Thorkild Tylleskär

Thorkild Tylleskär
University of Bergen | UiB · Centre for International Health

MD, PhD, MA

About

351
Publications
54,036
Reads
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7,698
Citations
Introduction
Paediatrician and full Professor at the Centere for International Health, University of Bergen with a focus on child health including newborn health, HIV, nutrition and eHealth and mHealth in low income countries, mainly Sub-Saharan Africa. Main collaborating countries are: Uganda, Kenya, Zambia, South Africa, DR Congo, South Sudan and Burkina Faso.
Additional affiliations
September 2000 - present
University of Bergen
June 1994 - March 2001
Uppsala University Hospital
Position
  • Medical Doctor
February 1994 - August 2000
Uppsala University
Education
June 1994 - March 2001
Uppsala University Hospital
Field of study
  • Specialisation in Paediatrics
August 1988 - February 1994
Uppsala University
Field of study
  • International Health
September 1983 - November 1987
Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris 3
Field of study
  • African Linguistics

Publications

Publications (351)
Preprint
Prompt communication of critical laboratory results is important for patient safety. Various standardisation bodies have proposed procedures for handling critical results, with notification parameters outlined. However, few studies exist in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to document how critical results are handled. We tracked 12 types of...
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Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an important risk factor of postnatal HIV-1 transmission that is still poorly understood. A longitudinal sub-study of the ANRS12174 trial including 270 breastfeeding mothers in Lusaka, Zambia measured sodium (Na ⁺ ) and potassium (K ⁺ ) in archived paired breast milk samples collected at week 14, 26 and 38 postpartum t...
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Objectives We aimed to measure the prevalence of maternal HIV viral load (VL) non-suppression and assess associated factors, to evaluate progress towards United Nations-AIDS (UNAIDS) targets. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The eight largest community health centres of Ehlanzeni, a rural district in northeast South Africa. Participants Pre...
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Norwegian universities closed almost all on-campus activities on the 12 March 2020 following a lockdown decision of the Norwegian government in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Online and digital teaching became the primary method of teaching. The goal of this study was to investigate how the transition to digital education impacted on medical st...
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Background Monitoring of peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) during neonatal resuscitation is standard of care in high-resource settings, but seldom performed in low-resource settings. We aimed to measure SpO 2 and heart rate during the first 10 min of life in neonates receiving positive pressure ventilation (PPV) according to the Helpi...
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Background: Understanding the missed opportunities in early infant HIV testing within the PMTCT program is essential to address any gaps. The study set out to describe the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of the infants presenting late for early infant diagnosis in Kenya. Methods: We abstracted routinely collected clinical and sociode...
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Background Home delivery has been associated with mother-to-child transmission of HIV and remains high among HIV-infected women. Predictors for home delivery in the context of HIV have not been fully studied and understood in Northern Uganda. We therefore aimed to find out the incidence and risk factors for home delivery among women living with HIV...
Article
Background In high-resource settings, postponing the interruption of cardiopulmonary resuscitation from 10 to 20 min after birth has been recently suggested, but data from low-resource settings are lacking. We investigated the outcome of newborns with Apgar scores of 0–1 at 10 min of resuscitative efforts in a low-resource setting. Methods This ob...
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Objectives: Despite WHO guidelines recommending household contact investigation, and studies showing the impact of active screening, most tuberculosis (TB) programmes in resource-limited settings only carry out passive contact investigation. The cost of such strategies is often cited as barriers to their implementation. However, little data are av...
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Objective: To evaluate the respiratory function of asphyxiated infants resuscitated with i-gel supraglottic airway (SGA) vs. face mask (FM) in a low-resource setting. Methods: In this sub-study from the NeoSupra trial, respiratory function during the first 60 inflations was evaluated in 46 neonates (23 with SGA and 23 with FM) at the Mulago Nati...
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Telomere shortening can be enhanced upon human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and by antiretroviral (ARV) exposures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute and long-term effect on telomere shortening of two ARV prophylaxes, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and lamivudine (3TC), administered to children who are HIV-exposed uninfected (CH...
