Thomas Kratochwill

Thomas Kratochwill
University of Wisconsin–Madison | UW · Department of Educational Psychology

PhD

About

312
Publications
73,654
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
12,497
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 1984 - March 2015
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Position
  • Director, School Psychology Program and Psychoeducational Clinic

Publications

Publications (312)
Article
In this article we respond to the recent recommendation of Slocum et al. (2022), who provided conceptual and methodological recommendations for reconsidering the credibility and validity of the nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design. We build on these recommendations and offer replication and randomization upgrades that should further improve the s...
Article
In current multi-tier models, students who are not responsive to universal instruction receive supplementary support. Despite most students having co-occurring academic and behavior challenges, their needs are often addressed through separate academic or behavior interventions. This approach may not only be costly for schools, but it also fails to...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we provide a critique focused on the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) Standards for Single-Case Research Design (Standards 4.1). Specifically, we (a) recommend the use of visual-analysis to verify a single-case intervention study's design standards and to examine the study's operational issues, (b) identify limitations of the design-co...
Article
The relationship between learning disabilities and behavior disorders is well documented and has led to the development of integrated interventions that target both academic and behavior deficits in elementary students. This paper describes the rationale, development, and implementation of an integrated academic-behavior intervention called a cadem...
Article
AimAn expository note introduces health sciences researchers to randomized single-case intervention designs, an adaptation of interrupted time-series methodology, and the staple of a scientifically credible small-sample research paradigm.Methods Detailed examples illustrating two different randomized single-case procedures are presented to highligh...
Article
In this paper, we review some dimensions of feasibility research. Feasibility research focuses on the intervention process and addresses questions about whether and how an intervention can be evaluated and implemented. Feasibility studies are implemented prior to conducting an outcome-focused pilot study or full-scale evaluation to test the effecti...
Chapter
In recent decades, it has become clear that data collected at an individual level provides critical evidence that can be used to refine theories, improve treatment, and inform health care decisions. Recent developments in the field of single-case experimental design (SCED) have provided new opportunities to utilize data from a single person. After...
Chapter
Single-case experimental designs are a family of experimental designs that are characterized by researcher manipulation of an independent variable and repeated measurement of a dependent variable before (i.e., baseline) and after (i.e., intervention phase) introducing the independent variable. In single-case experimental designs a case is the unit...
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy and acceptability of problem-solving consultation for homeschooling families with children who exhibited externalizing behavior problems. Three families participated, with multiple siblings participating from each family. Six children were male and 1 child was female. Children's ages ranged from...
Article
Following up on articles recently published in this journal, the present contribution tells (some of) “the rest of the story” about the value of randomization in single‐case intervention research investigations. Invoking principles of internal, statistical‐conclusion, and external validity, we begin by emphasizing the critical distinction between d...
Article
There is substantial evidence that research studies reported in the scientific literature do not provide adequate information so that readers know exactly what was done and what was found. This problem has been addressed by the development of reporting guidelines which tell authors what should be reported and how it should be described. Many report...
Article
Teachers participating in problem-solving consultation often struggle to maintain adequate treatment fidelity, which is necessary to improve student outcomes. Low levels of treatment fidelity may result from implementation barriers, such as intervention compatibility, implementer skill, and implementer motivation. This study involves the evaluation...
Article
Full-text available
We developed a reporting guideline to provide authors with guidance about what should be reported when writing a paper for publication in a scientific journal using a particular type of research design: the single-case experimental design. This report describes the methods used to develop the single-case reporting guideline in behavioural intervent...
Article
We argue in this article that there are conditions in which publication of negative results can make a useful contribution. Three small-scale examinations of journal publication criteria for publishing negative results were conducted. We first reviewed 29 journals from education and school/counseling psychology to assess author submission guideline...
Chapter
Problem-solving consultation is an indirect form of mental health service delivery in which the professional time and resources of a consultant are used to assist a consultee (e.g., teacher or parent) with the needs of a child client. The knowledge and skills of the consultant and consultee are combined through the consultative process to design an...
