Thomas Wolever

Thomas Wolever
INQUIS Clinical Research, Ltd

About

516
Publications
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Publications

Publications (516)
Article
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Background: Fructose providing excess calories in the form of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) increases markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether this effect holds for other important food sources of fructose-containing sugars is unclear. To investigate the role of food source and energy, we conducted a systematic review and m...
Article
Objectives To estimate the time for hunger scores to return to baseline levels for the Control and high protein, high fiber shakes. Methods A total of 80 subjects were recruited for this double-blind, randomized, controlled study (50F:30 M; BMI 30.3 ± 3.7 kg/m2). Overnight fasted subjects consumed equicaloric portions (120 kcal) of the high protei...
Article
Objectives Allulose is a naturally occurring monosaccharide with an approximate sweetness of 70% of sucrose without raising postprandial glucose and insulin levels. allSWEET® has been in the marketplace since 2015 but it has not been confirmed to attenuate glycemic and insulinemic response when consumed with sucrose. This study will therefore evalu...
Article
Objectives It is difficult to estimate the glycemic impact of low-carbohydrate (low-CHO) foods from the information in the Nutrition Facts Table. We developed equivalent glycemic load (EGL) to quantify the glycemic impact of low-CHO foods in people without diabetes. The current objective was to determine the feasibility and safety of measuring EGL...
Article
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To determine the minimum amount of oat β-glucan (OBG) required to reduce glycaemic responses (MinDose), we conducted a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of acute, crossover, single-meal feeding trials that examined the effects of adding OBG or oat bran to a carbohydrate-containing test-meal versus a control test-meal containing an equi...
Article
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Dietary starch contains rapidly (RAG) and slowly available glucose (SAG). To establish the relationships between the RAG:SAG ratio and postprandial glucose, insulin and hunger, we measured postprandial responses elicited by test meals varying in the RAG:SAG ratio in n 160 healthy adults, each of whom participated in one of four randomised cross-ove...
Article
Background: Practical risk reduction strategies are needed to address cardiovascular disease. Beans can decrease LDL cholesterol; however, research into different daily amounts and varieties is warranted. Objectives: To examine the effects of canned beans (daily rotation of black, navy, pinto, dark red kidney, white kidney) in 1-cup (1CB, 180 g)...
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The glycaemic index (GI) is a food metric that ranks the acute impact of available (digestible) carbohydrates on blood glucose. At present, few countries regulate the inclusion of GI on food labels even though the information may assist consumers to manage blood glucose levels. Australia and New Zealand regulate GI claims as nutrition content claim...
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Objective To inform the update of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library searched up to 13 May 2021. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomis...
Article
Background: It was suggested that low salivary-amylase activity (SAA) and cooling or stir-frying cooked starch decreases its digestibility and glycemic index. Objective: We determined the effects of SAA, cooling, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the salivary amylase (AMY1), pancreatic amylase (AMY2A, AMY2B), maltase-glucoamylase (MG...
Article
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Objectives Fructose as a source of excess calories increases non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) markers. Whether this effect is mediated by the food matrix is unknown. We thus conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials assessing the effect of important food sources of fructose-containing sugars at different...
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Objectives The efficacy of oat beta-glucan (OBG), a viscous soluble fibre, on postprandial glycemic outcomes may depend on the nature of the control and the dose and molecular weight (MW) utilized. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of acute clinical trials to determine whether these features mediate the glycemic and insulinaemic re...
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Objectives Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been linked to weight gain. It is unclear if other food sources of fructose-containing sugars behave similarly. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials to assess the effect of different food sources of fructose-containing sugars on body weight and markers of ad...
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Objectives Low-glycemic index (GI) and load (GL) dietary patterns are recommended for diabetes management by clinical practice guidelines globally. To inform the update of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of...
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Objectives Fructose providing excess calories has been shown to increase postprandial triglycerides (TAG). Whether this effect holds for different food sources of fructose-containing sugars is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials on the effect of different food sources of fructose-containing sugar...
