Thomas Rufty

Thomas Rufty
North Carolina State University | NCSU · Crop and soil sciences

About

169
Publications
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Publications

Publications (169)
Article
Full-text available
Microbes can colonize plant roots to modulate plant health and environmental fitness. Thus, using microbes to improve plant adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses will be promising to abate the heavy reliance of management systems on synthetic chemicals and limited resource. This is particularly important for turfgrass systems because intensive...
Article
Maintenance and recovery of the canopy area when drought stress is relieved may be critical for maintaining high productivity. In this study, experiments were conducted in controlled environments to evaluate leaf expansion and leaf necrosis of five soybean (Glycine max Merr. L.) genotypes undergoing soil-drying, followed by re-watering. Water-defic...
Article
Soil texture is an essential component of soil survey for estimating potentials and limitations of land use and management. It has been appreciated as an important predictor for numerous soil processes. However, its connections with the diversity and composition of the soil microbial community remain less understood. This work employed a marker gen...
Article
As the risk of drought attributable to climate change increases, the development of high-yielding, drought-adapted cultivars will be critical for minimizing yield losses in crops like soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). In this study, the ability of soybean genotypes to recover transpiration and leaf gas exchange capacity following re-watering from s...
Article
This article is part of a series of brief commentaries to highlight papers that have resulted in important and distinctly new perspectives in crop science. A criterion for selection of papers is that they must have been published at least 20 yr ago to allow for a long‐range perspective in assessment of the papers. The current article briefly review...
Article
Increasing the photosynthesis rate of plants has been recently revitalized as an approach for increasing grain crop yields and solving world food crises. The idea that photosynthesis is the key to increasing grain crop yields is not new. Considerable research in the 1970s and 1980s showed that carbon input was not limiting for crop growth and yield...
Article
Full-text available
Ozone (O3) is a phytotoxic air pollutant that limits crop productivity. Breeding efforts to improve yield under elevated O3 conditions will benefit from understanding the mechanisms that contribute to O3 tolerance. In this study, leaf gas exchange and antioxidant metabolites were compared in soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L.) Merr) differing in oz...
Article
Pressures on water availability for irrigation of turfgrasses continue in many parts of the United States as climate and weather patterns shift and populations increase. It is essential to understand underlying factors controlling water loss to more precisely predict irrigation requirements and develop new strategies for improving effective use of...
Article
Full-text available
Sensitivity of leaf expansion to water-deficit conditions could have a major influence on C assimilation rate and water loss rate under developing drought conditions. While cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is commonly grown in more arid regions, there is no information on the sensitivity of its leaf expansion with drying soil. Three experiments were u...
Article
As bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) transitions from winter dormancy to active growth in spring, nitrogen is essential for new tissue growth. We examined the relative contributions of internally stored nitrogen and that taken up by preexisting and newly produced roots. Dormant bermudagrass was transferred to a nutrient solution culture sy...
Article
Full-text available
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotype PI 471938 expresses a slow-wilting phenotype in the field, and the progeny of this genotype have shown to have high yield under water deficit conditions. However, the physiological basis for the slow-wilting trait in PI 471938 remains unclear, and failure to understand the causal mechanism may limit future...
Article
Water deficit under nearly all field conditions is the major constraint on plant yields. Other than empirical observations, very little progress has been made in developing crop plants in which specific physiological traits for drought are expressed. As a consequence, there was little known about under what conditions and to what extent drought imp...
Article
Full-text available
In press: Pot experiments are a mainstay in many plant studies, including the current emphasis on developing high-throughput phenotyping systems. While pot binding, a constraint on plant growth and development, has long been recognized, this confounding effect has generally been ignored. The problem is that there has been no clear, general descript...
Article
Limitations in water availability for irrigation due to drought and water-use regulations necessitate accurate approaches to estimate water use. An energy balance approach is commonly used that is inherently empirical and requires an ill-defined coefficient. An alternative is to use a relationship based on vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and plant gro...
Article
Sensitivity of leaf expansion to water-deficit conditions could have a major influence on C assimilation rate and water loss rate under developing drought conditions. While cowpea is commonly grown in more arid regions, there is no information on the sensitivity of its leaf expansion with drying soil. Three experiments were undertaken in controlled...
Article
Full-text available
Athletic field paints have varying impacts on turfgrass health that have been linked to their ability to alter photosynthetically active radiation and photosynthesis on the basis of color. It was further hypothesized they may also alter transpiration and canopy temperature by disrupting gas exchange at the leaf surface. Growth chamber experiments e...