Article
The central roles of science in the field of remedial and special education are to (a) identify basic laws of nature and (b) apply those laws in the design of practices that achieve socially valued outcomes. The scientific process is designed to allow demonstration of specific (typically positive) outcomes, and to assist in the attribution of those...
Article
Numerous evidence-based classroom management strategies to prevent and respond to problem behavior have been identified, but research consistently indicates teachers rarely implement them with sufficient implementation fidelity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementation planning, a strategy involving logistical i...
Article
Full-text available
School psychologists are uniquely positioned to support the delivery of evidence-based mental health practices (EBMHPs) to address the overwhelming mental health needs of children and youth. Graduate training programs can promote EBMHPs in schools by ensuring school psychologists enter the workplace prepared to deliver and support high-quality, eff...
Chapter
In light of their training in psychometrics, evaluation, and statistical analysis, school psychologists may have the most knowledge, of any professional in the school setting, of evaluating the impact of educational and psychotherapeutic interventions. School settings provide a natural opportunity for important, real-world, and meaningful data that...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have suggested single case design (SCD) intervention research is subject to publication bias, wherein studies are more likely to be published if they possess large or statistically significant effects and use rigorous experimental methods. The nature of SCD and the purposes for which it might be used could suggest that large effects...
Article
Full-text available
We developed a reporting guideline to provide authors with guidance about what should be reported when writing a paper for publication in a scientific journal using a particular type of research design: the single-case experimental design. This report describes the methods used to develop the Single-Case Reporting guideline In BEhavioural intervent...
Article
Full-text available
We developed a reporting guideline to provide authors with guidance about what should be reported when writing a paper for publication in a scientific journal using a particular type of research design: the single-case experimental design. This report describes the methods used to develop the Single-Case Reporting guideline In BEhavioural intervent...
Article
Full-text available
Reporting guidelines, such as the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement, improve the reporting of research in the medical literature (Turner et al., 2012). Many such guidelines exist, and the CONSORT Extension to Nonpharmacological Trials (Boutron et al., 2008) provides suitable guidance for reporting between-groups interve...
Article
Full-text available
We developed a reporting guideline to provide authors with guidance about what should be reported when writing a paper for publication in a scientific journal using a particular type of research design: the single-case experimental design. This report describes the methods used to develop the Single-Case Reporting guideline In BEhavioural intervent...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: We developed a reporting guideline to provide authors with guidance about what should be reported when writing a paper for publication in a scientific journal using a particular type of research design: the single-case experimental design. This report describes the methods used to develop the Single-Case Reporting guideline In BEhaviou...
Article
Full-text available
Reporting guidelines, such as the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement, improve the reporting of research in the medical literature (Turner et al., 2012). Many such guidelines exist and the CONSORT Extension to Nonpharmacological Trials (Boutron et al., 2008) provides suitable guidance for reporting between-groups interven...
Article
Full-text available
We developed a reporting guideline to provide authors with guidance about what should be reported when writing a paper for publication in a scientific journal using a particular type of research design: the single-case experimental design. This report describes the methods used to develop the Single-Case Reporting guideline In BEhavioural intervent...
Article
Problem-solving consultation in schools has been found to be an effective method of service delivery to support teachers who are struggling to address student social–emotional behavioral (SEB) concerns. Despite its benefits, a number of barriers (e.g., lack of time and limited access to trained professionals) restrict the use of consultation within...
Article
Full-text available
We developed a reporting guideline to provide authors with guidance about what should be reported when writing a paper for publication in a scientific journal using a particular type of research design: the single-case experimental design. This report describes the methods used to develop the Single-Case Reporting guideline In BEhavioural intervent...
Article
The published literature often underrepresents studies that do not find evidence for a treatment effect; this is often called publication bias. Literature reviews that fail to include such studies may overestimate the size of an effect. Only a few studies have examined publication bias in single-case design (SCD) research, but those studies suggest...