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Objectives Fructose as a source of excess calories increases uric acid. Whether this effect is mediated by the food matrix at different levels of energy is unknown. We aim to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials on the effect of food sources of fructose-containing sugars at different energy levels on uric acid...
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Objectives Excess calories as fructose may initiate pathways increasing biomarkers of inflammation. Whether this effect is mediated by the food matrix at different energy levels is unknown. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials of the effect of food sources of fructose-containing sugars at different energy...
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Objectives Overconsumption of fructose-containing sugars may increase blood pressure. Whether this effect is mediated by the food matrix is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials of the effect of food sources of fructose-containing sugars at different levels of energy control on blood pressure (NCT0...
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The gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects of dietary fibers are recognized, but less is known about their effects on non-GI symptoms. We assessed non-GI symptoms in a trial of the LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of oat β-glucan (OBG). Participants (n = 207) with borderline high LDL-cholesterol were randomized to an OBG (1 g OBG, n = 104, n = 96 analyz...
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To determine the effect of oat β‑glucan (OBG) on acute glucose and insulin responses and identify significant effect modifiers we searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through October 27, 2020 for acute, crossover, controlled feeding trials investigating the effect of adding OBG (concentrate or oat-bran) to carbohydrate-containing te...
Article
Aim Omega-3 (n−3) polyunsaturated fatty-acids are essential for the development and maintenance of nerve function, but the relationship of plasma n−3 to the presence of diabetic distal-symmetric-polyneuropathy (DSP) and the effect of n−3 therapy on plasma levels and small nerve fibre morphology in T1D are unknown. Methods Participants with T1D (n...
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Dietary fibre is a generic term describing non-absorbed plant carbohydrates and small amounts of associated non-carbohydrate components. The main contributors of fibre to the diet are the cell walls of plant tissues, which are supramolecular polymer networks containing variable proportions of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectic substances, and non-ca...
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The glycemic index (GI) has been included in the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for type 2 diabetes (T2D) management since 2003, and even longer in other parts of the world (e.g., Australia). Despite this, dietitians have reported that GI is "too difficult for patients to understand and apply." They have called for diverse GI-utility data an...
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To see if the molecular weight (MW) and viscosity of oat β-glucan (OBG) when taken before eating determine its effect on postprandial glycemic responses (PPRG), healthy overnight-fasted subjects (n = 16) were studied on eight separate occasions. Subjects consumed 200 mL water alone (Control) or with 4 g OBG varying in MW and viscosity followed, 2–3...
Article
Objectives The efficacy of oat beta-glucan (OBG), a viscous soluble fibre, on postprandial glycemic outcomes may depend on the nature of the control and the dose and molecular weight (MW) utilized. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of acute clinical trials to determine whether these features mediate the glycemic response to OBG. M...
Article
Objectives To explore the physiological response to ingestion of FossenceTM, a short chain fructo-oligosaccharide, when taken alone or when added or substituted into a carbohydrate load. Methods In a randomized, controlled, cross-over design, 25 healthy subjects completed three phases (phase 1: 13M:12F; 41 ± 14y; 24.4 ± 2.2 kg/m²; phase 2: 13M:12F...
Article
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Aims To synthesize the evidence of the effect of small doses (<30-g/meal) of fructose and its epimers (allulose, tagatose, and sorbose) on the postprandial glucose and insulin response to carbohydrate-containing meals. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through to April 9, 2019. We include...
Article
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Background: The viscosity of oat β-glucan (OBG) determines its effect on serum cholesterol and glycemic responses, but whether OBG viscosity affects gastric emptying, appetite, and ad libitum food intake is unknown. Objectives: We aimed to determine the effect of altering the amount or molecular weight (MW) and, hence, viscosity of OBG in a brea...
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Objective: To determine the association of total and added fructose-containing sugars on cardiovascular (CVD) incidence and mortality. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched from January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2018. Prospective cohort studies assessing the association of reported intakes of total, sucrose, fructose and added sug...
