
Article
Corporations, NGOs, and private regulatory initiatives have taken on functions once assumed to be the domain of the state and inter-governmental organisations. While researchers are racing to assess the impacts of private rules, theoretical statements remain focused on the design, legitimation, and intermediation of private initiatives or the hegem...
Article
Full-text available
Organizational approaches can help to make sense of social phenomena, including inequality, politics, and culture. This is partly because large organizations exercise great power, both over employees and in their external environments. Revising Charles Perrow's classic account of the “society of organizations” in the 20th century, we argue that the...
Article
Low-wage work in the US and many other places continues to be characterized by precarious and dangerous conditions, vulnerable immigrant workforces, and problems of misclassification and wage theft. Several recent initiatives are seeking to demonstrate that conditions can be greatly improved even when governments lack the capacity to broadly enforc...
Article
Scholars and critics often lament that corporations rule the world, but predominant accounts of global governance imply almost the opposite: With theories populated by national governments and intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, it might appear that nearly everyone except corporations writes the rules that govern across borders. Th...
Article
Les chercheurs travaillant sur les mouvements sociaux ont montré que le soutien des fondations contribue à détourner ces mouvements de leurs activités radicales au profit d’objectifs plus modérés ; mais les études éclairant le déroulement de ce processus sont sous-représentées. Les recherches existantes se focalisent généralement sur deux aspects :...
Article
In response to anti-sweatshop activism, lead firms in global production networks (GPNs) have adopted voluntary corporate social responsibility commitments such as codes of conduct. Scholars have begun to examine whether and how these shape labour conditions at the point of production, but existing research either focuses on a small number of cases...
Article
As social movements co-evolve with changes in states and markets, it is crucial to examine how they make particular kinds of actors into focal points for the expression of grievances and the demand for rights. But researchers often bracket the question of why some kinds of organizations are more likely than others to become targets of social moveme...
Chapter
Social movements organize people, resources, and ideas for social change. Many do this through formal organizations—often called social movement organizations (SMOs). The concept of a social movement organization is trickier than it may initially seem, since it depends on defining a “social movement” and specifying its relevant set of organizations...
Article
This paper examines the dynamics and possible effects of transnational private certification of labor standards in Chinese export-oriented consumer products industries. Drawing on interviews with various relevant actors in Guangdong, Shanghai, and Beijing and a survey of manufacturing firms in Guangdong province, we investigate: How have initiative...
Article
This article raises some critical questions about the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in governance; identifies three modal NGO activities, including advocacy, service provision, and regulation; and discusses strands of scholarship and literature on each. It addresses the issues of NGO accountability, capacity, and coordination, and d...
Article
How do social movements influence corporations? Recent work suggests that movements can inflict material damage on their targets and shape categories of evaluation in organizational fields. Extending these ideas, we examine the effects of anti-sweatshop campaigns on sales, stock performance, reputation and specialized ratings of U.S. firms, using f...
Article
The implementation of transnational standards — in codes of conduct, certification, and monitoring initiatives — necessarily intertwines with domestic law and other types of rules. Yet much of the existing literature overlooks or obscures this fundamental point. Indeed, scholars often err either by treating private regulatory standards as transcend...
Article
Existing financial market architectures combine astonishing complexity with tight coupling, making them prone to systemic crises or “normal accidents” and placing extraordinary demands on regulation. In light of this, we consider two routes for regulatory reform. A “high modernist” possibility attempts to regulate financial markets as currently des...
Chapter
Full-text available
When communities of organic farmers began certifying ecologically friendly agriculture, they could never have guessed how prominent the certification model would become. Nearly four decades later, consumers can buy products not just from certified farms, but also certified forests, fisheries, and factories – with standards pertaining not only to th...
Article
Full-text available
Systems for certifying sustainable resource use and decent labor conditions have become prominent modes of private regulation at the transnational level. But serious questions remain about how these global standards are put into practice in particular places, especially in developing countries. Drawing on fieldwork in Indonesia, this paper examines...
Article
Current scholarship suggests that instead of fueling deregulation and a race to the bottom, globalization and neoliberalism often go hand in hand with the expansion of regulatory rules and agents. We survey efforts to address this paradox. Building on analyses of nineteenth- and twentieth-century regulation, research on the current period has produ...
Article
Full-text available
Governments are increasingly devolving governance of natural resources from central administrations to subnational levels. Researchers routinely document the complexity and contradictions of this process, but policy prescriptions and their underlying theoretical models remain overly simplified. Going beyond classical statements in the policy litera...
Article
Why have systems of "transnational private regulation" recently emerged to certify corporate social and environmental performance? Different conceptions of institutional emergence underlie different answers to this question. Many scholars argue that firms create certification systems to solve problems in the market-a view rooted in a conception of...
Article
Social movement scholars have demonstrated that foundation patronage channels social movements away from radical activities toward moderate goals, but accounts of how this process occurs are underdeveloped. Existing research typically focuses on foundations' differential selection of grant recipients (i.e., "cherry-picking" non-threatening groups)...
Article
Recent controversies have drawn attention to the growing day labor industry in the U.S. While academics and activists have documented and criticized day labor agencies’ practice of externalizing costs onto the workforce, less attention has been paid to the informal organization of this form of work. At first glance, the day labor industry may appea...
Article
Recent struggles over corporate responsibility have fzreled the emergence of codes of conduct and a range of private voluntary compliance initi-atives. Some argue that these activities displace or "crowd otit" public regzllation and legal accountability. Analyzing the politics of the apparel industry in the 1990s, I show that the displacement hypot...
Article
This paper develops two theoretical perspectives on the distribution of wages in formal day labor markets–an economic view of day labor as an undifferentiated “spot market,” and an organizational view that emphasizes “market-making” organizations. We assess the utility of these theories with original survey data on homeless men in the formal day la...
Article
Systems of private regulation based on certification have recently emerged to address environmental issues in the forest products industry and labor issues in the apparel industry. To explain why the same regulatory form has emerged across these fields, the author uses a historical and comparative case study approach, closely examining early moment...
Article
Are the politics of economic regulation contingent on institutions? Drawing on arguments about institutional mediation and the institutional bases of rational action, we explore how institutions shape the dynamics invoked in two theories of regulation. We argue that institutional arrangements affect both the clarity and the content of group interes...

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