Article
Full-text available
Scientific abstract: Reporting guidelines, such as the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement, improve the reporting of research in the medical literature (Turner et al., 2012). Many such guidelines exist and the CONSORT Extension to Nonpharmacological Trials (Boutron et al., 2008) provides suitable guidance for reporting b...
Article
Full-text available
Single-case experimental design (SCED) studies in the behavioral sciences literature are not only common, but their proportion has also increased over past decades. Moreover, methodological complexity of SCEDs and sophistication in the techniques used to analyze SCED data has increased apace. Yet recent reviews of the behavioral sciences literature...
Article
Full-text available
We developed a reporting guideline to provide authors with guidance about what should be reported when writing a paper for publication in a scientific journal using a particular type of research design: the single-case experimental design. This report describes the methods used to develop the Single-Case Reporting guideline In BEhavioural intervent...
Article
Increasingly teachers are the primary implementer responsible for providing evidence-based interventions to students. However, there is little knowledge regarding the extent to which teachers plan for intervention implementation, receive implementation support, or identify and address implementation barriers. This study explores survey data from ov...
Article
Full-text available
We developed a reporting guideline to provide authors with guidance about what should be reported when writing a paper for publication in a scientific journal using a particular type of research design: the single-case experimental design. This report describes the methods used to develop the Single-Case Reporting guideline In BEhavioural intervent...
Article
Full-text available
Behavioral interventions delivered across home and school settings can promote positive outcomes for youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Yet, stakeholders who deliver these interventions may struggle to implement interventions as intended. Low levels of treatment integrity can undermine potentially positive intervention outcomes. One way to...
Article
School psychologists commonly provide intervention services to children through consultation with teachers. Data suggest, however, that many teacher consultees struggle to implement these interventions. There are relatively few evidence-based strategies for promoting teacher consultees' intervention implementation. The purpose of this study was to...
Article
In this study, we analyzed extant data to evaluate the variability and magnitude of students' behavior change outcomes (academic, social, and behavioral) produced by consultants through problem-solving consultation with teachers. Research questions were twofold: (a) Do consultants produce consistent and sizeable positive student outcomes across the...
Book
Originally published in 1992, the editors of this volume fulfill three main goals: to take stock of progress in the development of data-analysis procedures for single-subject research; to clearly explain errors of application and consider them within the context of new theoretical and empirical information of the time; and to closely examine new de...
Article
A recent review of existing rubrics designed to help researchers evaluate the internal and external validity of single-case design (SCD) studies found that the various options yield consistent results when examining causal arguments. The authors of the review, however, noted considerable differences across the rubrics when addressing the generaliza...
Chapter
Single-case design research has gained recognition as a credible scientific methodology across a variety of fields of study. Uniquely suited to support research on topics related to rare disorders or in instances where access to large sample sizes is unfeasible, single-case designs have served to advance evidence-based practices and assessment tech...
Article
Evidence-based practices within a response-to-intervention framework must be implemented with adequate treatment integrity to promote student outcomes. However, research findings indicate educators struggle to implement interventions and logistical considerations may limit the utility of performance feedback, an evidence-based treatment integrity p...
Article
In this article, we respond to Wolery's critique of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) pilot Standards, which were developed by the current authors. We do so to provide additional information and clarify some points previously summarized in this journal. We also respond to several concerns raised by Maggin, Briesch, and Chafouleas after they applie...
Article
In this commentary, we add to the spirit of the articles appearing in the special series devoted to meta- and statistical analysis of single-case intervention-design data. Following a brief discussion of historical factors leading to our initial involvement in statistical analysis of such data, we discuss: (a) the value added by including statistic...
Article
This paper considers the development of professional psychology in education over the past 100 years and reviews how changes to the social, economic, and legal backdrop have influenced the development of knowledge and practice in the UK and the US. Parallels with the professional issues that confronted Cyril Burt a century ago are drawn throughout....
