Thomas Litzinger

Thomas Litzinger
Pennsylvania State University | Penn State · College of Engineering

About

220
Publications
35,020
Reads
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5,742
Citations
Citations since 2017
8 Research Items
2349 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Introduction
Additional affiliations
July 1997 - February 2017
Pennsylvania State University
Position
  • Assistant Dean, Educational Innovation and Accreditation

Publications

Publications (220)
Article
The goal of the current work is to understand the effects of premixing on soot processes in an . iso-octane, axisymmetric, co-flow, laminar flame at atmospheric pressure. The flames investigated are non-premixed and partially-premixed (jet equivalence ratios of 24, 15, 12, 9 and 6). The total carbon flow rate is kept constant to facilitate comparis...
Article
The objective of this study is to understand the effects of fuel volatility on soot emissions. This effect is investigated in two experimental configurations: a jet flame and a model gas turbine combustor. The jet flame provides information about the effects of fuel on the spatial development of aromatics and soot in an axisymmetric, co-flow, lamin...
Article
The work described in this paper is part of Department of Defense-Industry-University collaboration to develop fundamental understanding of the effects of alternative fuels on emissions from military gas turbine engines. The study was conducted in an axisymmetric, co-flow, laminar flame configuration at atmospheric pressure to determine the effects...
Article
The goal of this work is to understand the effect of fuel molecular structure on soot precursors and soot in an axisymmetric, co-flow, laminar flame configuration at atmospheric pressure with partially-premixed fuel jets. Five fuels with varying molecular structure are investigated: methylcyclohexane/. n-dodecane mixture, n-heptane/. n-dodecane mix...
Conference Paper
The objective of this study is to understand the effects of fuel volatility on soot emissions. The effect of fuel volatility on soot is investigated in two experimental configurations: a jet flame and a model gas turbine combustor. The jet flame experiment provides information about the effects of fuel on the spatial development of aromatics and so...
Conference Paper
As we all come together at FIE to explore advancements in engineering education, many attendees may ask themselves, “How could I use this in my classroom?” At Penn State, the Leonhard Center for the Enhancement of Engineering Education has been working with faculty for the last 25 years to help answer that exact question. This special session will...
Article
Background We tested the effects of an intervention on the learning of introductory thermodynamics principles. This intervention, OEM‐Thermo, is designed to prompt the cognitive operations of meaningful learning: organization, elaboration, and monitoring. We also sought evidence to show that execution of these operations was associated with learnin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Academic misconduct, prevalent in universities, threatens student potential for academic and professional success. A new initiative at a large, Mid-Atlantic University to assist engineering faculty in creating classrooms of integrity provided the impetus for this study. Nine faculty members from the College of Engineering at the University particip...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this research paper is to examine the relationship between self-concepts relating to two attributes necessary for successful engineers in today's society: creativity and global readiness. Some previous studies have shown a positive relationship exists between multicultural exposure and later creative performance. However, no studies...
Article
Experimental results are presented for changes in soot volume fraction resulting from the addition of a JP-8 surrogate and each of its components to a N2-diluted, C2H4 co-flow diffusion flame. The surrogate, which consists of 77% n-dodecane and 23% m-xylene by volume, was designed to match the threshold soot index of a nominal JP-8 fuel. Total carb...
Article
An interactive workshop has been developed that is intended to increase the integration of the creative process across engineering curricula. The workshop introduces participants to key findings from the research on creativity and the creative process including effectiveness of instruction on creative performance and assessment of creativity. A key...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined how a professional development workshop affected faculty members' perspectives about incorporating academic integrity into their engineering courses. Embedded in the context of a new initiative at a large Mid-Atlantic University that aims to enhance engineering students' understanding of academic integrity and professional ethic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to expand the research base on creativity by assessing engineering students' creative self-concepts. A cross-sectional study of first-year and senior engineering students was conducted to investigate three constructs that measure creative self-concept: creative self-efficacy, creative personal identity, and creative exp...
Chapter
Introduction. Governmental, academic, and professional organizations around the world have pointed to the need for changes in engineering education to meet global and national challenges (see, e.g., Australian Council of Engineering Deans, 2008; National Academy of Engineering, 2004; Royal Academy of Engineering, 2007). Some of these organizations...
