Thomas Laveist

Thomas Laveist
George Washington University | GW · Health Policy and Management

PhD

About

187
Publications
24,051
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
14,022
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2016 - present
George Washington University
Position
  • Head of Department
June 1990 - February 2016
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Position
  • Professor
August 1984 - June 1990
University of Michigan
Position
  • Fellow

Publications

Publications (187)
Article
Background: We examine trends in telemedicine use by race, geography, and age among Louisiana Medicaid beneficiaries in the months preceding the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Using Louisiana Medicaid claims data from January 2018 through February 2020, we calculated a relative ratio of telemedicine use as the share of telemedicine claims by race, age...
Article
Full-text available
The disproportionate rates of police surveillance and encounters in many communities in the US may be contributing to inequities in health and violence. Frequent policing in communities, which may often also be aggressive policing, has been associated with diminished health and well-being. This study adds to the growing body of research on this iss...
Article
Objectives Experiences of vicarious racism—hearing about racism directed toward one’s racial group or racist acts committed against other racial group members—and vigilance about racial discrimination have been salient during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined vicarious racism and vigilance in relation to symptoms of depression and anxiety...
Article
Full-text available
Prostate cancer is a significant impediment that can reduce physical functional status. Mobility is fundamental for quality of life and church attendance to be associated with improved physical functioning. Few studies have examined how religious participation have implications for mobility limitation among men in general and among prostate cancer...
Article
Full-text available
Prostate cancer is a significant impediment in men’s lives as this condition often exacerbates stress and reduces quality of life. Faith can be a resource through which men cope with health crises; however, few studies examine how religion or spirituality can have implications for racial disparities in health outcomes among men. The purpose of this...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the association between perceived racial discrimination and hypertension among African Americans and whites who live in a low-income, racially integrated, urban community. Hypertension was defined as having a systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg or more, a diastolic blood pressure 90 mm Hg or more, or taking antihypertensive medication(s)....
Article
Full-text available
In the US, African Americans have a higher prevalence of hypertension than Whites. Previous studies show that social support contributes to the racial differences in hypertension but are limited in accounting for the social and environmental effects of racial residential segregation. We examined whether the association between race and hypertension...
Chapter
The objective of this paper was to determine whether there were any race differences in mobility limitation among PCa survivors, and understand the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on this relationship. Data consisted of 661 PCa survivors (296 Black and 365 White) from the Diagnosis and Decisions in Prostate Cancer Treatment Outcomes (DAD) Stud...
Article
Full-text available
African Americans and ethnic minorities experience racial discrimination in a variety of settings. Racial discrimination is a potent stressor that has been linked to psychosocial stress and poor physical health. To cope with discriminatory experiences and daily life event stressors, African Americans frequently use the concept of John Henryism (a h...
Article
African American men report lower levels of depressive symptoms that their white peers in national data. However, the value of these studies is often undermined by data that confound race, socioeconomic status, and segregation. We sought to determine whether race differences in depressive symptoms were present after minimizing the effects of socioe...
Article
Full-text available
Significant racial disparities in physical activity—a key protective health factor against obesity and cardiovascular disease—exist in the United States. Using data from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the 2000 United States (US) Census, we estimated the impact of race, individual-level poverty, neighborhood-level...
Article
Medical mistrust measures have not been validated in Latino immigrants. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Medical Mistrust Index and its association with health care satisfaction in a sample of Latina immigrants. Participants were 168 self-identified Latinas ≥40 years old. Women were recruited from three Latino-serving health c...
Article
The current study examined the relationship between John Henryism Active Coping (JHAC), experiences of racial discrimination, and behavioral health outcomes in a community sample of 319 Black adults. Assessments included primary health care screenings as well as self‐reported survey questions to assess JHAC, experiences of discrimination, and self‐...
Article
Background and objectives: This study examined differences in waterpipe smoking (both lifetime and current) by race and ethnicity. More specifically, we evaluated intra-ethnic racial differences among Latinos using a nationally representative sample. Methods: Pooled data from the National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) [2012-2014] was used, in whic...
Article
Full-text available
An abundance of research has documented health inequalities by race and socioeconomic position (SEP) in the United States. However, conceptual and methodological challenges complicate the interpretation of study findings, thereby limiting progress in understanding health inequalities and in achieving health equity. Fundamental to these challenges i...