Article
A majority of evidence-based interventions in schools are delivered through consultation models and are implemented by a mediator, such as a teacher. Research indicates that mediators do not always adequately implement adopted evidence-based interventions, limiting their effectiveness in transforming student outcomes. We propose that to transform s...
Article
In this study we examined the extent to which teachers implement and generalize a praise intervention learned during behavioral consultation. Four elementary teachers and 15 of their students (3–4 per teacher) participated in the study. In each classroom, 1 student was randomly assigned as the consultation target student, 1 as the generalization ta...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychosocial approach to the treatment of Selective Mutism (SM). Four children with SM along with their parents and teachers participated in the study. A comprehensive assessment was completed; manualized treatment was implemented through a conjoint behavioral consultation approach, a...
Article
In an effort to responsibly incorporate evidence based on single-case designs (SCDs) into the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) evidence base, the WWC assembled a panel of individuals with expertise in quantitative methods and SCD methodology to draft SCD standards. In this article, the panel provides an overview of the SCD standards recommended by th...
Article
We are delighted to introduce a new standing section of School Psychology Quarterly entitled "Empirically Supported Interventions" (ESI). This section will be devoted to publishing (a) reviews of the empirical literature on prevention and intervention; (b) reports of original empirical work that enhance our knowledge of empirically supported progr...
Article
Explored educators' use of the Assessment Accommodation Checklist (AAC) to facilitate selection of assessment accommodations for 2 hypothetical students with disabilities taking either a multiple-choice (MC) test or performance tasks. 92 educators from Wisconsin and 26 state-level educational leaders from across the US participated. Ss did not reco...
Article
In Part II of this 2-part article (Part I, see record 2000-03347-005), the authors present some conceptual and practice issues on the use of empirically supported interventions in school and community settings. Conceptual issues discussed include the foci of effective intervention studies, specification of interventions, and intervention manuals a...
Article
In this article, the authors consider research agendas that make sense not only for moving the profession forward by yielding unique contributions in the millennium, but that enable school psychologists to enhance outcomes for children and families with greater precision and effectiveness. The authors specifically examine some research agendas in t...
Article
In Part 1 of this 2-part article, the authors present historical, contextual, and methodological perspectives on the use of empirically supported interventions in school and community settings. Historical advances in this area are reviewed within the context of the scientist-practitioner model, psychotherapy outcome research, meta-analysis, and the...
Article
Reviews the book, Health-related disorders in children and adolescents edited by L. Phelps (see record 1998-07780-000). This edited text provides an overview of 96 medical conditions that place children at risk of developing psychological or educational problems. The central feature of this book is that it is intended as a reference tool for prof...
Article
In this four-investigation Monte Carlo simulation study, we examined the properties of nonparametric randomization and permutation statistical tests applied to single-case ABAB…AB and alternating treatment designs based on either systematically alternating or randomly determined phase assignments. Contrary to previous admonitions, when appropriatel...
Article
The purposes of this paper are to (a) propose an operational standard for defining a “practice,” (b) encourage development of professional standards for visual and statistical analysis of single-case research, and (c) propose a standard for using single-case research results to identify practices that are “evidence-based.” These topics are not new...
Article
The American Psychological Association Task Force on EvidenceBased Practice for Children and Adolescents (2008) recommended a systems approach to enhancing care in order to improve outcomes for children and adolescents with mental health needs and redress persistent systemic problems with the structure of services. Recommendations for enhancing an...
Article
The purpose of this article is to provide some perspectives on Lilienfeld, Ammirati, and David's (2012) paper on distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology. In many respects their work represents an intervention for "grandiose bragging," a problem that has occasionally occurred when various non-evidence-based or discredited inte...
Article
In this chapter, we have reviewed prevalence information, assessment considerations, and four general categories of empirically supported treatment methods for reducing children's (and adolescent's) fears, phobias and related anxieties. In addition, variations of each method were discussed as was research supporting the relative effectiveness and e...