Article
Full-text available
Surrogate fuel mixtures were formulated using hydrocarbon fluids to investigate the ability of different surrogate formulations to match the sooting characteristics of a specific jet fuel (JP-8 POSF 5699). Three different surrogates were studied: two binary mixtures and a ternary mixture. The first surrogate matched the threshold soot index and ave...
Article
Full-text available
We have demonstrated previously that a (surrogate fuel) mixture of known pure hydrocarbon species that closely matches four combustion property targets (the derived cetane number (DCN), the hydrogen to carbon molar ratio (H/C), the threshold soot index (TSI), and the average molecular weight) of a specific jet fuel, displays fully prevaporized glob...
Conference Paper
There are increasing calls for changes in engineering education to better prepare graduates to be innovative and creative. Yet, research on how the creative process can be implemented in engineering courses is scarce. The purpose of this paper and the associated session at the NCIIA conference is to 1) discuss the barriers to integrating the creati...
Article
Experimental data and model results are presented for the effects of m-xylene on aromatic species and soot in a nitrogen-diluted ethylene flame over a range of pressures from 1 to 5 atm. The experimental approach was designed to investigate the effects of m-xylene as a perturbation to a base flame by keeping the amount of carbon added as m-xylene t...
Article
A methodology for the formulation of surrogate fuels for the emulation of real fuel gas phase combustion kinetic phenomena pertinent to gas turbine combustion is described and tested. A mixture of n-dodecane/iso-octane/1,3,5-trimethylbenzene/n-propylbenzene is formulated in a predictive manner to exhibit the same gas phase combustion phenomena of a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Surrogate fuel mixtures were formulated using narrow-cut solvent mixtures to match the sooting propensity of a specific jet fuel sample (JP-8 POSF 5699). To formulate the surrogate mixtures, derived cetane number (DCN), threshold soot index (TSI), hydrogen-to-carbon molar ratio, and average molecular weight were used as the combustion property targ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A novel methodology for studying autoignition of pre-vaporized hydrocarbons at non-dilute conditions in a high-pressure flow reactor has been developed. In this methodology, the minimum equivalence ratio required for ignition at specific conditions of pressure, temperature and residence time was found. Iso-octane was vaporized with a hydrogen/oxyge...
Article
Full-text available
A common challenge that professors face is to balance the need to lecture on important content with the desire to increase student engagement through the use of more active learning methods. This paper describes the use of the "classroom flip" technique to develop and implement a five-week module in a 100-student, architectural engineering course....
Article
The College of Engineering at the Pennsylvania State University aspires to educate engineers of 2020: engineers who are innovative, ethical, and good communicators, and have the skills to work globally and in multidisciplinary teams. For evaluation purposes, the University periodically sends out surveys in which engineering alumni are asked about h...
Article
The usefulness of hybrid delivery in education has long been realized. With the advancement of computer and communication technologies and the introduction of Web-based authoring tools, its effectiveness has been further extended. In this regard, it has affected traditional distance-learning by transforming it from a static videotape delivery to a...
Article
This is the second in a series of papers to summarize results of the impact of nonmetallic fuel additives on soot. The research was conducted by a university, industry, and government team with the primary objective of obtaining fundamental understanding of the mechanisms through which additive compounds blended into a fuel affect soot emissions. T...
Article
BACKGROUND Although engineering education has evolved in ways that improve the readiness of graduates to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century, national and international organizations continue to call for change. Future changes in engineering education should be guided by research on expertise and the learning processes that support its...
Article
Thermochemical and physical processes which occur in various aspects of solid-propellant combustion including steady-state burning, ignition, transient burning, cook-off and crack propagation are presented in this paper. For each case, the various thermochemical and physical properties involved are summarized. In addition, the current direction of...
Article
Full-text available
A new model for engineering education has been developed and funded. The model is 100% project based learning (PBL) where the students develop their own learning objectives. The projects are authentic needs contributed by collaborating industries. Students monitor the acquisition of 32 technical competencies and all of the design and professionalis...
Article
Experimental data are presented for the effects of addition of hydrocarbon fuels on soot volume fractions for a nitrogen-diluted ethylene flame over a range of pressures from 1 to 5 atm. The fuels investigated were m-xylene, dodecane, a 77% dodecane/23% m-xylene mixture, and JP-8. The mixture was chosen to match the Threshold Soot Index of JP-8. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Surrogate fuel mixtures that can emulate the physical and chemical properties of specific real fuels are important tools for understanding fuel property effects on the performance and emissions characteristics of existing combustion hardware and in optimizing the design of new energy conversion devices. Recently, surrogate fuel mixtures of small nu...
