Thomas Walter Swerczek

Thomas Walter Swerczek
University of Kentucky | UKY · Department of Veterinary Science

DVM PhD

About

151
Publications
11,687
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2,643
Citations
Citations since 2016
36 Research Items
638 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120

Publications

Publications (151)
Article
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Annual death loss from grass tetany costs stockmen millions of dollars, but the cause has been poorly understood. Grass tetany affects mature cattle grazing lush forage after weather changes such as freezing early spring pastures or sudden growth after rainfall following a drought. The disease has been associated with magnesium deficiency, calciu...
Article
Full-text available
It has been shown that populations consuming primary rice had a strong negative correlation whereas population consuming primary wheat had a strong correlation on the severity of COVID-19 Infections in humans. This suggests that diet may play an important role in mitigating or exacerbating SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans. The type of dietary ingred...
Article
Full-text available
Fertile chicken eggs were used as an alternative model for large animals to evaluate suspect toxic dietary ingredients for fetal loss disorders associated with mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS) and fetal losses in other livestock. Nitrate, ammonia, and sulfate may react with proteinaceous compounds to enable the formation of abiotic pathogenic...
Article
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Epidemiological and research findings provided evidence to support the hypothesis that excessive nitrate was associated with reproductive losses, congenital hypothyroidism, and musculoskeletal abnormalities in fetuses of mares and other animals. These fetal losses, with an unknown etiology, and associated with Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome (MRLS)...
Article
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Strangles is a highly pathogenic and contagious infection of horses and other equids caused by Streptococcus equi. Reports in the literature summarize the severe complications of strangles, but provide little information on the factors enhancing the pathogenicity and complications that result in high mortalities. However, there are reports suggesti...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Strangles is a highly pathogenic and contagious infection of horses and other equids caused by Streptococcus equi. Reports in the literature summarize the severe complications of strangles, but provide little information on the factors enhancing the pathogenicity and complications that result in high mortalities. However, there are report...
Article
Full-text available
Strangles is a highly pathogenic and contagious infection of horses and other equids caused by Streptococcus equi. Reports in the literature summarize the severe complications of strangles, but provide little information on the factors enhancing the pathogenicity and complications that result in high mortalities. However, there are reports suggesti...
Article
Full-text available
The annual death losses from the grass tetany syndrome cost stockmen millions of dollars. However, new information, combined with older knowledge, can help reduce problems with this ailment. Previously, the cause of the syndrome was thought to be associated with a magnesium deficiency per se. However, it was observed that the supplementation of mag...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Spontaneous abortions, congenital hypothyroidism, and musculoskeletal abnormalities were attributed to high nitrate in the diet in pregnant mares on Thoroughbred farms in central Kentucky. These fetal losses, with an unknown etiology, and associated with the Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome (MRLS) have plagued hose farms in central Kentuck...
Article
Spontaneous abortions, congenital hypothyroidism and musculoskeletal abnormalities were attributed to high nitrate in the diet of pregnant mares on Thoroughbred farms in central Kentucky. These fetal losses, with an unknown etiology, and associated with the Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome (MRLS) have plagued horse farms in central Kentucky for deca...
Article
Full-text available
Spontaneous abortions associated with early and late fetal losses, amnionitis, amnionic umbilical cord abnormalities, congenital hypothyroidism, and musculoskeletal abnormalities were attributed to high nitrate in the diet of pregnant mares. These fetal losses associated with Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome (MRLS) without a known etiology have plag...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Strangles is a highly pathogenic and contagious infection of horses and other equids caused by Streptococcus equi. Reports in the literature summarize the severe complications of strangles, but provide little information on the factors enhancing the pathogenicity and complications that result in high mortalities. However, there are report...
Article
Full-text available
Frosts and freezes to pasture forages in the late Spring provided hints as to the cause of the grass tetany syndrome as well as other syndromes associated with an increase in potassium, nitrate and reduced sodium in pasture forages. Climatic changes involving frosts and freezes commonly damage pastures in mid- western and eastern USA states, esp...
