Thomas Kwapil

Thomas Kwapil
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | UIUC · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

299
Publications
78,539
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11,847
Citations
Citations since 2017
121 Research Items
6295 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
Additional affiliations
August 1997 - present
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
August 1986 - July 1997
University of Wisconsin–Madison

Publications

Publications (299)
Article
Full-text available
This article introduces and reviews the history of the construct of schizotypy for the special section appearing in the journal. Schizotypy offers a useful construct for understanding the etiology, development, and expression of schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology and a unifying construct for linking a broad continuum of clinical and subclinical...
Article
Full-text available
Positive and negative schizotypy exhibit differential patterns of impairment in social relations, affect, and functioning in daily life. However, studies have not examined the association of schizotypy with real-world expression of psychotic-like, paranoid, and negative symptoms. The present study employed experience-sampling methodology (ESM) to a...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the factor structure underlying the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales and the validity of these dimensions. Confirmatory factor analysis with 6137 nonclinical young adults supported a 2-factor model with positive and negative schizotypy dimensions. As predicted, the schizotypy dimensions were differentially related to psychopat...
Article
Current clinical and epidemiological research provides support for a continuum of bipolar psychopathology: a bipolar spectrum that ranges from subthreshold characteristics to clinical disorders. The present research examined risk for bipolar spectrum psychopathology at a 3-year follow-up assessment in a nonclinically ascertained sample of 112 young...
Article
Schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology appears best understood as being expressed across a continuum of clinical and subclinical symptoms and impairment referred to as schizotypy. This brief report describes a comprehensive replication study examining the associations of positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy with interview ratings of impa...
Article
Schizotypy and schizophrenia are associated with disruptions in the experience of affect. Temporal patterns of affect, or affective dynamics, offer unique information about the expression of multidimensional schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. The present study employed experience sampling methodology to examine affective intensity, inertia, va...
Article
Full-text available
Background and hypothesis Around 20% of people at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis later develop a psychotic disorder, but it is difficult to predict who this will be. We assessed the incidence of hearing speech (termed speech illusions [SIs]) in noise in CHR participants and examined whether this was associated with adverse clinical outcomes...
Article
The underlying vulnerability for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is expressed across a continuum of clinical and subclinical symptoms referred to as schizotypy. Schizotypy is a multidimensional construct with positive, negative, and disorganized dimensions. The present study examined associations of positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy...
Article
Ambivalence has a longstanding history in schizophrenia-spectrum and borderline personality psychopathology, although it has been largely overlooked in current psychopathology research. The Schizotypal Ambivalence Scale (SAS) provides a brief, psychometrically sound questionnaire for assessing ambivalence characteristic of the schizotypy spectrum....
Article
Full-text available
Ambivalence has a prominent role in the historical formulations of schizotypy and schizophrenia, as well as borderline personality disorder. However, it has been overlooked by our current diagnostic nomenclature. The Schizotypal Ambivalence Scale (SAS) is a 19-item self-report scale developed to examine ambivalence relevant to schizotypy and schizo...
Article
Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) first appeared in the American Psychiatric Association diagnostic nosology in 1980, although its roots stretch back more than 100 years under labels such as borderline, ambulatory, and latent schizophrenia. SPD is unique in that it is conceptualized both as stable personality pathology and also as a milder man...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Hypothesis Influential models of psychosis indicate that the impact of putative causal factors on positive symptoms might be explained partly through affective disturbances. We aimed to investigate whether pathways from stress and self-esteem to positive symptoms, as well as reversal pathways from symptoms to stress and self-esteem,...
Article
Mind-wandering assessment relies heavily on the thought probe technique as a reliable and valid method to assess momentary task-unrelated thought (TUT), but there is little guidance available to help researchers decide how many probes to include within a task. Too few probes may lead to unreliable measurement, but too many probes might artificially...
Article
Background The Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) assesses bipolar spectrum psychopathology and risk for bipolar disorders. Despite the developers' intent to create a scale that provides a unitary score, several studies have examined whether the HPS has a multidimensional structure. These models have been unable to identify a replicable multidimensi...
Preprint
The underlying vulnerability for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is expressed across a continuum of clinical and subclinical symptoms and impairment referred to as schizotypy. Schizotypy is a multidimensional construct with positive, negative, and disorganized dimensions. Models of pathological personality provide useful frameworks for assessing t...