Article
Full-text available
Commelina benghalensis (Benghal dayflower) is a noxious weed that is invading agricultural systems in the southeastern United States. We investigated the influences of nutrition, light, and photoperiod on growth and reproductive output of C. benghalensis . In the first experimental series, plants were grown under high or low soil nutrition combined...
Article
Full-text available
Main conclusion: First observation that chemical spray can induce limited-transpiration rate under high vapor pressure deficit. It appears that acibenzolar may be key in inducing this water conservation trait. Irrigation and water use have become major issues in management of turfgrasses. Plant health products that have been introduced into the tu...
Article
Digital image analysis is a frequently used research technique to provide an objective measure of turfgrass color, in addition to the traditional visual rating. A commonly used method relies on commercial software package SigmaScan Pro to quantify mean hue angle, saturation, and brightness values from turf images, and to calculate a dark green colo...
Article
Turfgrass systems contribute to the loading of reactive N to water and air via runoff, leaching, and gas emission. Yet, a comprehensive approach has never been developed to assess N loss potential from turfgrass systems. We used pools and production of reactive N (inorganic N, extractable organic N, and NO) to estimate N loss potential and hypothes...
Article
Aims Wild soybean accession PI 468917 [Glycine soja (Sieb. and Zucc.)] was examined for traits that could potentially be beneficial for development of drought resistant soybean cultivars. Methods Water use was examined in controlled environment chambers at three temperatures (25, 30, and 35 °C). Root morphology of plants grown in hydroponics was a...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods: Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 300 times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Elevated CO2 often increases soil N2O emissions. However, the primary controlling factors are unclear. We examined the impact of nitrogen status (nitrogen source and quantity) on N2O emissions...
Article
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important legume that is often grown in drought-prone areas. Low epidermal conductance (EC) may delay the dehydration of leaves and improve plant survival of severe water-deficit stress. No reports of genetic variation for EC in peanut have been found in the literature. Therefore, the main objective of this study...
Article
Experiments were conducted to evaluate factors affecting persistence of the invasive, federal noxious weed Benghal dayflower in sustainable agronomic systems. Seeds were exposed to a range of temperatures simulating those found in hay bales in the field and periodically tested for viability over 21 days. Seeds were nonviable after one day at 65 °C...
Article
Growth chamber experiments were conducted to assess the effects of foliage-only, soil-only, and foliage-plus-soil placements of amicarbazone on annual bluegrass and creeping bentgrass growth. Evaluated herbicide treatments included amicarbazone at 49 or 147 g ai ha(-1), as well as bispyribac-sodium at 74 g ai ha(-1) for comparative purposes. Data f...
Article
Painting of athletic fields is widespread throughout the world and can often cause declines in turfgrass health. Visible light and photosynthesis share the same wavelengths (400-700 nm), and it was hypothesized that alterations in visible light to produce specific colors would lead to reductions in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and tota...
Article
There are a number of strategies to minimize NO3- leaching from turfgrass, including planting turfgrass cultivars with higher NO3- absorption abilities. This column lysimeter study was conducted to examine NO3- leaching from two Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars differing in NO3- uptake capacity. Subsurface soil compaction was include...
Article
Pesticide sorption by soil is amon. The most sensitive input parameters in many pesticide-leaching models. For many pesticides, organic matter I. The most important soil constituent influencing pesticide sorption. Increased fertility, irrigation, and mowing associated with highly maintained turfgrass areas result in constant deposition of organic m...
Article
Nitrate leaching from turfgrasses continues to be a concern. It is proposed that selecting turfgrass genotypes with higher NO3- absorption abilities could reduce NO3- leaching. This study examined the intraspecific difference in NO3- absorption among Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) genotypes and how such a difference affects N absorption when...
Article
Aluminum (Al) toxicity is an important abiotic stress that affects soybean production in acidic soils throughout the world. Development of Al-tolerant cultivars is an efficient and environmentally friendly solution to the problem. A previous report identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for Al tolerance inherited from PI 416937, using restriction...
Article
Frequently, improved plant genetics is viewed as the path to increased crop yields. However, in this manuscript, we argue that yield increases most often result from a combination of improved genetics and increased availability of nitrogen and water resources. At this time, it is likely that resource availability is the main impediment to yield inc...
Article
Water availability for turfgrass systems is often limited and is likely to become more so in the future. Here, we conducted experiments that examined the ability of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) to control transpiration with increasing vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and determined whether control was influenced by temperature. The first...