Article
p> Objectives: The objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of major depressive symptoms and identify factors that are associated with major depressive symptoms among Black men with prostate cancer (PCa). Design: This study consisted of 415 Black men aged 40-81 years that entered the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry during t...
Article
Race disparities in self-rated health in the USA are well-documented, such that African Americans rate their health more poorly than whites. However, after adjusting for health status, socioeconomic status (SES), and health behaviors, residual race differences are observed. This suggests the importance of unmeasured variables. Because African Ameri...
Article
Purpose: Racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES) explain some, but not all, of racial disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To address this, race disparities among higher SES individuals need to be assessed. The purpose of this study was to assess whether racial disparities in CVD risk factors differ by SES levels. Methods:...
Article
Background: Vigilant coping refers to individuals who, potentially as a result of experiencing discrimination in the past, proactively prepare for the possibility that they will be discriminated against or mistreated because of their race. The extent to which vigilant coping is linked with hypertension, a highly prevalent condition with well-docum...
Article
Racial and ethnic disparities in health have been well-documented, and low SES is widely considered to be a driver of this relationship. However, the race-social class-health interrelationship is complex, as several studies have found race disparities between racial/ethnic minorities and whites at middle- income levels. Research on higher income pe...
Article
Full-text available
Treatment experiences for prostate cancer survivors can be challenging and dependent on many clinical and psychosocial factors. One area that is less understood is the information needs and sources men utilize. Among these is the influence of religion as a valid typology and the value it may have on treatment decisions. The objective of this study...
Article
Background: Medical mistrust is thought to affect health care-based decisions and has been linked to poor health outcomes. The effects of medical mistrust among men with prostate cancer are unknown. Thus, the goal of the current study is to examine the association between medical mistrust and quality of life (QOL) among black and white men with pr...
Article
The weathering hypothesis, an explanation for race disparities in the USA, asserts that the health of African Americans begin to deteriorate prematurely compared to whites as a consequence of long-term exposure to social and environmental risk factors. Using data from 2000–2009 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS), we sought to describe differe...
Article
Full-text available
Compared to White Americans, African-Americans are less likely to use primary care (PC) as their usual source of care. This is generally attributed to race differences in socioeconomic status and in access to primary care services. Little is known about the relationship between race differences in medical mistrust and the usual source of care dispa...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Studies have shown that communities with higher concentrations of low-income racial and ethnic minorities correlate with a greater presence of tobacco outlets. Community-level income has consistently been among the strongest predictors of tobacco outlet density. This study analyzes two Maryland geopolitical areas with similar racial co...
Article
Background: Disparities among patients with prostate cancer exist across the continuum of care. The interval of time that lapses between first diagnosis and treatment is another disparity that may exist but has not been fully explored. Methods: Our study looked at the data of 749 men (353 black and 396 white) who were 40 to 81 years of age when...
Article
Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the natu...
Article
Objective To explore the association between quality of care for surgical and pneumonia patients and the racial/ethnic composition of hospitals' patients.Data SourceOur primary data were surgical and pneumonia processes of care indicators from the 2012 Medicare Hospital Compare Data. We merged this data with information from the 2011 American Hospi...
Article
The objective of this study is to examine factors among a group of African American and White men in North Carolina and their assessment of prostate cancer treatment choice or belief that treatment chosen was best. A sample of men (N = 877) with a history of prostate cancer diagnosis was recruited from the North Carolina Cancer Registry during 2007...
Article
Full-text available
Racial/ethnic disparities exist in obesity prevalence among men, with Hispanic men exhibiting the highest prevalence compared with non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black men. Most studies do not parse out Hispanic groups; therefore, it is unclear whether the increases in obesity rates among Hispanic men applies to all groups or if there are part...
Article
Full-text available
Racial differences in physical activity among men are well documented; however, little is known about the impact of marital status on this relationship. Data from the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006 was used to determine whether the association of race and physical activity among men varied by marital status. Marital statu...
Article
To investigate whether the gender gap in obesity prevalence is greater among U.S. blacks than whites in a study designed to account for racial differences in socioeconomic and environmental conditions. We estimated age-adjusted, race-stratified gender gaps in obesity (% female obese - % male obese, defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) in the Nat...
Article
This Viewpoint discusses motivating health care organizations to consider a new set of tools and approaches to disparities in health outcomes by race/ethnicity and income status such as payment systems that reward better outcomes and building equity into program design. Disparities in health outcomes by race and ethnicity and by income status are...