Article
Full-text available
The 20-item Self-reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS) is a widely used measure of individual differences in self-focused attention and private self-consciousness. In the present research, we examined the validity of a 12-item short form of the SRIS, which was recently developed based on item response theory models. Measures related to mental health...
Article
Full-text available
Leading theoretical models of psychosis implicate a wide range of psychological factors in the development of positive symptoms. Ambulatory assessment allows us to repeatedly assess people's mental experiences within and across days to explore putative moment-to-moment prospective relationships that impact the onset and exacerbation of positive sym...
Article
Self-report scales are popular tools for measuring anhedonic experiences and motivational deficits, but how well do they reflect clinically significant anhedonia? Seventy-eight adults participated in face-to-face structured diagnostic interviews: 22 showed clinically significant anhedonia, and 18 met criteria for depression. Analyses of effect size...
Article
The assessment of schizotypy and schizophrenia‐spectrum psychopathology has historically been adversely impacted by multiple forms of measurement bias, including racial bias. The Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) was developed using modern scale construction methods to minimize measurement bias in the assessment of schizotypic traits. However...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Diagnoses of anxiety and/or depression are common in subjects at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis (UHR) and associated with extensive functional impairment. Less is known about the impact of affective comorbidities on the prospective course of attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS). Method Latent class mixed modelling identified APS traject...
Preprint
Mind wandering assessment relies heavily on the thought probe technique as a reliable and valid method to assess momentary task-unrelated thought (TUT), but there is little guidance available to help researchers decide how many probes to include within a task. Too few probes may lead to unreliable measurement, but too many probes might artificially...
Article
The vulnerability for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is expressed across a continuum of clinical and subclinical symptoms and impairment known as schizotypy. Schizotypy is a multidimensional construct with positive, negative, and disorganized dimensions. Openness to experience offers a useful personality domain for exploring multidimensional schi...
Article
Full-text available
Bipolar disorders are increasingly understood as part of a spectrum of clinical and subclinical symptoms and impairment. Upwards of 50% of patients with bipolar disorders experience psychotic symptoms as part of their mood episodes. However, studies largely have not examined the extent to which people with subclinical bipolar spectrum psychopatholo...
Preprint
The 20-item Self-reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS) is a widely used measure of individual differences in self-focused attention and private self-consciousness. In the present research, we examined the validity of a 12-item short form of the SRIS, which was recently developed based on item response theory models. Measures related to mental health...
Preprint
Self-report scales are popular tools for measuring anhedonic experiences and motivational deficits, but how well do they reflect clinically significant anhedonia? Seventy-eight adults participated in face-to-face structured diagnostic interviews: 22 showed clinically significant anhedonia, and 18 met criteria for depression. Analyses of effect size...
Article
The present study examined the associations of positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy dimensions assessed by the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale with 5 interview-rated personality disorder diagnoses and traits in 151 young adults. As hypothesized, all 3 schizotypy dimensions were associated with impaired functioning. Positive schizotypy...
Article
Full-text available
Expressed emotion (EE) and self-esteem (SE) have been implicated in the onset and development of paranoia and positive symptoms of psychosis. However, the impact of EE on patients’ SE and ultimately on symptoms in the early stages of psychosis is still not fully understood. The main objectives of this study were to examine whether: (1) patients’ SE...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Research suggests dissociation and insecure attachment serve as explanatory mechanisms in the pathway from childhood trauma to paranoia. However, past work has not examined these mechanisms concurrently in nonclinical populations. Objective: The current study sought to examine dissociation and insecure attachment as parallel mediators o...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Self-concepts are being intensively investigated in relation to paranoia, but research has shown some contradictory findings. Studying subclinical phenomena in a non-clinical population should allow for a clearer understanding given that clinical confounding factors are avoided. We explored self-esteem, self-schemas, and implicit/explic...
Article
Introduction: Although sleep disturbances are well documented in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs), significantly less research has examined whether these disturbances are present in those at risk for developing BSDs or with subsyndromal symptoms. The present study examined associations between risk for BSDs, as measured by the Hypomanic Personalit...
Article
Full-text available
Research on effort and motivation commonly assesses how the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system affects the cardiovascular system. The cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP), assessed via impedance cardiography, is a common outcome, but assessing PEP requires identifying subtle points on cardiac waveforms. The present research examined th...
Article
This study evaluated the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) across different levels of the schizotypy continuum. A combined sample of high-schizotypy, at-risk mental states, and patients with first-episode psychosis was assessed for depression and other clinical and functional outco...