Article
Full-text available
Benghal dayflower is an exotic weed species in the United States that is a challenge to manage in agricultural fields. Research was conducted in North Carolina, Georgia, and Florida to evaluate the longevity of buried Benghal dayflower seeds. Seeds were buried in the field for 2 to 60 mo at a depth of 20 cm in mesh bags containing soil native to ea...
Chapter
Turfgrass is a major component of urban and suburban landscapes. It appears that large amounts of carbon (C) can be sequestered in turfgrass systems, making them, potentially, important contributors to CO2 mitigation efforts. The chronosequences in the present study and those published by others indicate that soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation...
Article
A key strategy in soybean drought research is increased stomatal sensitivity to high VPD, which contributes to the 'slow wilting' trait observed in the field. These experiments examined whether temperature of the growth environment affected the ability of plants to respond to VPD, and thus control transpiration rate (TR). Two soybean [Glycine max (...
Article
Athletic field paints are applied to turf surfaces with little or no acute injury. However, field managers notice chronic declines in turfgrass health after repeated applications. This study examines athletic field paint impacts on spectral quality and associated turfgrass photosynthesis. Growth chamber experiments evaluated effects of red and whit...
Article
The extent to which terrestrial ecosystems can sequester carbon to mitigate climate change is a matter of debate. The stimulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) by elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has been assumed to be a major mechanism facilitating soil carbon sequestration by increasing carbon inputs to soil and by protecting o...
Article
High summer temperatures often cause damage to bentgrass on putting greens in transition zone regions. One of the most damaging effects is a depression of rooting. Although heat stress effects on plant functions are considered as a main reason for the damage, heat stress also may be related to organic matter (OM) accumulation and poor gas exchange...
Article
Soil compaction prevents turfgrass roots from growing deep into the soil and may limit access to water and nutrients. The objective of this study was to characterize the ability of turfgrass roots to penetrate a compacted subsurface layer. Seven turfgrasses were grown in soil columns. Each column was divided into three sections with the top and bot...
Article
Use of effluent on turfgrass is increasing due to population growth and limited water supplies. Because effluent is generated continuously, turf managers may be forced to over-irrigate, leading to soil saturation. Although the nutrients in effluent are readily absorbed by turf, the effects of prolonged soil saturation on uptake are unknown. This re...
Article
SummaryA method involving cryostat sectioning (10 μm thickness) and freeze-drying is presented for the preparation of plant tissue for microanalytical studies. The method is well suited for semi-quantitative imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and offers significant advantages over bulk freeze-dried or freeze-substitution preparations...
Data
Effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on soil extractable N. (TIF)
Data
Effects of CO2 enrichment on soil microbial parameters during mid-growing seasons. (DOCX)
Data
Linear correlations among microbial respiration, microbial biomass C and N, extractable C and N, net N mineralization of soils over the 4-year period. (DOCX)
Data
P values of analyses of repeated measures linear mixed models of CO2, O3 and time effects, and all interactions over 4 years. (DOCX)
Data
Effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on metabolic quotient of soil microbes. (TIF)
Data
Chi-square test of relationship between the CO2 effect on N availability and the CO2 effect on microbial biomass, respiration and the community structure. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Climate change factors such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) and ozone (O₃) can exert significant impacts on soil microbes and the ecosystem level processes they mediate. However, the underlying mechanisms by which soil microbes respond to these environmental changes remain poorly understood. The prevailing hypothesis, which states that...
Article
Excessive organic matter (OM) accumulation in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) putting greens, and its restriction of permeability, is one of the most difficult problems in turfgrass management. In this transition zone study, we characterized temporal and spatial aspects of OM accumulation, in an attempt to assess the effectiveness of...
Article
Nitrogen fertilization is important for maintaining the quality of golf course putting greens, but causes environmental concerns and affects soil organic matter buildup. Belowground biology and processes are vital to address both environmental and organic buildup issues. We examined microbial and soil properties in sand-based bentgrass putting gree...
Article
The effect of supplied N (5, 10, or 20 mM) on plant growth and components of photosynthetic carbon metabolism was determined in soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom) inoculated with Rhizobium japonicum strain USDA 110. The N treatments were started at 14 days after transplanting and plants were sampled at 10, 17, 23 and 43 days after i...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Climate change factors such as elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 can exert significant impacts on soil microbes and microbially-mediated ecosystem processes. However, the underlying mechanisms by which soil microbes respond to these environmental changes remain poorly understood. A prevailing hypothesis, which states tha...
Article
Soil-denitrifying bacteria in highly-managed turfgrass systems were examined to assess their response to land-use change and time under management. Denitrifier community composition and diversity in a turfgrass chronosequence of 1 to 95-years-old were compared with those in an adjacent pine-dominant forest via molecular investigations of nirK and n...