Article
Full-text available
Dental services use is a public health issue that varies by race. African Americans are less likely than whites to make use of these services. While several explanations exist, little is known about the role of segregation in understanding this race difference. Most research does not account for the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and se...
Article
Community problems have been associated with higher, and community resources and social cohesion with lower, blood pressure. However, prior studies have not accounted for potential confounding by residential racial segregation. This study tested associations between community characteristics and blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension in a...
Article
Full-text available
Persistent and consistently observed racial disparities in physical functioning likely stem from racial differences in social resources and environmental conditions. We examined the association between race and reported difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in 347 African American (45.5%) and Whites aged 50 or above i...
Conference Paper
In the United States of America, in the year 2014, African Americans live sicker and die younger than any other ethnic group in the nation. Why is this happening? In this feature documentary THE SKIN YOU’RE IN, Our Town Films and Johns Hopkins Public Health researcher Dr. Thomas LaVeist will investigate this disturbing phenomenon: the astonishing d...
Article
Full-text available
National data indicate that Black men have higher rates of obesity than White men. Black men also experience earlier onset of many chronic conditions and premature mortality linked to obesity. Explanations for these disparities have been underexplored, and existing national-level studies may be limited in their ability to explicate these long-stand...
Article
Full-text available
Disparities in men's health research may inaccurately attribute differences in chronic conditions to race rather than the different health risk exposures in which men live. This study sought to determine whether living in the same social environment attenuates race disparities in chronic conditions among men. This study compared survey data collect...
Article
Objective: To examine the nature of disparities in hypertension awareness, treatment, and control within a sample of Whites and African Americans living in the same social context and with access to the same health care environment. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Southwest Baltimore, Maryland Participants: 949 hypertensive African Am...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether race disparities in physical inactivity are present among urban low-income Blacks and Whites living in similar social context. Design: This analysis included Black and White respondents ( > or = 18 years) from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-Southwest Balti...
Article
In the United States, the association between income inequality and mortality has been fairly consistent. However, few studies have explicitly examined the impact of race. Studies that have either stratified outcomes by race or conducted analyses within race-specific groups suggest that the income inequality/mortality relation may differ for blacks...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about how health insurance contributes to the prevalence of chronic disease in the overlooked population of low-income urban whites. This study uses cross-sectional data on 491 low-income urban non-elderly non-Hispanic whites from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB) study to exa...
Article
Full-text available
Although Black-white differences in depression are well documented, vigilant coping style as an explanation for the observed inequalities in depression is less understood. Using data from 718 adults in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities (EHDIC) Study, we estimated logistic regression models to examine the cross sectional rel...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have examined the relationship between education and diabetes among men in the United States and whether this relationship differs by race/ethnicity. This study examined whether racial disparities in diabetes existed by educational attainment in 336,746 non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic men 18 years of age and older i...
Article
The established relationships among social determinants of health (SDH), health disparities, and race/ethnicity highlight the need for health-care professionals to adequately address SDH in their encounters with patients. The ethnic demographic transition slated to occur during the next several decades in the United States will have numerous effect...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: We sought to determine the role of neighborhood poverty and racial composition on race disparities in diabetes prevalence. Methods: We used data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 2000 US Census to estimate the impact of individual race and poverty and neighborhood racial composition and poverty c...
Article
Full-text available
Very little is known about the economic consequences of men’s health disparities. Using data from the 2006 through 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the National Vital Statistics Reports, we estimated the potential cost savings of eliminating health disparities for racial/ethnic minority men. The total direct medical care expenditures for A...
Article
Reasons for US racial-ethnic minority ESRD patients' reported difficulties identifying live kidney donors are poorly understood. We conducted a national study to develop scales measuring willingness to donate live kidneys among US adults (scores ranged from 0 [not willing] to 10 [extremely willing]), and we tested whether racial-ethnic differences...
Article
Full-text available
Because of the excess burden of preventable chronic diseases and premature death among African American men, identifying health behaviors to enhance longevity is needed. We used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994 (NHANES III) and the NHANES III Linked Mortality Public-use File to determine the association...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and the presence of anxiety and depression in a sample of low-income, urban-dwelling whites. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional survey of low-income whites living in an inner-city neighborhood in the mid-Atlantic United States. Perceived racial discrimination was re...