Article
Affective dysregulation is present in those with subsyndromal symptoms of hypomania and mania and prospectively predicts the development of bipolar spectrum disorders. A crucial, understudied area related to the experience and regulation of emotion in this population is emotional awareness – emotional clarity (Clarity) and attention to emotion (Att...
Preprint
Affective dysregulation is present in those with subsyndromal symptoms of hypomania and mania and prospectively predicts the development of bipolar spectrum disorders. A crucial, understudied area related to the experience and regulation of emotion in this population is emotional awareness – emotional clarity (Clarity) and attention to emotion (Att...
Preprint
Introduction: Although sleep disturbances are well documented in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs), significantly less research has examined whether these disturbances are present in those at risk for developing BSDs or with subsyndromal symptoms. The present study examined associations between risk for BSDs, as measured by the Hypomanic Personalit...
Article
Full-text available
This was the first study to our knowledge to examine whether dispositional scales of affect intensity and affective lability map on to corresponding momentary affective dynamics. Specifically, we assessed whether the Affect Intensity Measure (AIM) and Affective Lability Scale (ALS) are differentially associated with mean, variability, and instabili...
Article
In the large literature on creativity and mental illness, relatively few studies have explored anhedonia—impairments in anticipating, seeking, and experiencing rewards. This project explored self‐reported creativity in a sample of adults who differed in depressive anhedonia, determined via face‐to‐face structured clinical interviews. Participants c...
Article
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has extensive ties to motivation, including impaired response time (RT) performance. Average RT, however, conflates response speed and variability, so RT differences can be complex. Because recent studies have shown inconsistent effects of MDD on RT variability, the present research sought to unpack RT performance wi...
Article
Deficits in self-regulation and motivation are central to depression. Using motivational intensity theory (Brehm & Self, 1989), the present research examined how depressive anhedonia influences effort during a piece-rate appetitive task. In piece-rate tasks, people can work at their own pace and are rewarded for each correct response, so they can g...
Article
Full-text available
Background No studies have examined the association between self‐esteem and paranoia developmentally across the critical stages of psychosis emergence. The present study fills this gap and extends previous research by examining how different dimensions, measures, and types of self‐esteem relate to daily‐life paranoia across at‐risk mental states fo...
Article
Full-text available
The present study employed structured diagnostic interviews to assess the construct validity of the brief version of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS-B), which was developed to assess positive, negative, and disorganized dimensions of schizotypy. It was hypothesized that the MSS-B subscales would be associated with differential patterns o...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have implicated involvement of the hippocampus in the etiology and expression of schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology, and reduced hippocampal volume is one of the most robust brain abnormalities reported in schizophrenia. Recent studies indicate that early stages of schizophrenia are specifically characterized by reductions in a...
Preprint
In the large literature on creativity and mental illness, relatively few studies have explored anhedonia—impairments in anticipating, seeking, and experiencing rewards. This project explored self-reported creativity in a sample of adults who differed in depressive anhedonia, determined via face-to-face structured clinical interviews. Participants c...
Article
Full-text available
Mechanisms underlying the manifestation of relatives’ expressed emotion (EE) in the early stages of psychosis are still not properly understood. The present study aimed to examine whether relatives’ psychological distress and subjective appraisals of the illness predicted EE dimensions over-and-above patients’ poor clinical and functional status. B...
Preprint
This was the first study to our knowledge to examine whether dispositional scales of affect intensity and affective lability map on to corresponding momentary affective dynamics. Specifically, we assessed whether the Affect Intensity Measure (AIM) and Affective Lability Scale (ALS) are differentially associated with mean, variability, and instabili...
Preprint
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has extensive ties to motivation, including impaired response time (RT) performance. Average RT, however, conflates response speed and variability, so RT differences can be complex. Because recent studies have shown inconsistent effects of MDD on RT variability, the present research sought to unpack RT performance wi...
Article
Full-text available
The worst performance rule (WPR) is a robust empirical finding reflecting that people’s worst task performance shows numerically stronger correlations with cognitive ability than their average or best performance. However, recent meta-analytic work has proposed this be renamed the “not-best performance” rule because mean and worst performance seem...
Article
Full-text available
Background Daily-life stressors, specially of a social nature, seem to play an important role in the origin and expression of the continuum of psychosis vulnerability. This study examined whether social stress and social positive appraisals in daily-life were associated, respectively, with the occurrence and the decrease of momentary psychotic-like...
Article
Full-text available
Background The traumagenic neurodevelopment model of psychosis poses that prolonged or severe stress exposure in critical developmental periods (i.e., childhood) disrupts psychobiological stress regulation mechanisms, increasing liability for the onset and persistence of psychotic symptoms after re-exposure to stressful events (Read et al., 2014)....