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Background Sugar‐sweetened beverages are associated with hypertension. We assessed the relation of important food sources of fructose‐containing sugars with incident hypertension using a systematic review and meta‐analysis of prospective cohort studies. Methods and Results We searched MEDLINE , EMBASE, and Cochrane (through December week 2, 2018)...
Article
Alcohol intoxication impairs judgment and reaction times and the level of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is highly correlated with accidents and injury. We hypothesized that a food optimized to delay gastric emptying, a reduced alcohol bioavailability bar (RABB), would decrease postprandial BAC and alcohol bioavailability with greater caloric-ef...
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While dietary factors are important modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D), the causal role of carbohydrate quality in nutrition remains controversial. Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have been examined in relation to the risk of T2D in multiple prospective cohort studies. Previous meta-analyses indicate significant re...
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Published meta-analyses indicate significant but inconsistent incident type-2 diabetes(T2D)-dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) risk ratios or risk relations (RR). It is nowover a decade ago that a published meta-analysis used a predefined standard to identify validstudies. Considering valid studies only, and using random effects dos...
Article
Objectives Research on the effect of resistant starch on postprandial glucose levels has mainly focused on the attenuation achieved by substituting it for the available carbohydrate (avCarb), few studies have looked at the effect on glucose levels when the resistant starch is added to avCarb. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate...
Article
Oats can be processed in a variety of ways ranging from minimally processed such as steel-cut oats (SCO), to mildly processed such as large-flake oats (old fashioned oats, OFO), moderately processed such as instant oats (IO) or highly processed in ready-to-eat oat cereals such as Honey Nut Cheerios (HNC). Although processing is believed to increase...
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Objective Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are associated with hyperuricaemia and gout. Whether other important food sources of fructose-containing sugars share this association is unclear. Design To assess the relation of important food sources of fructose-containing sugars with incident gout and hyperuricaemia, we conducted a systematic review a...
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Background Slowly digested carbohydrates are perceived as beneficial by some consumers, and various regulatory bodies have published specific criteria defining lower postprandial glycemic response. We developed an optimized savory cluster snack containing slowly digested starch. Objective We compared the glucose and insulin responses elicited by t...
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Background/objectives: Dietary carbohydrate quality and quantity fluctuate but it is unknown which attribute takes precedence in vascular health preservation. We investigated all four permutations of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) on acute vascular and glycemic responses. Subjects/methods: Twenty-one healthy adults were screened for...
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Background/Objectives Soaking oats overnight in milk renders them ready to eat the next morning, however, it is unknown whether oats prepared this way will retain its relatively low glycaemic and insulinaemic impact. Therefore, we compared the glycaemic, insulinaemic and subjective hunger responses elicited by oats soaked overnight in 110 g skim-mi...
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Objective To assess the effect of different food sources of fructose-containing sugars on glycaemic control at different levels of energy control. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled intervention studies. Data sources Medine, Embase, and the Cochrane Library up to 25 April 2018. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Con...
Data
Table S1. Effect of small doses (5 g, 10 g) of fructose on secondary and exploratory outcome measures Table S2. Effect of small doses (5 g, 10 g) of Allulose on secondary and exploratory outcome measures Figure S1. CONSORT flow of participants diagram Figure S2. A, Effect of small doses of fructose on absolute plasma glucose following consumptio...
Article
The glycemic index (GI) is a measure of carbohydrate quality that is supported by many international health organizations for the management of chronic diseases and is included on food labels in several different countries to help consumers make healthier food choices. Despite its endorsement by various health and governmental organizations, the GI...
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The consumption of pulses is associated with many health benefits. This study assessed post-prandial blood glucose response (PPBG) and the acceptability of food items containing green lentils. In human trials we: (i) defined processing methods (boiling, pureeing, freezing, roasting, spray-drying) that preserve the PPBG-lowering feature of lentils;...
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Aim: To assess and compare the effect of small doses of fructose and allulose on postprandial blood glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes. Methods: A double-blind, multiple-crossover, randomized, controlled, acute feeding, equivalence trial in 24 participants with type 2 diabetes was conducted. Each participant was randomly assigned six treatmen...