Article
Full-text available
A four-component surrogate fuel composed of n-dodecane, iso-octane, n-propylbenzene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene was formulated to match the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, derived cetane number, molecular weight, and the threshold soot index (TSI) of JP-8. Two additional surrogate fuels were formulated to match the TSI of JP-8 using narrow-cut solvent fu...
Article
Understanding the ignition reactions for hypergolic propellants is an important step in developing a complete reaction model that can be used in engine design and optimizing the composition of the fuel−oxidizer pair. To that end, an experimental study of the hypergolic reaction of sodium dicyanamide with nitric acid was conducted to investigate a r...
Article
Full-text available
An implicit methodology based on chemical group theory to formulate a jet aviation fuel surrogate by the measurements of several combustion related fuel properties is tested. The empirical formula and derived cetane number of an actual aviation fuel, POSF 4658, have been determined. A three component surrogate fuel for POSF 4658 has been formulated...
Article
This paper describes our continued work in creating a set of narrated dynamically worked-out problems for the Electric Circuits students using a Tablet PC. The examples are intended to improve problem-solving skills by enhancing understanding of the key concepts and the way that they should be utilized in solving circuits' problems. A detailed expl...
Article
Background Even as expectations for engineers continue to evolve to meet global challenges, analytical problem solving remains a central skill. Thus, improving students' analytical problem solving skills remains an important goal in engineering education. This study involves observation of students as they execute the initial steps of an engineerin...
Article
Currently, modeling the combustion of aviation fuels, such as JP-8 and JetA, is not feasible due to the complexity and compositional variation of these practical fuels. Surrogate fuel mixtures, composed of a few pure hydrocarbon compounds, are a key step toward modeling the combustion of practical aviation fuels. For the surrogate to simulate the p...
Article
Most engineering educators recognize the importance of emphasizing the so-called "soft-skills" in the undergraduate curriculum in order for graduates to be competitive in the global workforce. Of increasing interest for many engineering programs is engaging students in educational experiences that will increase their global awareness, cultural unde...
Article
This paper describes how results from the education literature have been put into practice in two projects currently underway in an engineering education center. The projects are both aimed at improving problem solving. The first is being conducted in Statics, and the second in Fluid Mechanics course in Civil Engineering. The Statics project is gro...
Article
The impetus for the present study is a perceived anomaly in which a vertically mounted ethylene jet diffusion flame used to study soot is observed to be steady; whereas similar flames used in other studies have been observed to flicker or oscillate at a frequency of about 12Hz. This difference raises a question as to why the sooting flame is steady...
Article
This chapter describes insights gained in the College of Engineering at Penn State in implementing collegewide, department-focused, and faculty-centered educational reforms.
Conference Paper
This paper describes our goal of creating a set of narrated dynamically worked-out problems for the electric circuits students using a Tablet PC. The examples are intended to improve problem-solving skills by enhancing understanding of the key concepts and the way that they should be utilized in solving circuits' problems. Improvement in understand...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of a variety of non-metallic fuel additives on soot was investigated in a collaborative university, industry and government effort. The main objective of this program was to obtain fundamental understanding of the mechanisms through which blending compounds into a fuel affects soot emissions. The research team used a suite of laboratory...
Conference Paper
New measurements of threshold soot index (TSI) and TSI data from the literature have been combined to develop a set of recommended TSI values for use in formulating surrogate fuel mixtures for JP-8. Several binary mixtures of candidate surrogate compounds were tested in order to verify the mixture rule for the TSI. The mixtures were also used to de...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper considers the results of a two-year project in which Tablet PCs were given to engineering faculty at the Pennsylvania State University. During Phase 1, 34 faculty members received a Tablet PC for use in the classroom. Due to the success of this implementation and demand by other faculty, the project was expanded in the following year to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Statics is the first engineering class mechanics-based majors encounter. It tends to operate as a “weeder” course, due to most students’ difficulties in learning the engineering approach to problem solving, which is characterized by model-based reasoning. Difficulty in model-building can cause a lack of confidence and a diminished sense of self-eff...