Article
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Salt for the treatment and prevention of grass Tetany in cattle.
Article
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has a global impact on the equine industry as the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory, systemic, and reproductive disease of equids. A distinctive feature of EAV infection is that it establishes long-term persistent infection in 10 to 70% of infected stallions (carriers). In these stallions, E...
Article
Full-text available
Abortions in Thoroughbred mares associated with consumption of bulbosus buttercups (Ranunculus bulbosus L) Thomas W. Swerczek. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, March 15, 2016, Vol. 248, No. 6 , Pages 669-672. (https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.248.6.669) Abstract CASE DESCRIPTION Unexplained clinical signs of weight loss and...
Article
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Case description: Unexplained clinical signs of weight loss and emaciation were reported in a herd of Thoroughbred horses grazing spring pastures on a central Kentucky farm, even though supplemental grain and hay were provided. Clinical findings: A buttercup plant, Ranunculus bulbosus L, was abundantly present in all pastures and paddocks on the...
Article
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Reports of 148 cases of Tyzzer's disease in foals in central Kentucky were analyzed to identify features of the disease and factors associated with it. The records indicate that Tyzzer's disease is a rapidly progressive, highly fatal hepatitis caused by Clostridium piliforme. Common clinical findings are lethargy, fever, anorexia, and icterus. Seiz...
Article
Full-text available
Freeze-damaged pasture forages in the late spring provided hints for the cause of the grass tetany syndrome as well as other syndromes, including fetal losses in herbivores. It was found that frosts and freezes induce an increase in potassium and nitrate and reduced sodium in pasture forages. A comprehensive review of the scientific literature conf...
Article
Two cases of nocardiosis in dogs are reported. Nocardia asteroides was isolated in Case 1 in which the thoracic cavity, spleen, kidneys, and cerebrum were affected. In Case 2 the diagnosis was based on histopathologic findings and lesions were restricted to the skin and thoracic cavity. The histopathologic lesions produced by N. asteroides are desc...
Article
A parasitologic survey for internal parasites was done at routine necropsy of cattle (N = 142) and horses (N = 190, including 1 donkey) at the Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center, University of Kentucky, in 2000 and 2001. The eyes, esophagus, lungs, rumen, and feces were examined from the cattle, and the small intestine was scrutinized from the hor...
Chapter
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Bacterial infections of the uterus are the leading cause of subfertility and infertility in mares and represent a major economic loss to the equine industry.
Chapter
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Fetal lesions and Placentitis associated with abortions and stillbirths are major causes of economic loss in mares in many countries throughout the world.
Chapter
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Herpesviral infection is most commonly a mild disease of the upper respiratory tract of young and adult horses caused by three related herpesviruses that are widespread throughout the world.
Chapter
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Fungi are important causes of sporadic abortion and are responsible for up to 10% reported abortions in mares.
Conference Paper
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Grass tetany affects high producing cattle and other herbivores being fed rations excessive in protein. A common factor is excessive nitrogen fertilization of pastures. Adequate dietary sodium not only protects against nitrate toxicity, but also aids in the prevention of grass tetany, and other metabolic and reproductive disorders in herbivores.
Article
Full-text available
Grass tetany affects high-producing cattle and other herbivores being fed rations excessive in protein and nitrate. A common factor is excessive nitrogen fertilization of pastures. Adequate dietary sodium not only protects against nitrate toxicity, but also aids in the prevention of grass tetany, and other metabolic and reproductive disorders in he...
Article
Full-text available
During the spring and summer of 2001 and in association with the mare reproductive loss syndrome, 22 terminal and 12 clinical cases of equine pericarditis were diagnosed in central Kentucky. Actinobacillus species were the principal isolates from 8 of 10 nontreated, terminally affected and 3 of 10 clinically affected horses. Enterococcus faecalis a...
Article
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Deficiencies in sodium and excessive potassium and nitrate in forages were found to be associated with the grass tetany syndrome and reproductive losses in herbivores.
Article
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Necropsy of two American Saddlebred fillies diagnosed with epitheliogenesis imperfecta (EI) revealed missing patches of epithelium of the skin and oral mucosa as well as dental abnormalities. Examination of the digestive tract did not reveal signs of pyloric atresia in either foal. Histopathologic examination revealed separation of the epidermis fr...