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Partnerships between Higher Education Institutions in the global South and North have potential for building capacity in public health research in low-resource countries. We present experiences of partners involved in a North–South–South partnership between universities in Norway, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and South Africa. The partner...
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Background Neonatal mortality, often due to birth asphyxia, remains stubbornly high in sub-Saharan Africa. Guidelines for neonatal resuscitation, where achieving adequate positive pressure ventilation (PPV) is key, have been implemented in low-resource settings. However, the actual clinical practices of neonatal resuscitation have rarely been exami...
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Worldwide, one million HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children are born yearly, and chronic health impairments have been reported in these children. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) instability and altered mtDNA content have been evidenced in these children, but an exhaustive characterization of altered mitochondrial genomes has never been reported. We appl...
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Background Globally, increasing numbers of higher education institutions (HEIs) in non-English-speaking countries have adopted English as a medium of instruction (EMI), because of the perception that this provides opportunities to attract high-calibre students and academic staff, and engage with the international research community. We report an ev...
Article
The rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV from breastfeeding is increasing relative to other causes of MTCT. Early effective preconception and antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces intrauterine and intrapartum MTCT, whereas maternal post-partum HIV acquisition, untreated maternal HIV, and suboptimal postnatal maternal ART adhe...
Article
Post-natal HIV infection through breastfeeding remains a challenge in many low and middle-income countries, particularly due to non-availability of alternative infant feeding options and the suboptimal Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV-1 (PMTCT) cascade implementation and monitoring. The PROMISE-EPI study aims to address the latter...
Article
Background: The UNAIDS 90-90-90 Fast-Track targets provide a framework for assessing coverage of HIV testing services (HTS) and awareness of HIV status – the “first 90.” In Kenya, the bulk of HIV testing targets are aligned to the five highest HIV-burden counties. However, we do not know if most of the new HIV diagnoses are in these five highest-bu...
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Background Low- and Middle-income countries (LMIC) face considerable health and nutrition challenges, many of which can be addressed through strong academic leadership and robust research translated into evidence-based practice. A North-South-South partnership between three universities was established to implement a master’s programme in nutrition...
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Full-text available
In the ANRS 12174 trial, HIV-exposed uninfected African neonates who received lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) prophylaxis for 1 year exhibited slower growth from birth to week 50 compared with those receiving lamivudine (3TC). We assessed whether this difference in growth persisted over time, and was accompanied by differences in neuropsychological and...
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Objective To determine the prevalence, predictors and case fatality risk of hypothermia among neonates in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Setting Three subcounties of Lira district in Northern Uganda. Design This was a community-based cross-sectional study nested in a cluster randomised controlled trial. Participants Mother–baby pairs enrolled i...
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Background Asylum-seeking children represent an increasing and vulnerable group of patients whose health needs are largely unmet. Data on the health care provision to asylum-seeking children in European contexts is scarce. In this study we compare the health care provided to recent asylum-seeking and non-asylum-seeking children at a Swiss tertiary...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction Facility delivery is one of the interventions recommended in the context of HIV to reduce on the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Home delivery has been associated with mother-to-child transmission of HIV and remains high among HIV-infected women. Predictors for home delivery in the context of HIV have not been fully studie...
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Full-text available
Background: Perinatal mortality in Uganda remains high at 38 deaths/1,000 births, an estimate greater than the every newborn action plan (ENAP) target of ≤24/1,000 births by 2030. To improve perinatal survival, there is a need to understand the persisting risk factors for death. Objective: We determined the incidence, risk factors, and causes of pe...
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Background Skilled birth attendants must be competent to provide prompt resuscitation to save newborn lives at birth. Both knowledge and skills (competence) decline with time after training but the optimal duration for refresher training among frontline-skilled birth attendants in low-resource settings is unknown. Objectives We assessed the effect...