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Reducing the glycaemic response to carbohydrate-containing foods may have desirable physiological effects for many people. Here, we aimed to determine the minimum amount of oat β-glucan from oat-bran which, when added to instant-oatmeal, would reduce the glycaemic response by 20% compared to a β-glucan-free cereal. Therefore, the glycaemic response...
Conference Paper
Source: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice & Research . 2018, Vol. 79 Issue 3, p140-140. 1/2p. Author(s): Seider, M.; Grant, S.; Barre, E.; Kitts, D.; Wolever, T.; O'Connor, D.; Darling, P.; Josse, R.; Thorpe, K.; Feig, D.; Lowe, J.; Luthra, M.; Zawawi, H.; Thompson, A.; Ramdath, D. Abstract: Introduction: A low glycaemic index (LGI) diet may b...
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p> Background: Insulin resistance is commonly assessed using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) variants. HOMA is potentially insensitive to change because of its high coefficient of variation. The repeatability coefficient is an alternative means of assessing test repeatability. To be confident of clinical change, rather than biological varia...
Article
Consumption of pulses is associated with many health benefits by mechanisms that are not fully understood. This study sought to identify the starch component(s) in cooked lentils responsible for lowering post prandial glycemic response (PPGR). Rapidly digestible (RDS), slowly digestible (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) content of 20 varieties of coo...
Article
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BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with type 2 diabetes. To assess whether this association holds for the fructose-containing sugars they contain, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (through June 2016). We included...
Article
Objective: To test the hypothesis that 12 months of seal oil omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) supplementation will stop the known progression of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods: Individuals with T1DM and evidence of DSP as determined by a Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score ≥1 we...
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PurposeSprint interval training (SIT) stimulates rapid metabolic adaptations within skeletal muscle but the nature of neuromuscular adaptions is unknown. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3 PUFA) are suggested to enhance neuromuscular adaptations to exercise. Methods We measured the neuromuscular adaptations to SIT (Study-1) and conducted a pl...
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Objective Diabetic sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy (DSP) is the most prevalent complication in diabetes mellitus. Identifying DSP risk is essential for intervening early in the natural history of the disease. Small nerve fibers are affected earliest in the disease progression and evidence of this damage can be identified using in vivo corneal co...
Article
The completion of a 3-d food record, using commonly available nutrient analysis software, is a typical assignment for students in nutrition and food science programs. While these assignments help students evaluate their personal diets, it is insufficient to teach students about surveys of large population cohorts. This paper shows how the Test, Sur...
Article
In the last two decades, barley has gained increased recognition from cereal scientists, nutritionists, and the general public. There is strong evidence that low glycemic index grains such as barley have superior health benefits compared with other whole and refined grains such as wheat and rice. This is due in part to their high content of the vis...
Article
Background: It is well established that consuming ≥3g high-molecular-weight (MW) oat β-glucan (OBG) reduces low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). However, the effect of OBG on LDL-C in people with an LDL-C <160 mg/dL, is not clear. Objective: To determine the effect of OBG on LDL-C in people with LDL-C <160 mg/dL. Method: We reanalyzed the r...
Article
Background: Colonic fermentation of dietary fibre to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) influences appetite hormone secretion in animals, but SCFA production is excessive in obese animals. This suggests there may be resistance to the effect of SCFA on appetite hormones in obesity. Objectives: To determine the effects of inulin (IN) and resistant sta...
Article
Background/objectives: Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) may protect against obesity and diabetes, but excess production of colonic SCFA has been implicated in the promotion of obesity. We aimed to compare the effects of two fermentable fibers on postprandial SCFA and second-meal glycemic response in healthy o...
Article
Objectives: To determine the long-term effects of changing the amount or source of dietary carbohydrate on quality of life (QOL), symptoms and dietary satisfaction in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Subjects with diabetes treated by diet alone (n=162) were randomly assigned to high-carbohydrate/high-glycemic-index (HGI) diets; high-carbohy...