Article
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Cadmium is one of the most toxic of all heavy metals and is found in trace amounts in the environment in soils and feedstuffs as contaminant of rock phosphate and zinc compounds. Cadmium is not an essential nutrient, and in minute amounts may induce toxicosis by tying up trace essential minerals like copper that is essential for proper immune funct...
Article
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Scedosporium prolificans was associated with arthritis and degenerative osteomyelitis in a 6-year-old Thoroughbred racehorse. The horse was suspected to have an inflammatory lesion of the interosseous tendon, but treatment had resulted in only a minimal response. Shortly after diagnostic arthrocentesis of the left metacarpophalangeal joint was perf...
Article
Research on benzimidazole-resistant Population S small strongyles began in a Shetland pony herd in 1974 at the University of Kentucky and has continued for over 25 years. The present update, for the period 1992-1999, evaluated activity of pyrantel pamoate (PRT) in field tests in the pony herd. Additional critical tests with PRT and oxibendazole (OB...
Article
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A survey to determine current prevalence of several species of endoparasites in equids (n=350) at necropsy was conducted at the Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center in central Kentucky (1995-1999). Thelazia lacrymalis were found in 42% of the 1- to 4-year olds (n=132), which was the only age group examined for these parasites. Five- to 30-year olds...
Article
During a survey of internal parasites in horses at necropsy at a diagnostic laboratory in Kentucky, U.S.A., in 1998, atypical specimens of 2 species were found. Two specimens of the cecal tapeworm. Anoplocephla perfoliata, were fused at the midportion of each individual. One eyeworm, Thelazia lacry'malis, had 3 rather than the normal 2 uteri.
Article
Several compounds (n = 13 single or combinations; most at therapeutic dosages) were evaluated between 1977 and 1992 in critical tests (n = 91) against benzimidazole (BZ) resistant small strongyles (Population S) and several other species of internal parasites in Shetland ponies, mostly under 1 year old. The closed breeding herd, from which the test...
Article
Critical tests (91) were done between 1977 and 1992 in Shetland ponies to evaluate drug susceptibility and population dynamics (present paper) of endoparasites. The test ponies, most less than 1 year old, were from a herd where older animals were treated every 8 weeks initially with cambendazole (CBZ) (1974-1978) and then with oxibendazole (OBZ) (1...
Article
At 4 days of age, an orphan horse foal born on a pasture was placed in a parasite-free stall. It was euthanized at 205 days of age and examination revealed numerous. Parascaris equorum specimens, ranging from 3.0 mm to adult size, indicating reinfections in the stall over an extended period of time. Initial infection of the foal was from stages on...
Article
What caused these young horses to be stunted and in poor condition? As this report reviews, all signs point to natural infections by larval small strongyles.
Article
Twelve geldings all became infected when inoculated intranasally with the KY-84 strain of equine arteritis virus (EAV), a strain previously shown to be capable of establishing the carrier state in the stallion. With the exception of one animal that showed no effects other than pyrexia, all of the geldings developed clinical signs characteristic of...
Article
Studies in a band of ponies harboring Population S benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles were initiated in 1974 and have continued for 18 years. Treatment (bimonthly) was with cambendazole for the first 4 years and with oxibendazole (OBZ) for the next 14 years. Data on the first 10 years have been published. The present investigation includes th...
Article
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Pathologic and microbiologic examinations were performed on 1,211 aborted equine fetuses, stillborn foals, and placentas from premature foals in central Kentucky during the 1988 and 1989 foaling seasons to determine the causes of reproductive loss in the mare. Placentitis (19.4%) and dystocia-perinatal asphyxia (19.5%) were the 2 most important cau...
Article
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Pathology case records of 3,514 aborted fetuses, stillborn foals, or foals that died < 24 hours after birth and of 13 placentas from mares whose foals were weak or unthrifty at birth were reviewed to determine the cause of abortion, death, or illness. Fetoplacental infection caused by bacteria (n = 628), equine herpesvirus (143), fungi (61), or pla...
Article
Histoplasmosis was diagnosed in nine horses during 1986-1990. The infection with Histoplasma capsulatum caused granulomatous placentitis and abortion in one mare in the 7th month of gestation and three mares in the 10th month. Four newborn foals died from severe granulomatous pneumonia within a few days of birth; and a weanling thoroughbred develop...
Article
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Leptospirosis was diagnosed in 51 equine fetuses and 16 stillborn foals with gestational ages from 3 1/2 to 11 months. Diagnosis was based on one or more of the following: positive fetal antibody titer, positive fluorescent antibody test, demonstration of spirochetes in kidney and/or placental sections stained by the Warthin-Starry technique, high...
