Thomas Mikolajick

Thomas Mikolajick
Technische Universität Dresden | TUD · Institute of Semiconductors and Microsystems

Prof. Dr.-Ing.

About

687
Publications
146,120
Reads
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17,667
Citations
Introduction
Thomas Mikolajick currently works at NaMLab gGmbH and the Institute of Semiconductors and Microsystems, Technische Universität Dresden. Thomas does research in Electronic Engineering and Materials Engineering.
Additional affiliations
October 2009 - present
NaMLab GmbH
Position
  • NaMLab gGmbH
October 2009 - November 2020
Technische Universität Dresden
Position
  • Professor
October 2009 - present
Technische Universität Dresden
Position
  • Professor
Education
July 1990 - September 1996
Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg
Field of study
  • Electrical Engineering
October 1984 - July 1990
Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg
Field of study
  • Electrical Engineering

Publications

Publications (687)
Article
In this review the different concepts of nanoscale resistive switching memory devices are described and classified according to their I-V behaviour and the underlying physical switching mechanisms. By means of the most important representative devices, the current state of electrical performance characteristics is illuminated in-depth. Moreover, th...
Article
Full-text available
Frequency multiplication is essential in wireless communication systems, where stable high-frequency oscillations are required. However, multipliers typically employ power- and area-hungry filtering and amplification circuits. Here, we show that a single ferroelectric field-effect transistor, made from ferroelectric hafnium oxide, can be used as a...
Article
Full-text available
Recent progress in artificial intelligence is largely attributed to the rapid development of machine learning, especially in the algorithm and neural network models. However, it is the performance of the hardware, in particular the energy efficiency of a computing system that sets the fundamental limit of the capability of machine learning. Data-ce...
Article
Ferroelectrics are a class of materials that possess a variety of interactions between electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties that have enabled a wealth of functionalities. To realize integrated systems, the integration of these functionalities into semiconductor processes is necessary. To this end, the complexity of well-known ferroelectri...
Article
The main focus of this paper is the presentation of reliable methods for the determination of the optimum coloring of a graph, commonly known in the literature as vertex coloring problem. It has been shown that networks of capacitively coupled oscillators can be used to solve vertex coloring problems. In this paper we address the negative impact of...
Article
In this paper, we present an improved methodology to extract the small-signal electrical equivalent circuit of the parasitic elements using RF test structures for a 3D vertical nanowire transistor technology. The methodology is based on the extraction of the distributed parasitic elements from an open structure for which on-wafer S-parameter measur...
Article
This study focuses on the wavelength-dependent conductivity of optically-induced 2-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in ultra-pure GaN/AlGaN heterostructures grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). Our experiments show that only light with energies larger than the bandgap of GaN (3.4 eV) is able to generate a 2DEG, which is else absent under illumi...
Preprint
Full-text available
A measurement technique is presented to quantify the polarization loss in ferroelectric thin films as a function of delay time during the first 100s after switching. This technique can be used to investigate charge trapping in ferroelectric thin films by analyzing the magnitude and rate of polarization loss. Exemplary measurements have been perform...
Article
Full-text available
Many biomarkers including neurotransmitters are found in external body fluids, such as sweat or saliva, but at lower titration levels than they are present in blood. Efficient detection of such biomarkers thus requires, on the one hand, to use techniques offering high sensitivity, and, on the other hand, to use a miniaturized format to carry out di...
Article
Emerging nonvolatile memory technologies are attracting interest from the system design level to implement alternatives to conventional von-Neumann computing architectures. In particular, the hafnium oxide-based ferroelectric (FE) memory technology is fully CMOS-compatible and has already been used for logic-in-memory architectures or compact terna...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memory has shown the potential to meet the requirements of the growing need for fast, dense, low-power, and non-volatile memories. In this paper, we propose a memory architecture named crossed-AND (C-AND), in which each storage cell consists of a single ferroelectric transistor. The write operation is p...
Article
We have studied the field cycling behavior of microscopic TiN/Hf 0.5 Zr 0.5 O 2 /TiN ferroelectric capacitors using synchrotron-based soft x-ray photoemission electron microscopy. The oxygen vacancy ([Formula: see text]) concentration near the top TiN/Hf 0.5 Zr 0.5 O 2 interface is estimated from the reduction of Hf ⁴⁺ to Hf ³⁺ as measured in the H...
Article
Controlled thin film etching is essential for future semiconductor devices, especially with complex high aspect ratio structures. Therefore, self-limiting atomic layer etching processes are of great interest to the semiconductor industry. In this work, a process for atomic layer etching of aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) films using sequential and self-...
Article
With classical scaling of CMOS transistors according to Dennard’s scaling rules running out of steam, new possibilities to increase the functionality of an integrated circuit at a given footprint are becoming more and more desirable. Among these approaches the possibility to reconfigure the functionality of a transistor on the single devices level...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge about phase transitions in doped HfO2 and ZrO2‐based films is crucial for developing future ferroelectric devices. These devices should perform in ambient temperature ranges with no degradation of device performance. Here, the phase transition from the polar orthorhombic to the nonpolar tetragonal phase in thin films is of significant int...