Article
Full-text available
Background As theorized by Abraham Maslow, a fundamental need of all humans is to seek a sense of belonging through meaningful social relationships. This universal process drives social identification, the incorporation of these important relationships into one’s own identity. Over the past several decades, social identity has been implicated in va...
Article
Full-text available
Background Research in both clinical and early psychosis samples is increasingly indicating that insecure attachment styles impact on psychosis symptom expression. Moreover, empirical support has been found for the assumption that specific types of insecure attachment predispose individuals to develop different symptom profiles. This study aimed to...
Article
Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of bipolar spectrum psychopathology and may confer risk for poor outcomes or progression along the bipolar spectrum. However, previous research on bipolar psychopathology has primarily concentrated on characterizing distinct mood episodes and failed to characterize microlevel dynamics of the experience of emo...
Article
The present study examined the associations of positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy with psychotic-like experiences, affect, and social functioning in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in 2 samples (ns = 165 and 203) that employed different measures of schizotypy. Schizotypy is a useful framework for understanding sc...
Article
Individuals at risk for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders tend to make atypical attributions of significance to unimportant stimuli. This experience of heightened significance, known as aberrant salience, is thought to contribute to psychotic symptoms. The Aberrant Salience Inventory (ASI) was designed to capture subclinical and clinical manifestati...
Article
We previously reported that fearful attachment mediated associations of childhood maltreatment with subclinical psychotic phenomena. At an eight-year follow-up, we aimed to replicate and extend this finding by examining the mediating role of disorganized attachment. Participants were 169 young adults who completed baseline and eight-year follow-up...
Preprint
Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of bipolar spectrum psychopathology and may confer risk for poor outcomes or progression along the bipolar spectrum. However, previous research on bipolar psychopathology has primarily concentrated on characterizing distinct mood episodes and failed to characterize micro-level dynamics of the experience of em...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is limited research on the interaction of both positive and negative daily-life environments with stress-related genetic variants on psychotic experiences (PEs) and negative affect (NA) across the extended psychosis phenotype. This study examined whether the FK506 binding protein 51 ( FKBP5 ) variability moderates the association o...
Preprint
The worst performance rule (WPR) is a robust empirical finding reflecting that people’s worst task performance shows stronger relations to cognitive ability compared to their average or best performance. However, recent meta-analytic work has proposed this be renamed the “not-best-performance” rule because mean and worst performance seem to predict...
Article
The present study assessed the construct validity of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS). Specifically, it assessed the associations of the MSS positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy subscales with interview-rated symptoms and impairment in 177 young adults. As hypothesized, the MSS positive schizotypy subscale was associated with...
Article
Schizotypy refers to traits or symptoms similar to schizophrenia, but in a diminished form, and schizotypy is thought to reflect a liability for the future development of schizophrenia. The Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) is a new measure of schizotypy that improves on existing measures. The MSS contains full and brief subscales for positiv...
Chapter
Current models of schizophrenia suggest that it is the most severe expression of a broad range of clinical and subclinical symptoms and impairment referred to as schizotypy. This chapter reviews the predictive validity of schizotypy for schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology in nonclinical and genetic and clinical high-risk participants, as well as...
Article
The underlying vulnerability for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is expressed across a continuum of clinical and subclinical symptoms and impairment known as schizotypy. Schizotypy is a multidimensional construct with positive, negative, and disorganized dimensions. Models of normal personality provide useful frameworks for examining the multidime...
Article
Full-text available
Expressed emotion (EE) is an aspect of the family environment that influences the course of multiple forms of psychopathology. However, there is limited research about how EE dimensions [i.e., criticism and emotional over-involvement (EOI)] are expressed in real-world settings. The present study used experience sampling methodology to investigate:...
Article
Full-text available
A common reaction experienced by family members of patients with psychosis is grief for the loss of their healthy relative. Importantly, high levels of perceived loss have been related to the manifestation of high expressed emotion (EE), which includes the negative attitudes expressed by relatives toward an ill family member. However, the mechanism...
Article
Introduction: Altered emotion dynamics may represent a transdiagnostic risk factor for mood psychopathology. The present study examined whether altered emotion dynamics were associated with bipolar and depressive psychopathology concurrently and at a three-year follow-up. Methods: At baseline (n = 138), participants completed diagnostic intervie...