Article
Learning conceptual knowledge in engineering science is a critical element in the development of competence and expertise in engi-neering. To date, however, research on conceptual learning in engineering science has been limited. Therefore, this article draws heavily on fundamental research by cognitive psychologists and applied research by science...
Article
This paper reports on a study examining the effects of posting annotated instructor notes generated with Tablet PCs in two 300-level engineering classrooms at a large land-grant university in the United States. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of sharing instructor notes on students' attendance, note-taking behaviors, and learning...
Article
The work described in this paper is part of a multi-year study that seeks to enhance students' ability to create 'models' successfully as they solve problems in Statics. The ultimate goal of the study is to understand the major difficulties that students encounter as they learn to model during problem-solving in Statics and to create interventions...
Article
Full-text available
This report describes research focused on the interactions between a plasma and a solid propellant. The specific issues addressed include the effects of radical and neutral species as well as radiative heat transfer on the ignition and combustion of double-base propellants. A wide variety of measurements have been conducted using a broad range of d...
Article
Full-text available
A study was conducted on the Felder-Soloman Index of Learning Styles © (ILS) to assess reliability, factor structure, and construct validity as well to determine whether changing its dichotomous response scale to a five-option response scale would improve relia-bility and validity. Data collected in this study had internal consis-tency reliability...
Article
The total scattering coefficient is determined from three multiangle scattering measurements at different heights above the burner in a nonsooting laminar ethylene diffusion flame. The local extinction coefficient is determined from multichord extinction measurements. The above analysis quantifies the contribution from scattering to extinction with...
Article
Full-text available
The experimental work conducted under this program was designed to provide new insight into condensed-phase reactions leading to ignition of ionic liquids. The objectives of the work were: (1) to identify the initiation and secondary reactions in the condensed phase that lead to ignition and combustion, (2) to understand the effects of the structur...
Article
The objective of this work is to study the behavior of an ionic liquid, 1-H-4-amino-1,2,4-triazolium nitrate, during thermal decomposition driven by an infrared laser (10.6 μm). The focus was to understand the initial decomposition reactions and subsequent reactions that lead to ring decomposition and eventually to ignition. A triple quadrupole mas...
Article
Experiments were conducted on a laminar premixed ethylene–air flame at equivalence ratios of 2.34 and 2.64. Comparisons were made between flames with 5% NO2 added by volume. Soot volume fraction was measured using light extinction and light scattering and fluorescence measurements were also obtained to provide added insight into the soot formation...
Article
The objective of this work was to study the near-surface phenomena of an energetic binder, butanetriol trinitrate/ glycidyl azide polymer, during thermal decomposition and combustion. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with microprobe sampling was used to obtain gas-phase quantitative species from CO2 laser-induced decomposition and laser-assist...
Article
An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of various experimental configurations and burner operating conditions on the measured soot volume fraction in laminar premixed ethylene-air flames at equivalence ratios of 2.34 and 2.64. Soot volume fractions were measured using light extinction for all the experimental conditions. Th...
Article
The effect of nitrogen-bearing fuel additives on soot and PAH emissions formation has been investigated in a collaborative university, industrial and governmental effort. The overall objective of this program was to obtain fundamental understanding of how changes in fuel composition can effect soot and PAH emissions from military aircraft combustor...
Article
Recently researchers from universities, industry and governmental laboratories completed a collaborative study that investigated the impact of different types of organic fuel additives on soot and PAH emissions from military gas turbine engines. The main objective of this program was to obtain fundamental understanding of how even a small changes i...
Article
The impact of oxygenated fuel additives on soot emissions has been investigated in a collaborative university, industry and government effort. The main objective of this program was to obtain fundamental understanding of how changes in fuel composition can reduce soot and PAH emissions from military aircraft combustors. The research team used a sui...
Article
Information about species involved in initiating ignition of propellents by electrothermal plasma is critical to determining any chemical effect on the enhancement of electro-thermal-chemical gun performance. An experimental study using a triple-quadrupole molecular beam mass spectrometer was conducted to measure species from plasma recombination a...
Article
This paper describes an effort to investigate the transient process of an electrothermal plasma normally impinging on a plate or a solid propellant. The objective of this effort was to develop a better understanding of the fundamental aspects of this process to facilitate the development of the plasma ignition system for use in electrothermal chemi...