Thomas Longden

Thomas Longden
Australian National University | ANU · Crawford School of Public Policy

PhD, BEc(Hon)

About

63
Publications
7,622
Reads
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1,088
Citations
Citations since 2017
35 Research Items
741 Citations
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Introduction
Dr Thomas Longden is a Grand Challenge Fellow working on the ANU Energy Change Institute’s Grand Challenge – Zero-Carbon Energy for the Asia-Pacific. He is based at the Crawford School of Public Policy. Before joining ANU in 2019, Dr Longden was based at UTS, Macquarie University, the University of Sydney and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) in Milan, Italy. Thomas holds a PhD from the University of New South Wales (UNSW) and his main areas of research interest are applied econometrics, environmental economics, energy economics and health economics.
Additional affiliations
April 2010 - January 2014
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei
Position
  • Senior Researcher/Research Affiliate
April 2010 - December 2014
July 2007 - June 2009
UNSW Sydney
Position
  • Lecturer in Charge
Description
  • Econ1107 – Elements of Environmental Economics Econ2127 – Environmental Economics

Publications

Publications (63)
Article
Australia is one of nine Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development (OECD) countries that utilise deputising services to provide after‐hours primary care. While the provision of this service is supposed to be on behalf of regular general practitioners, businesses have adapted to the financial incentives on offer and are directly adverti...
Article
Full-text available
There are numerous studies that have estimated the number of deaths attributable to heat and cold using city-level or provincial-level data. However, none of these studies have assessed temperature-mortality relationships using meteorological climate zones and data that covers an entire population/country. This analysis uses a national data set of...
Article
Hydrogen produced using fossil fuel feedstocks causes greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, even when carbon capture and storage (CCS) is used. By contrast, hydrogen produced using electrolysis and zero-emissions electricity does not create GHG emissions. Several countries advocating the use of ‘clean’ hydrogen put both technologies in the same category....
Article
Full-text available
Indigenous communities in remote Australia face dangerous temperature extremes. These extremes are associated with increased risk of mortality and ill health. For many households, temperature extremes increase both their reliance on those services that energy provides, and the risk of those services being disconnected. Poor quality housing, low inc...
Preprint
Full-text available
The low carbon energy transition in the Indo-Pacific will affect the demand for fossil fuels, with important implications for regional energy security. The Global Change Analysis Model (GCAM) is a useful tool for understanding how decarbonisation pathways in the Indo-Pacific could affect energy trade, with implications for Australian exports of car...
Preprint
Full-text available
The complexity of administrative approvals can slow down the deployment of renewable energy. Approval processes are different within and across countries, which can substantially influence start-up costs and lead-times. Very few studies estimate renewable energy development lead-times across multiple years and projects. This study investigates the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Green ammonia has received increasing interest for its potential as an energy carrier in the international trade of renewable power. This paper considers Australia’s prospects for green ammonia production from an exporter’s perspective by highlighting Australia’s competitive advantage in renewable resource quality and seasonal complementarity to it...
Article
Most countries will require mega programmes of investment to support the transition to higher shares of renewable energy. Large increases in roof-top solar and other grid-scale renewables are changing the way that electricity grids operate and are designed. This paper focuses on the case of Australia, where the Australian Energy Market Operator dev...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The evaluation of the Victorian Healthy Homes Program (VHHP) will generate evidence about the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of home upgrades to improve thermal comfort, reduce energy use and produce health and economic benefits to vulnerable households in Victoria, Australia. Methods and analysis: The VHHP evaluation will use a s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Offshore wind power (OWP) is an important technology option for decarbonising the electricity sector globally. A key focus for the deployment of offshore wind is the Asia-Pacific region. The future prospects for the technology are dependent, however, on overcoming technological and economic challenges, and public policy is identified as having a ke...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hydrogen is indispensable for climate change mitigation; yet, it is unclear to what extent blue hydrogen from natural gas with carbon capture and storage will complement green hydrogen from renewable electricity. Today, green hydrogen costs are higher than those of blue hydrogen, and, despite huge cost reduction potential, it is uncertain when cost...
Article
Full-text available
For remote Indigenous communities prepaying for electricity in Australia’s Northern Territory, temperature extremes increase reliance on the services that energy provides and the risk of disconnection of those services. Policy should focus on reducing the frequency, duration and negative impacts of disconnection, within the context of a warming cli...
Preprint
Full-text available
Green hydrogen holds promise as a zero-carbon energy carrier if production costs fall low enough to achieve cost-competitiveness with alternatives. We specify reduced-form marginal effect relationships that capture the underlying dynamics of existing structural models of hydrogen production via electrolysis. These specifications provide the margina...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hydrogen produced using fossil fuel feed stocks causes greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, even when carbon capture and storage (CCS) is used. By contrast, hydrogen produced using electrolysis and zero-emissions electricity does not create GHG emissions. Several countries advocating the use of ‘clean’ hydrogen put both technologies in the same category...