Preprint
Introduction: Altered emotion dynamics may represent a transdiagnostic risk factor for mood psychopathology. The present study examined whether altered emotion dynamics were associated with bipolar and depressive psychopathology concurrently and at a three-year follow-up. Methods: At baseline (n=138), participants completed diagnostic interviews, q...
Article
Full-text available
Schizotypy is a multidimensional construct conceptualized as the expression of the underlying vulnerability for schizophrenia. Certain traits of positive schizotypy, such as odd beliefs, unusual perceptual experiences, suspiciousness, and referential thinking show associations with aberrant salience. Positive schizotypy may involve hyper-attributio...
Article
We report the first study to examine the association of positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy with relational memory. Relational memory refers to memory for relations among multiple elements of an experience, and this form of episodic memory is different from memory for individual elements themselves. Using a cornerstone task from the neu...
Article
The present study examined the extent to which positive and negative schizotypy are associated with impairment in recognition memory in 3 large samples of nonclinically ascertained adults (total n = 826). Schizophrenia is associated with a wide array of cognitive deficits, but the study of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is confounded by gene...
Article
Full-text available
Past research indicates that a history of depression and exposure to abuse and neglect represent some of the most robust predictors of depression in emerging adults. However, studies rarely test the additive or interactive risk associated with these distinct risk factors. In response, the present study explored how these three risk factors (prior d...
Article
Schizophrenia is characterized by cognitive impairment and this impairment is expected to occur, albeit to a lesser degree, in people putatively at risk for schizophrenia. Two experiments assessed the relationship between directed forgetting (DF) and schizotypy, which is a multidimensional construct that reflects the expression of the underlying vu...
Article
We conducted 2 studies examining the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) and the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale–Brief (MSS–B). These studies offered the first examination of the scales’ test–retest reliability (dependability), impact of testing interval on test–retest reliability, and concordance of the 2 versi...
Article
Background Certain traits of positive schizotypy, such as odd beliefs, unusual perceptual experiences, suspiciousness, and referential thinking show associations with aberrant salience. Positive schizotypy may involve hyper-attribution of salience toward insignificant events, whereas negative schizotypy may involve hypo-attribution of salience, eve...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Bipolar psychopathology is characterized by affective dysregulation independent of mood episodes. However, previous research has relied on laboratory-based emotion-eliciting tasks or retrospective questionnaires that do not take into account temporal dynamics of affect. Thus, the present study examined affective dynamics (reactivity, va...
Article
We conducted an exploratory study of adult individual differences in the contents of mind-wandering experiences and in the moment-to-moment consistency of that off-task thought content within tasks. This secondary analysis of a published dataset (Kane et al., 2016) examined the content-based thought reports that 472-541 undergraduates made within f...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Bipolar psychopathology is characterized by affective dysregulation independent of mood episodes. However, previous research has relied on laboratory-based emotion-eliciting tasks or retrospective questionnaires that do not take into account temporal dynamics of affect. Thus, the present study examined affective dynamics (reactivity, va...
Article
This is a post-peer review and pre-copy edit print of the article accepted for publication by Schizophrenia Research. The publisher's copy is available through the journal (doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2018.12.018). The present study examined the dimensional structure underlying the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) and its brief ve...
Article
Schizotypy is a multidimensional construct that provides a useful framework for understanding the etiology, development, and risk for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Past research has applied traditional methods, such as factor analysis, to uncovering common dimensions of schizotypy. In the present study, we aimed to advance the construct of schi...
Article
Full-text available
This study reports on an initial examination of the construct validity of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale-Brief (MSS-B) and the first investigation of its psychometric properties outside of its derivation samples. The MSS-B contains 38 items that assess positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy and has comparable content coverage and ps...
Article
Full-text available
The present study extends previous cross-sectional findings by examining the predictive validity of positive and negative schizotypy in a young adult sample at a three-year follow-up. Schizotypy and schizophrenia share a comparable multidimensional structure with positive and negative dimensions being the most strongly supported factors. Previous c...
Article
Schizotypy and schizophrenia involve disrupted context integration (CI), the ability to assimilate internal and external information into coherent mental representations. Research has primarily examined patients with schizophrenia, with fewer studies assessing CI in schizotypy-spectrum groups. The literature shows overall CI deficits, but mixed res...
Preprint
Research on effort and motivation commonly measures how the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system affects the cardiovascular system. The cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP), assessed via impedance cardiography, is a widely-used sympathetic outcome, but assessing PEP requires identifying subtle points on cardiac waveforms. The present res...