Article
Clinical evidence supports the value of BRCA1/2 genetic counseling and testing for managing hereditary breast and ovarian cancer risk; however, BRCA1/2 genetic counseling and testing are underutilized among black women, and reasons for low use remain elusive. We examined the potential influence of sociocultural factors (medical mistrust, concerns a...
Article
This study obtained nationally representative estimates of health-related indicators among native-born Black Canadians, and compared these estimates with those of native-born White Canadians. Data came from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2003-2008). Outcomes included smoking status, general health status, body mass index, and chronic conditi...
Article
Health inequalities, which have been well documented for decades, have recently become policy targets in the United States. This report summarizes current patterns and trends in health inequalities, commitments to reduce health inequalities, and progress made to eliminate health inequalities. Time trend data indicate improvements in health status a...
Article
Full-text available
African American men consistently report poorer health and have lower participation rates in preventive screening tests than White men. This finding is generally attributed to race differences in access to care, which may be a consequence of the different health care markets in which African American and White men typically live. This proposition i...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: National estimates of race differences in alcohol use suggest that whites are more likely to be current and binge users of alcohol. These findings fail to account for race differences in the social and environmental context where people live. This study aims to determine whether race disparities persist in alcohol use among individuals...
Article
African Americans suffer from higher prevalence and severity of atherosclerosis compared with whites, highlighting racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have pointed to the role of vascular inflammation and platelet activation in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. We explored the role of genetic variation...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have evaluated possible racial/ethnic disparities in chronic disease prevalence among US Air Force active-duty members. Because members have equal access to free health care and preventive screening, the presence of health disparities in this population could offer new insight into the source of these disparities. Our objective was to i...
Article
Full-text available
In the EHDIC-SWB study, African-Americans are less likely to have depression than non-Hispanic whites. Religious service attendance is one possible explanation because studies have shown an inverse relationship between religious service attendance and depression. We examined the relationship between race, religious service attendance, and depressio...
Conference Paper
Background: Despite older adults' and racial/ethnic minorities' greater need for live kidney transplants (LKT) to treat the epidemic of life-threatening end stage renal disease, they are less likely to receive donated kidneys from others. Reasons for disparities in live kidney donation among older adults and minorities are poorly understood. Meth...
Conference Paper
BACKGROUND: African-Americans are more likely to have depression than non-Hispanic whites yet explanations for these race differences are limited. Religious service attendance is one possible explanation because of the inverse relationship between religious service attendance and depression. Further, previous work has failed to account for the conf...
Article
Full-text available
Much of the current health disparities literature fails to account for the fact that the nation is largely segregated, leaving racial groups exposed to different health risks and with variable access to health services based on where they live. We sought to determine if racial health disparities typically reported in national studies remain the sam...
Article
Correspondence: Dr LaVeist, Hopkins Center for Health Disparities Solutions, Johns Hopkins University, 624 N Broadway, Room 441, Baltimore, MD 21205 (tlaveist@jhsph.edu). Author Contributions: Dr Lebrun had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study...
Article
Full-text available
Employing three years of inpatient discharge data from 11 states and inpatient and patient safety quality indicators from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), this paper explored whether minority (black, Hispanic, and Asian) patients used lower quality hospitals. We found that the association between the share of minority patients...
Article
Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in preferred methods of disclosing deceased organ donation intentions among persons not previously designating their organ donation preferences publicly or the association of medical mistrust with preferences. We surveyed 307 United States (US) adults who had not yet designated their donation intentio...
Article
Full-text available
Eliminating health disparities is a Healthy People goal. Given the diverse and sometimes broad definitions of health disparities commonly used, a subcommittee convened by the Secretary's Advisory Committee for Healthy People 2020 proposed an operational definition for use in developing objectives and targets, determining resource allocation priorit...
Article
Health inequalities, which have been well documented for decades, have more recently become policy targets in developed countries. This review describes time trends in health inequalities (by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status), commitments to reduce health inequalities, and progress made to eliminate health inequalities in the United St...
Article
The primary hypothesis of this study is that racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care impose costs on numerous aspects of society, both direct health care costs and indirect costs such as loss of productivity. The authors conducted three sets of analysis, assessing: (1) direct medical costs and (2) indirect costs, using data from the Med...
Article
Full-text available
Disparities in health among blacks and Hispanics compared to whites individuals exist for a number of health measures; however, the health profile of individuals who are both black and Hispanic is not well known. We sought to determine whether race and ethnicity have synchronous or independent effects on health-related outcomes. We combined the Nat...