Article
Non‐pecuniary rewards to work, or psychic income, are a pervasive phenomenon in several labour markets, yet they have been little investigated either theoretically or empirically. Creative industries are a particular case where non‐monetary incentives are widely observed. These are also industries where moonlighting commonly occurs because artistic...
Preprint
Full-text available
To counteract the recession caused by the measures to contain the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, governments are implementing fiscal stimulus measures for economic recovery. In addition to keeping people in jobs and businesses afloat, public investment can improve productivity and economic growth prospects, resilience and quality of life for the...
Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity values need to be appropriately quantified and thence incorporated in future land development decisions. We assessed the economic and conservation-fundraising potential of vagrant Aleutian Terns in New South Wales, Australia. We found that an estimated 375–581 birdwatchers travelled far (580 ± 522 km [mean ± SD]) and reacted quickly (2...
Article
Full-text available
Background Heatwaves have been linked to increased risk of mortality and morbidity and are projected to increase in frequency and intensity due to climate change. The current study uses emergency department (ED) data from Australia, Botswana, Netherlands, Pakistan, and the United States of America to evaluate the impact of heatwaves on ED attendanc...
Data
Hospital admissions1 and patient/visit characteristics on hot days versus other days. (DOCX)
Data
Threshold regression estimates—EHI_A. (DOCX)
Data
Histograms of the acclimatisation excess heat index (EHI_A) by location, for five hospitals in different regions. (DOCX)
Data
Mean number of ED attendances dependent on different exposure measures. (DOCX)
Data
Mortality and patient/visit characteristics on hot days versus other days. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Heat-related mortality tends to be associated with heatwaves that do not allow for sufficient acclimatisation to hot weather. In contrast, damage functions and most heatwave emergency response plans do not account for acclimatisation. Using an excess heat measure that accounts for acclimatisation, this paper produces estimates of temperature-relate...
Article
Understanding whether high healthcare costs for individuals persist over time is critical for the development of policies that aim to reduce the prevalence of high cost patients. And while high healthcare costs will occur in any given year based on the prevalence of certain morbidities and acute conditions, a large random component of the distribut...
Research
Full-text available
Risk adjustment and payment systems rely on an accurate understanding of the drivers of healthcare costs. A related concern is whether certain cases of multimorbidity coincide with notably higher costs of healthcare. With the utilisation of administrative data for over 250,000 Australian residents, we investigate whether there are specific combinat...
Poster
Full-text available
The association between heat and ED demand differs between regions. A limitation of the current study is that it does not consider delayed effects or influences of other environmental factors. Given the association between heat and ED use, hospitals and governmental authorities should recognise the demands that heat can place on local health care s...
Article
Quantifying the potential costs of catastrophic and climate impacted hazards is a challenging but important exercise as the occurrence of such events is usually associated with high damage and uncertainty. At the local level, there is often a lack of information on rare extreme events, which means that the available data is not sufficient to fit a...
Chapter
This chapter analyses a set of new scenarios for energy markets in Europe to evaluate the role of natural gas across a range of assumptions on climate policy (including the post-Copenhagen Pledges and the EU Roadmap). The goal is to identify whether current trend and policies are leading to an economically efficient and, at the same time, climate-f...
Article
This paper describes changes to the modelling of the transport sector in the WITCH (World Induced Technical Change Hybrid) model to incorporate road freight and account for the intensity of freight with respect to GDP. Modelling freight demand based on the intensity of freight with respect to GDP allows for a focus on the importance of road freight...
Research
Full-text available
This paper reports the results of a survey investigating the experiences of Australian authors in the contemporary international book industry – in particular, whether authors are adapting their creative and work practices in response to the technological changes that are currently affecting the book industry worldwide. More than one thousand autho...
Article
Full-text available
The term 'a matter of time' is often used for infrequent and severe extreme events, such as earthquakes or bushfires. Risk assessments of the likely damage associated with extreme events should focus on an appropriate time horizon that is consistent with the frequency of the event as a short term view may disproportionally deflate the risk involved...
Article
Previous studies have found an inverse (or negative) correlation between urban population density and per capita emissions from land transport. In contrast, this paper finds a positive relationship between per capita CO2 emissions from transport and population density using a dataset of over 200 cities from 28 countries. This positive relationship...
Article
This paper uses a unique multi-day multi-wave panel data set of households and their travel to analyse the influence of life events and travel behaviour. We focus on the travel time stability of individuals participating in five or more waves of data collection. This reflects the broader use of GPS devices. The popularity of mobile devices offers g...
Article
Full-text available
The paper uses a unique multi-day multi-wave panel dataset of households and their travel to conduct new in-depth analysis on the influence of life change events and travel behaviour, specifically in relation to the travel time stability of individuals that participated in five or more waves. The popularity of mobile devices offer greater low-cost...
Article