Article
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Adenomatous hyperplasia with or without cystic formation of allantoic epithelium was observed in 63/954 equine placentas examined from 1 February 1988 to 31 January 1990. In 61/63 placentas, the adenomatous hyperplasia was associated with other placental lesions: 49 with chronic or chronic-active placentitis, six with placental edema, three with fe...
Article
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Placentas from aborted, stillborn, and premature foals were examined during the 1988 and 1989 foaling seasons, and 236 of 954 (24.7%) had placentitis. Microorganisms associated with placentitis were isolated or demonstrated from 162 of 236 (68.6%) placentitis cases. Leptospira spp. and a nocardioform actinomycete were 2 important, newly emerging ba...
Article
Ceftiofur sodium was evaluated as a therapy for respiratory infections in horses. This cephalosporin antimicrobial was administered intramuscularly every 24 h and at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg (1.0 mg/lb) of body weight. The efficacy of ceftiofur sodium was compared with that of a positive control drug, ampicillin sodium (recommended dose of 6.6 mg/kg [3...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cause of none infectious abortions in mares
Article
A total of 59 equids (54 horses and five Shetland ponies) were treated with pyrantel pamoate once, at the dose rate of approximately 6.6 mg base kg-1, during the period November 1985-January 1988. The drug was administered as a paste formulation (51 equids) intraorally or as a suspension formulation by stomach tube (eight equids). The purpose of tr...
Article
Oxfendazole paste formulation was administered intraorally at a dosage of 10 mg/kg of body weight, twice (48 hours between treatments) in 5 controlled tests (experiments A, B, C, D, and E) to 18 equids (14 horses and 4 ponies) that were 5 to 24 months old in 1986 and 1987. Activity was evaluated against naturally acquired infections of various inte...
Article
A total of 278 Thoroughbreds (less than 1 to 31 years old) were examined at necropsy (July 9, 1985, to Feb 2, 1986) in Kentucky for various internal parasites. Examination was not made of all the horses for each of the parasites. Specific parasites recovered from the stomach of foals (n = 30) and yearlings and older horses (n = 96) and percentage (...
Article
Examination of the ligamentum nuchae for Onchocerca spp was completed in 523 Thoroughbreds (1 to 29 years old) at necropsy in Kentucky during a 13-month period (1984 to 1985). Onchocerca spp were found in 306 (59%) of the horses. Frequencies of this parasite were 3%, 17%, 40%, 43%, and 42% in 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old horses, respectively. For...
Article
From Mar 1, 1984, to Feb 28, 1985, both eyes from 189 one- to four-year-old Thoroughbreds (88 males, 90 females, and 11 geldings) in Kentucky were examined at necropsy for eyeworms. Thelazia lacrymalis was recovered from 45% of 1-year-old horses, 26% of 2-year-old horses, 45% of 3-year-old horses, and 50% of 4-year-old horses; overall, 43% of 1- to...
Article
Oxibendazole (OBZ; 10 mg/kg of body weight) was administered to ponies at 8-week intervals to control strongylosis in a breeding band of Shetland-type ponies (n = 29 to 50) from October 1978 through September 1984. A similar use of cambendazole (CBZ; 20 mg/kg of body weight) in this band of ponies during the preceding 4-year period resulted in the...
Article
Prevalence of natural infections of parasites from the lungs of 488 dead Thoroughbreds in Kentucky was investigated. The horses varied from 1 to 32 years of age; 419 horses were from 215 farms and 69 horses were from 68 individual sources for which a specific farm was not identified. Examinations of the lungs were made from Mar 1, 1983 through Feb...
Article
Prevalence of natural infections of the lungworm, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, was investigated in Kentucky in 5,437 live equids (horses, ponies, and asses) on 91 farms by examination of fecal samples over a 15-month-period from January 28, 1983 to April 19, 1984. For the 91 farms investigated, asses only were examined on 1 farm; for the other 90 farms,...
Article
A total of 89 Thoroughbreds, 14 to 333 days old (born in 1982), were examined at necropsy for certain internal parasites during a 1-year-period, Mar 1, 1982, to Feb 28, 1983. The eyes of 73 of the horses and the cranial mesenteric arteries of 71 were examined. Specific interest was on prevalence of parasites according to month of the year and age o...
Article
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In a 13-year survey of equine congenital defects that resulted in death or required euthanasia in central Kentucky, necropsies were performed on 608 deformed fetuses or newborn foals. The following congenital anomalies were observed: contracted foal syndrome (33.2%), miscellaneous limb contraction (20%), multiple defects (5.3%), microphthalmia (4.6...
Article
Meckel's diverticulum is a remnant of the vitellointestinal duct. It is through this duct that nutrients pass from the yolk sac into the midgut of the four-week-old embryo. In a review of 15,000 postmortem records at the University of Kentucky, Meckel's diverticulum was observed in five horses examined postmortem. In each case, the diverticulum was...

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