Article
This manuscript provides a comprehensive tutorial on the operating principles of a bio-inspired Cellular Nonlinear Network, leveraging the local activity of NbOx memristors to apply a spike-based computing paradigm, which is expected to deliver such a separation between the steady-state phases of its capacitively-coupled oscillators, relative to a...
Article
The suppression of parasitic conductivity at the substrate/MBE regrowth interface in GaN/AlGaN heterostructures by carbon δ-doping is reported. Parasitic conductivity results from silicon adhesion at the GaN substrate surface; its removal before loading the substrates into the UHV growth chamber seems to be impossible. This contamination and the re...
Article
Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions (FTJ) are intriguing electron devices which can be operated as memristors and artificial synapses for hardware neural networks. In this work, two virtual–grounded amplifiers have been designed to characterize the hysteretic I–V and Q–V characteristics directly, and good agreement between repeated measurements on both...
Article
Since the first report of ferroelectricity in a Si-doped HfO2 film in 2011, HfO2-based materials have attracted much interest from the ferroelectric materials and devices community. However, in HfO2-based bulk materials, the ferroelectric phase is not the one with the lowest free energy. It is, therefore, crucial to identify the possible thermodyna...
Article
The ferroelectric properties of hafnium oxide and zirconium oxide based thin films are promising for applications in low power electronics, such as ultra-thin ferroelectric tunneling devices. However, the amount of ferroelectric phase in the film depends on their polycrystalline morphology, which changes with film thickness. Therefore, controlling...
Article
Full-text available
Crystalline materials with broken inversion symmetry can exhibit a spontaneous electric polarization, which originates from a microscopic electric dipole moment. Long-range polar or anti-polar order of such permanent dipoles gives rise to ferroelectricity or antiferroelectricity, respectively. However, the recently discovered antiferroelectrics of...
Article
Blue and yellow emission bands in carbon-doped GaN grown by MBE were investigated in low-temperature cathodoluminescence measurements performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM-CL) with high spatial resolution. Blue luminescence at 2.85 eV and two contributions in the spectral range of the yellow emission band around 2.2 eV sepa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Novel non-volatile memory devices based on ferroelectric thin films represent a promising emerging technology that is ideally suited for neuromorphic applications. The physical switching mechanism in such films is the nucleation and growth of ferroelectric domains. Since this has a strong dependence on both pulse width and voltage amplitude, it is...
Article
Full-text available
Lanthanum (La) doping is considered as a promising route to overcome reliability issues of switchable ferroelectric HfO2‐based devices. This study links the local chemistry at the La lattice sites with local and collective electronic properties of the La:HfO2 matrix using hard x‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The satellite structure of th...
Article
Full-text available
Insulated-gate GaN-based transistors can fulfill the emerging demands for the future generation of highly efficient electronics for high-frequency, high-power and high-temperature applications. However, in contrast to Si-based devices, the introduction of an insulator on (Al)GaN is complicated by the absence of a high-quality native oxide for GaN....
Article
The thermal compatibility of fully sputtered, ferroelectric TiN/HfxZr(1-x)O2/TiN thin-film capacitors with BEOL processing is investigated. The sputtering power, ZrO2 concentration, and annealing temperature affect the crystal structure and ferroelectric properties of HZO in different ways, which are revealed by GIXRD and electric characterization....
Article
Modern computation based on the von Neumann architecture is today a mature cutting-edge science. In the Von Neumann architecture, processing and memory units are implemented as separate blocks interchanging data intensively and continuously. This data transfer is responsible for a large part of the power consumption. The next generation computer te...
Article
Full-text available
Harnessing ferroelectric negative capacitance in Hf0.5Zr0.5O2-based thin films is promising for applications in nanoscale electronic devices with ultralow power dissipation, due to their ultimate scalability and semiconductor process compatibility. However, so far, it has been unclear if negative capacitance is an intrinsic material property of fer...
Article
Ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memory has shown the potential to meet the requirements of the growing need for fast, dense, low-power, and non-volatile memories. In this paper, we propose a memory architecture named crossed-AND (C-AND), in which each storage cell consists of a single ferroelectric transistor. The write operation is p...
Article
A wakeup scheme for ferroelectric thin Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films is presented, based on a gradual switching approach using multiple short pulses with a voltage amplitude roughly equal to the coercive voltage. This enables the on-chip wakeup and switching operation of ferroelectric devices, such as ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) with identical pulse...
Article
Full-text available
16-kb 1T-1C ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) arrays are demonstrated for 130-nm node technology with TiN/HfO₂:Si/TiN ferroelectric capacitors integrated into the back-end-of-line (BEOL). The 0- and 1-state distributions measured on the arrays demonstrate perfect yield at 4.8-V operation, with extrapolations suggesting that the memory wind...
Article
Inducing and detecting the polar orthorhombic phase is crucial for the establishment of ferroelectricity in HfO2- and ZrO2-based thin films. Unfortunately, commonly used structural characterization techniques such as GIXRD only partially allow an accurate detection of this crystalline phase, whose characteristic pattern almost coincides with the on...