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Background Breastfeeding is important for growth, development and survival of HIV exposed infants. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of morbidity, mortality and increases HIV free survival of infants. Evidence on risk factors for inappropriate breastfeeding in Northern Uganda is limited. Objective This study determined the risk factors for...
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Background Face-mask ventilation is the most common resuscitation method for birth asphyxia. Ventilation with a cuffless laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has potential advantages over face-mask ventilation during neonatal resuscitation in low-income countries, but whether the use of an LMA reduces mortality and morbidity among neonates with asphyxia is...
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Background Neonatal hypoglycemia is the most common endocrine abnormality in children, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The burden and risk factors of neonatal hypoglycemia in rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa are unknown. Objective To determine the prevalence and risk factors for neonatal hypoglycemia in Lira Dist...
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Infant antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis given to children who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed but uninfected (CHEU) to prevent HIV transmission through breastfeeding previously proved its efficacy in the fight against the pediatric epidemic. However, few studies have investigated the short- and long-term safety of prophylactic regime...
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Objectives We report the effectiveness of a mentoring approach to improve health workers’ (HWs’) knowledge, attitudes and confidence with counselling on HIV and infant feeding. Design Quasi-experimental controlled before–after study. Setting Randomly selected primary healthcare clinics (n=24 intervention, n=12 comparison); two districts, South Af...
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Background Sub-optimal adherence to infant prophylaxis has been associated with mother-to-child-transmission of HIV. However, the factors associated have not been well characterised in different settings. This study describes barriers and enablers of adherence to infant prophylaxis among 6-week-old HIV exposed infants in Lira district, Northern Uga...
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Introduction Deaths during the perinatal period remain a big challenge in Africa, with 38 deaths per 1000 pregnancies in Uganda. The consequences of these deaths can be detrimental to the women; some ending up with postpartum depression. We examined the association between perinatal death and postpartum depression among women in Lira district, Nort...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Globally, increasing numbers of higher education institutions (HEIs) in non-English-speaking countries have adopted English as a medium of instruction (EMI), because of the perception that this provides opportunities to attract high calibre students and academic staff, and engage with the international research community. We report an e...
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Full-text available
Prevention of unintended pregnancies is a global strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Factors surrounding unintended pregnancy among women living with HIV are not well understood. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors for unintended pregnancy among these women in Northern Uganda. We conducted a cross-sectional su...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Partnerships between Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the global south and north are important for building capacity in health research in low-resource contexts. In this paper we present experiences of partners involved in a North-South-South partnership between HEIs in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), South Africa and Norway....
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Full-text available
Children who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed but uninfected (CHEU) accumulate maternal HIV and antiretroviral exposures through pregnancy, postnatal prophylaxis, and breastfeeding. Here, we compared the dynamics of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) parameters in African breastfed CHEU receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or lamivudine (3TC)...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) face considerable health and nutrition challenges, many of which can be addressed through strong academic leadership and robust research translated into evidence-based practice. A North-South-South partnership between three universities was established to implement a master’s programme in nutrition...
Article
Full-text available
Background Heart rate (HR) assessment is crucial in neonatal resuscitation, but pulse oximetry (PO) and electrocardiography (ECG) are rarely accessible in low-resource to middle-resource settings. This study evaluated a free-of-charge smartphone application, NeoTap, which records HR with a screen-tapping method bypassing mental arithmetic calculati...
Article
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic started in the Hubei province of China, but is rapidly spreading all over the world. Much of the information and literature have been centered on the adult population while a few reports pertaining to COVID-19 and neonates have been published so far. Actual guidelines are based on expert opinion and show...
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Background / objectives: Detectable HIV viral load among HIV-infected pregnant women remains a public health threat. We aimed to determine factors associated with detectable viral load among HIV-infected pregnant women in Lira, Northern Uganda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 420 HIV-infected pregnant women attending Lira Re...
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Background: Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months reduces infant morbidity and mortality and can positively impact on cognitive function. In Uganda, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is recommended but many women introduce alternative feeds early. Interventions to scale-up peer support provision for exclusive breastfeeding a...
