Thomas Oudman

Thomas Oudman
University of St Andrews · Centre for Biological Diversity (CBD)

PhD

About

31
Publications
10,959
Reads
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651
Citations
Citations since 2017
14 Research Items
502 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100

Publications

Publications (31)
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic is becoming warmer at a high rate, and contractions in the extent of sea ice are currently changing the habitats of marine top-predators dependent on ice. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) depend on sea ice for hunting seals. For these top-predators, longer ice-free seasons are hypothesized to force the bears to hunt for alternative terrestr...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Among energy-maximizing animals, preferences for different prey can be explained by ranking the prey according to their energetic content. However, diet choice also depends on characteristics of the predator, such as the need to ingest necessary nutrients and the constraints imposed by digestion and toxins in food. In combination, these fa...
Article
Full-text available
Recent insights suggest that predators should include (mildly) toxic prey when non-toxic food is scarce. However, the assumption that toxic prey is energetically as profitable as non-toxic prey misses the possibility that non-toxic prey have other ways to avoid being eaten, such as the formation of an indigestible armature. In that case, predators...
Article
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The Long-tailed Skua, a small (<300 g) Arctic-breeding predator and seabird, is a functionally very important component of the Arctic vertebrate communities in summer, but little is known about its migration and winter distribution. We used light-level geolocators to track the annual movements of eight adult birds breeding in north-east Greenland (...
Article
Full-text available
Catastrophic and sudden collapses of ecosystems are sometimes preceded by early warning signals that potentially could be used to predict and prevent a forthcoming catastrophe. Universality of these early warning signals has been proposed, but no formal proof has been provided. Here, we show that in relatively simple ecological models the most comm...
Chapter
Evolution of Learning and Memory Mechanisms is an exploration of laboratory and field research on the many ways that evolution has influenced learning and memory processes, such as associative learning, social learning, and spatial, working, and episodic memory systems. This volume features research by both outstanding early-career scientists as we...
Article
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In an attempt to encourage the discourse on sources of individual variation in seasonal migration patterns and the microevolution of bird migration, we here critically examine the published interpretations of a now classic displacement study with starlings Sturnus vulgaris. Based on the ring recoveries after experimental displacement towards the so...
Article
Full-text available
The Parc National du Banc d’Arguin in Mauritania hosts the largest concentrations of coastal waterbirds along the East Atlantic Flyway. In spite of this importance, a review of the changes in the numbers of waterbirds in the area is lacking since the first complete count in 1980. Here we analysed the seven complete waterbird counts made since then,...
Article
Full-text available
Long-distance migratory animals must contend with global climate change, but they differ greatly in whether and how they adjust. Species that socially learn their migration routes may have an advantage in this process compared to other species, as learned changes that are passed on to the next generation can speed up adjustment. However, evidence f...
Article
As a form of adaptive plasticity that allows organisms to shift their phenotype toward the optimum, learning is inherently a source of developmental bias. Learning may be of particular significance to the evolutionary biology community because it allows animals to generate adaptively biased novel behavior tuned to the environment and, through socia...
Article
Full-text available
All long-distance migrants must cope with changing environments, but species differ greatly in how they do so. In some species, individuals might be able to adjust by learning from individual experiences and by copying others. This could greatly speed up the process of adjustment, but evidence from the wild is scarce. Here, we investigated the proc...
Article
Full-text available
Background Space use strategies by foraging animals are often considered to be species-specific. However, similarity between conspecific strategies may also result from similar resource environments. Here, we revisit classic predictions of the relationships between the resource distribution and foragers’ space use by tracking free-living foragers o...
Article
Full-text available
Marine organisms adapt to complex temporal environments that include daily, tidal, semi-lunar, lunar and seasonal cycles. However, our understanding of marine biological rhythms and their underlying molecular basis is mainly confined to a few model organisms in rather simplistic laboratory settings. Here, we use new empirical data and recent exampl...
Article
Full-text available
Molluscivorous shorebirds supposedly developed their present wintering distribution after the last ice age. Currently, molluscivorous shorebirds are abundant on almost all shores of the world, except for those in the Indo-West Pacific (IWP). Long before shorebirds arrived on the scene, molluscan prey in the IWP evolved strong anti-predation traits...
Article
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It has been suggested that in most colony-breeding birds, food availability in the feeding areas surrounding the colonies limits, and thereby regulates, population size. However, population size is also determined by adult survival, which will additionally be influenced by circumstances outside the breeding season. Most Eurasian Spoonbills Platalea...
Article
Full-text available
Behavioural variation within a species is usually explained as the consequence of individual variation in physiology. However, new evidence suggests that the arrow of causality may well be in the reverse direction: behaviours such as diet preferences cause the differences in physiological and morphological traits. Recently, diet preferences were pr...
Article
Full-text available
Predators have evolved many different ways to detect hidden prey by using advanced sensory organs. However, in some environmental contexts sensory information may be obscured. The relation between sensory organs, obstruction and searching efficiency remains little explored. In this study we experimentally examined the ways in which a sensory system...
Article
Full-text available
Digestive capacity often limits food intake rate in animals. Many species can flexibly adjust digestive organ mass, enabling them to increase intake rate in times of increased energy requirement and/or scarcity of high-quality prey. However, some prey species are defended by secondary compounds, thereby forcing a toxin limitation on the forager's i...
Article
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We review the design principles of the 'Time Of Arrival' (TOA) tracking system, developed at the Laboratory of Ornithology at Cornell University, as well as the joint attempts by NIOZ and Cornell University to turn this proven idea into a field-ready system for simultaneously tracking large numbers of individual shorebirds. Instead of conventional...
Article
Full-text available
Capsule Context-specific equations are needed to reconstruct diet composition and intake rate of Red Knots by the use of shell fragments retrieved from droppings. Aims To explore whether the method to reconstruct Red Knot diet described by Dekinga & Piersma [Dekinga, A. & Piersma, T. 1993. Reconstructing diet composition on the basis of faeces in a...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored patterns of predation by polar bear Ursus maritimus on the nests of Pink-footed Geese Anser brachyrhynchus on the coastal tundra stretch Nordenskiöldkysten, west coast of Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Goose nests occurred in densities of up to 126 nests/km 2 (mean=6.4), at an average distance of 1.5 km from the seashore, and were mainl...
Data
Animated rotation of Figure 4A. White noise is added to the juvenile prey death rate, which induces excursions of the system state in the direction of the dominant eigenvector (indicated by the red arrow). As a result, the system only responds along this eigenvector (trajectory in blue), leading to an early warning signal that only appears in the j...
Data
Animated rotation of Figure 4B. White noise is added to the adult prey death rate, which induces excursions of the system state in the direction of the surface (indicated in grey) corresponding to the second and third eigenvector (black arrows). As a result, the system responds with damped oscillations (trajectory in blue), leading to a total absen...

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