Article
Full-text available
The shift towards a distributed computing paradigm, where multiple systems acquire and elaborate data in real-time, leads to challenges that must be met. In particular, it is becoming increasingly essential to compute on the edge of the network, close to the sensor collecting data. The requirements of a system operating on the edge are very tight:...
Article
Although 10 years have passed since the initial report of ferroelectricity in hafnia (HfO2), researchers are still intensely fascinated by this material system and the promise it holds for future applications. A wide variety of deposition methods have been deployed to create ferroelectric HfO2 thin films such as atomic layer deposition, chemical so...
Article
В последнее время обнаружено наличие сегнетоэлектрических свойств наноразмерных пленок на основе оксида гафния. Такие пленки представляют большой интерес для разработки универсальной памяти, которая сочетает преимущества оперативной и флэш-памяти. В работе изучаются оптические свойства пленок оксида гафния-циркония Hf x Zr y O 2 и пленок оксида гаф...
Article
Reconfigurable Field Effect Transistors are an emerging technology platform that offers the possibility to merge n-type and p-type functionalities in a single device. From the circuit perspective, this feature enables layout camouflaged designs by realizing polymorphic logic gates with dynamically reconfigurable functions. In this work, mixed-mode...
Chapter
Ferroelectricity is a material property that can be used for binary information storage and as such is promising for adoption in non-volatile memories. Ferroelectric materials feature two non-zero spontaneous polarization states that can be reversed by application of an external electrical field. Already in 1952 first realizations of ferroelectric...
Article
We here report a joint experimental and theoretical analysis of polarization switching in ferroelectric tunnel junctions. Our results show that the injection and trapping of charge into the ferroelectric-dielectric stack has a large influence on the polarization switching. Our results are relevant to the physical understanding and to the design of...
Article
Full-text available
A closed-form and physics-based compact model is presented for calculating the DC characteristics of Schottky barrier field-effect transistors and dual gated reconfigurable field-effect transistors. The given model calculates the charge-carrier injection over the Schottky barriers. This current is separated into a field emission current, given by c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are essential for manufacturing perovskite and heterojunction solar cells. Especially, Nickel oxide (NiO) is of interest because it exhibits hole-selective behavior in conjunction with Si. Additionally, the bandgap of about 3.6 eV allows high transmission even at wavelengths below 500 nm. However, NiO is not rea...
Article
With the exponential increase in the quantity of information to be stored and processed, an important issue that must be urgently resolved for the advancement of modern society is to decrease the power consumed by semiconductor devices with high operation speeds. Logic-in-memory (LiM) and neuromorphic devices were proposed as promising solutions to...
Article
Full-text available
A novel system-on-a-chip compatible one-transistor one-capacitor ferroelectric random-access memory array (1T1C FeRAM) based on ferroelectric Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 with a capacitor under bitline (CUB) structure was experimentally demonstrated. The CUB structure facilitates the application of post-metallization annealing on metal/ferroelectric/metal capacito...
Article
Full-text available
Transistor concepts based on semiconductor nanowires promise high performance, lower energy consumption and better integrability in various platforms in nanoscale dimensions. Concerning the intrinsic transport properties of electrons in nanowires, relatively high mobility values that approach those in bulk crystals have been obtained only in core/s...
Article
In this letter, p-type ferroelectric field-effect-transistors (FeFETs) based on HfO2 and embedded in GlobalFoundries 28 nm bulk high-k metal gate (HKMG) technology (28SLPe) are systematically investigated and compared to their n-type counterparts. We show that the two device types, based on Si channel, exhibit a symmetric memory window (MW) and ver...
Article
The unique nonlinear dielectric properties of antiferroelectric (AFE) oxides are promising for advancements in solid state supercapacitor, actuator, and memory technologies. AFE behavior in high‐k ZrO2 is of particular technological interest, but the origin of antiferroelectricity in ZrO2 remains questionable. The theory of reversible electric fiel...
Article
Ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs) with a single gate structure and using the newly discovered ferroelectric hafnium oxide as an active material are attracting considerable interest for nonvolatile memory devices. However, such FeFETs struggle to achieve a large separation between the two logic states (memory window, MW) because of the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although technologically challenging, the integration of ferroelectric thin films with graphene spintronics potentially allows the realization of highly efficient, electrically tuneable, non-volatile memories. Here, the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ferroelectric Hf$_{0.5}$Zr_${0.5}$O$_2$ (HZO) directly on graphene (Gr)/Co/heavy metal (HM) epita...
Article
Ferroelectric Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 is a prime candidate material for integrated HfO2-based ferroelectric devices due to its simple composition, low crystallization temperature, and significant remanent polarization. It is particularly promising for integrated pyroelectric devices used in infrared sensing and energy harvesting, although the appearance of no...
Article
Doping of HfO <sub xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">2</sub> thin films is a powerful means for stabilizing ferroelectricity in this material. Yet, the amount of doping is critical to achieving the best ferroelectric response. This article investigates the impact of the Si doping content on th...