Article
Full-text available
A sudden pH decline (SPD) of the substrate is an increasing problem in geranium growth systems, and the cause is unknown. In this study, we investigate whether a phosphorus (P) deficiency can cause SPD, and whether the effect is related to inhibition of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) uptake and a corresponding shift in the cation to anion uptak...
Article
Full-text available
Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 284–291 Atmospheric CO2 enrichment generally stimulates plant photosynthesis and nutrient uptake, modifying the local and global cycling of bioactive elements. Although nutrient cations affect the long-term productivity and carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems, little is known about the effect of CO2 enrichment on cat...
Article
Pressures to protect water quality and water shortages are leading to increased applications of effluent water on turfgrasses, and there are pressures to disperse effluent throughout the year. These experiments investigated NO(3)-uptake efficiency by Tifway bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy] during growth and...
Article
Experiments were conducted in environmental chambers to the evaluate effects of photoperiod and temperature on Florida betony growth and development. Plants were exposed to two photoperiods, short day (9 h) and long day (9 + 3 h night interruption), and three day/night temperature regimes, 18/14, 22/18, and 26/22 C. After 10 wk of growth, shoot len...
Article
The noxious weed Benghal dayflower has become a severely troublesome agricultural weed in Georgia in the southeastern Unite States, and there are indications that it is moving northward. Benghal dayflower is glyphosate tolerant and possesses a high degree of reproductive elasticity, making it a formidable threat in many crop systems. The purpose of...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods A great effort in global change research has recently been directed towards assessing the potential of soil as a C sink under future CO2 scenarios. Considerable attention has been focused on the impact of elevated CO2 on mycorrhizae, particularly arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), assuming that stimulation of mycorrhizae by e...
Article
Turf has been acknowledged as an important ecosystem with potential for soil C sequestration. As a major process dictating soil C storage, organic matter decomposition has received little attention in turf systems. Given that soil enzyme-catalyzed biochemical reactions are the rate limiting steps of organic matter decomposition, we examined the act...
Article
Concern about pesticide losses from maintained turfgrass areas led us to examine the fate of the triazine herbicide simazine in turfgrass systems and, specifically, interactions between simazine binding to soil organic matter and biodegradation. Soil samples were removed from turfgrass systems of different ages, placed in microcosms, conditioned as...
Article
Full-text available
The protective effect of cations, especially Ca and Mg, against aluminum (Al) rhizotoxicity has been extensively investigated in the last decades. The mechanisms by which the process occurs are however only beginning to be elucidated. Six experiments were carried out here to characterize the protective effect of Mg application in relation to timing...
Article
Tobacco plants were grown in an enriched COâ environment from transplant to maturity to examine alterations in growth and chemistry of leaves. Nutrient availability was progressively decreased, and groups of leaves on the main stem were sampled sequentially to approximate culture conditions in the field. Dry weight accumulation increased in all lea...
Article
Turfgrass is a highly managed ecosystem subject to frequent fertilization, mowing, irrigation, and application of pesticides. Turf management practices may create a perturbed environment for ammonia oxidizers, a key microbial group responsible for nitrification. To elucidate the long-term effects of turf management on these bacteria, we assessed th...
Article
Weed control remains one of the greatest problems in agro-ecological systems. An important factor controlling crop and weed competition for below ground resources is the presence of compacted soil layers or ‘hard pans’. In a series of experiments, we investigated the ability of roots of soybean (Glycine max L.) and the weeds sicklepod (Senna obtusi...
Article
Full-text available
Soybean breeding programs have developed genetic lines with relatively low seed protein, which could negatively impact early seedling growth in low fertility conditions commonly encountered in the field. In these experiments, seed protein mobilization and its regulation in situ in soybean lines with different seed protein levels was investigated. T...
Article
There is public concern that fertilization of golf course turf may contribute to contamination of surface and ground waters. The purpose of this research was to determine whether nitrate concentrations increased in streams passing through golf courses in the mountains of western North Carolina. The topography of the region has substantial relief, a...
Article
There is a lack of information on plant response to multifactor environmental variability including the interactive response to temperature and atmospheric humidity. These two factors are almost always confounded because saturated vapor pressure increases exponentially with temperature, and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) could have a large impact on...
Article
Prior work showed that CO2 enhancement ratios (ER) were similar for plants grown in open-top chambers (OTCs) whether grown in the ground or in insulated containers aboveground. Per plant comparisons were suspect since the ground-grown plants were cultivated in rows at normal densities making it difficult to separate the effects of plant competition...