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Background: Migrant health has become an essential part of public health. According to the World Health Organization, many health systems in Europe have not yet adapted adequately to the needs of asylum-seekers, which might result in untimely and inefficient health care for asylum-seeking patients. The aim of this study was to assess the number of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Asylum-seeking children represent an increasing and vulnerable group of patients whose health needs are largely unmet. Data on the health care provision to asylum-seeking children in European contexts is scarce. In this study we compare the health care provided to recent asylum-seeking and non-asylum-seeking children at a Swiss tertiary...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Asylum-seeking children represent an increasing and vulnerable group of patients whose health needs are largely unmet. Data on the health care provision to asylum-seeking children in European contexts is scarce. In this study we compare the health care provided to recent asylum-seeking and non-asylum-seeking children at a Swiss tertiary...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Asylum-seeking children represent an increasing and vulnerable group of patients whose health needs are largely unmet. Data on the health care provision to asylum-seeking children in European contexts is scarce. In this study we compare the health care provided to recent asylum-seeking and non-asylum-seeking children at a Swiss tertiary...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Asylum-seeking children represent an increasing and vulnerable group of patients whose health needs are largely unmet. Data on the health care provision to asylum-seeking children in European contexts is scarce. In this study we compare the health care provided to recent asylum-seeking and non-asylum-seeking children at a Swiss tertiary...
Article
Full-text available
Access to efficient laboratory services is critical to patient care. Turnaround Time (TAT) is one of the most important measures when judging the efficiency of any laboratory and care system. Few studies on TAT exist for inpatient care settings within low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods We evaluated therapeutic TAT for a tertiary hos...
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Full-text available
Background: Infections account for a quarter of all newborn deaths and the umbilical cord has been identified as a major route of newborn infections. Objective: To explore the meanings and practices related to the umbilical cord among caretakers of newborns in central Uganda. Methods: This was a qualitative study, designed to inform the design...
Article
Introduction An earthquake is a hazard that may cause urgent needs requiring international assistance. To ensure rapid funding for such needs-based humanitarian assistance, swift decisions are needed. However, data to guide needs-based funding decisions are often missing in the acute phase, causing delays. Instead, it may be feasible to use data bu...
Article
Background: Immune control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is impaired in HIV-infected individuals. We explored maternal factors associated with EBV acquisition in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants and the relationship between EBV infection and serious adverse events (SAE) during the first year of life. Methods: Two hundred and one HEU...
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Background Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) and improves maternal health. Data on the outcomes of HIV-exposed infants (HEI) compared to their unexposed counterparts in the era of universal ART is limited. We compared birth and 6-week outcomes among infants born to HIV-positive and HIV-negative wo...
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Clinical guidelines are used to translate research findings into evidence‐based clinical practice but are frequently not comprehensively adopted by health workers (HWs). HIV and infant feeding guidelines were revised by the World Health Organization to align feeding advice for HIV‐exposed and unexposed infants, and these were adopted in South Afric...
Preprint
BACKGROUND After determining the key childbirth monitoring items from experts in childbirth, we designed an algorithm to represent the experts’ suggestions and we validated it. OBJECTIVE In this paper we describe the abridged algorithm for labour and delivery (LaD) management and use theoretical case to compare its performance to human childbirth...
Article
Background After determining the key childbirth monitoring items from experts, we designed an algorithm (LaD) to represent the experts’ suggestions and validated it. In this paper we describe an abridged algorithm for labor and delivery management and use theoretical case to compare its performance with human childbirth experts. Objective The obje...
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In the original publication of this article [1], an author's name needs to be revised from Jacob Creswel to Jacob Creswell.
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The risk of postnatal HIV transmission exists throughout the breastfeeding period. HIV shedding in breast milk beyond six months has not been studied extensively. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and determinants of HIV shedding in breast milk during continued breastfeedingA cross-sectional study was nested in the PROMISE-PEP trial...