The analysis of catastrophic and climate impacted hazards is a challenging but important exercise, as the occurrence of such events is usually associated with high damage and uncertainty. Often, at the local level, there is a lack of information on rare extreme events, such that available data is not sufficient to fit a distribution and derive para...
Article
Full-text available
The success of the Montreal Protocol in comparison to the stagnation seen in negotiations surrounding the Kyoto Protocol highlights the importance of a supportive industry group, pre-existing legislation and commitment by a lead nation, affordable and available substitutes, as well as acceptance of the underlying scientific explanation of the link...
Article
Full-text available
Comparing the costs of batteries can be confusing and/or problematic. This article aims to clarify some of the issues that have led to confusion when discussing both the present and the future cost of batteries. The specification of a ‘break-through price’ of batteries in terms of dollars per kilowatt-hour (kWh) will need to allow for a variety of...
Article
The importance of a focus on mobility and the kilometres travelled using light duty vehicles is reflected in the persistence of strong demand for personal mobility and emissions that tend to be linked with population and economic growth. Simulation results using the WITCH model show that changes in the kilometres driven per year using light duty ve...
Article
Full-text available
Within this paper, we review whether incidences of salary cap circumvention within the Australian professional rugby league competition led to improved home team wins during the period between 2001 and 2012. In doing so, we show that while the salary cap breach amounts can be attributed to an improved home team win record in the case of the Melbour...
Article
Full-text available
Fragmented climate policies across parties of the United Nations Framework on Climate Change have led to the question of whether initiating significant and immediate climate change mitigation can support the achievement of other non-climate objectives. We analyze such potential co-benefits in connection with a range of mitigation efforts using resu...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an overview of the AMPERE modeling comparison project with focus on the implications of near-term policies for the costs and attainability of long-term climate objectives. Nine modeling teams participated in the project to explore the consequences of global emissions following the proposed policy stringency of the national pledg...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the implications of delays (to 2030) in implementing optimal policies for long-term transition pathways to limit climate forcing to 450 ppm CO2e on the basis of the AMPERE Work Package 2 model comparison study. The paper highlights the critical importance of the period 2030–2050 for ambitious mitigation strategies. In this perio...
Article
Transportation accounts for a substantial share of CO2 emissions, and decarbonizing transport will be necessary to limit global warming to below 2°C. Due to persistent reliance on fossil fuels, it is posited that transport is more difficult to decarbonize than other sectors. We test this hypothesis by comparing long-term transport energy demand and...
Article
With a focus on the interaction between long-term climate targets and personal transport we review the electrification of light duty vehicles (LDVs) within a model that utilizes a learning-by-researching structure. By modeling the demand of vehicles, the use of fuels and emissions implied, the model solves for the optimum RD&D investments that decr...
Article
Transportation accounts for a substantial share of CO2 emissions, and decarbonizing transport will be necessary to limit global warming to below 2°C. Due to persistent reliance on fossil fuels, it is posited that transport is more difficult to decarbonize than other sectors. We test this hypothesis by comparing long-term transport energy demand and...
Article
This paper analyzes a set of new scenarios for energy markets in Europe to evaluate the consistency of economic incentives and climate objectives. It focuses in particular on the role of natural gas across a range of climate policy scenarios (including the Copenhagen Pledges and the EU Roadmap) to identify whether current trends and policies are le...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores a situation of staged accession to a global climate policy regime from the current situation of regionally fragmented and moderate climate action. The analysis is based on scenarios in which a front runner coalition – the EU or the EU and China – embarks on immediate ambitious climate action while the rest of the world makes a t...
Article
Full-text available
A focus on mobility, the kilometres travelled using light duty vehicles, and climate policy is motivated by the persistence of strong demand for personal mobility. Emissions have tended to be linked with population and economic growth which implies that a decoupling would need to occur for successful climate policy. Forecasts of population and inco...
Article
The importance of a focus on mobility and the kilometres travelled using light duty vehicles is reflected in the persistence of strong demand for personal mobility and emissions that tend to be linked with population and economic growth. Simulation results using the WITCH model show that changes in the kilometres driven per year using light duty ve...
Article
With a focus on establishing whether climate targets can be met under different personal transport scenarios we introduce a transport sector representing the use and profile of light domestic vehicles (LDVs) into the integrated assessment model WITCH. In doing so we develop long term projections of light domestic vehicle use and define potential sy...

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Projects

Projects (6)
Project
The Victorian Healthy Homes Program will focus on better understanding the combined health and energy outcomes of household energy efficiency retrofit programs targeted at vulnerable householders. The evaluation will also include health economics analyses. The two main aims for the outcomes evaluation of the Victorian Healthy Homes Program are to: (1) measure the health and energy co-benefits of improved thermal comfort among low-income households where at least one person has an existing health need, and (2) provide a monetarised estimate of these health and energy co-benefits to inform future government household energy efficiency policy and programs.
Archived project