Article
Problem solving consultation has been identified as a practice guideline in the delivery of evidence-based interventions (EBIs). This mandate is likely to advance the current initiatives of implementing EBIs and incorporating multi-tiered prevention models within the school setting. The purpose of this chapter is to review the most prominent models...
Article
The evidence-based practice movement has focused on identifying, disseminating, and promoting the adoption of evidence-based interventions. Despite advances in this movement, numerous barriers, such as the lack of treatment integrity assessment methods, remain as challenges in implementation. Accurate teacher self-report could be an efficient treat...
Article
Full-text available
Core characteristics of problem-solving consultation research, theory, and practice in psychology and education are reevaluated within the context of consultation training agendas. Features of problem-solving consultation must be reconceptualized for advances to occur in future consultation training. Specifically, the consultant-consultee relations...
Article
Three studies were designed to measure various indicators of the reliability and validity of the Preschool Behavior Screening System (PBSS) as a screening instrument for emotional and behavioral disorder risk status of children of preschool age. Study 1 and Study 2 served to establish evidence for content validity. Study 3 investigated one type of...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the statistical properties of two extensions of the Levin-Wampold (1999) single-case simultaneous start-point model's comparative effectiveness randomization test. The two extensions were (a) adapting the test to situations where there are more than two different intervention conditions and (b) ex...
Chapter
Craig A. Albers is an assistant professor in the School Psychology Program in the University of Wisconsin (UW)–Madison Department of Educational Psychology. Before joining WCER as a postdoctoral research associate in August 2003 and the UW–Madison as a faculty member in August 2004, Dr. Albers worked as a school psychologist in the Kyrene School Di...
Article
Accurate identification of young children at risk for mental health problems is a key step in establishing early childhood preventive intervention programs. Without psychometrically valid identification procedures, children in need of early intervention may not be identified and may not receive appropriate care. This article provides a review of un...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, single-case designs have increasingly been used to establish an empirical basis for evidence-based interventions and techniques in a variety of disciplines, including psychology and education. Although traditional single-case designs have typically not met the criteria for a randomized controlled trial relative to conventional mult...
Article
The purpose of this article is to present Convergent Evidence Scaling (CES) as an emergent method for combining data from multiple assessment indicators. The CES method combines single-case assessment data by converging data gathered across multiple persons, settings, or measures, thereby providing an overall criterion-referenced outcome on which t...
Article
In an effort to expand the pool of scientific evidence available for review, the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) assembled a panel of national experts in single-case design (SCD) and analysis to draft SCD Standards. SCDs are adaptations of interrupted time-series designs and can provide a rigorous experimental evaluation of intervention effects. SCD...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the effect accommodations have on test results of students with and without disabilities and documented experts’ judgments about the appropriateness of testing accommodations. Test score data were collected from 218 fourth-grade students with and without disabilities on mathematics and science performance tasks and from e...
Article
Treatment integrity (also referred to as "treatment fidelity," "intervention integrity," and "procedural reliability") is an important methodological concern in both research and practice because treatment integrity data are essential to making valid conclusions regarding treatment outcomes. Despite its relationship to validity, treatment integrity...
Article
Full-text available
The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) is proposed as a heuristic for school-based consultants interested in identifying im-pact points for facilitating implementation of research-based prac-tices and programs in classrooms and schools. The article begins with a discussion of the change facilitator's role in promoting changes in educational pract...
Article
In this article, we present a balanced view of the prescriptive authority debate in relation to five major issues and within the context of the practice of psychology in the schools: (a) appropriate training, (b) quality of care, (c) access to services, (d) continuity of care, and (e) professional identity. We also provide an analysis of the qualit...
Article
We evaluated a multi-family support group intervention program in elementary schools. Kindergarten through third-grade children at eight urban schools in a Midwestern university community were universally invited to participate in the Families and Schools Together (FAST) program, and made up half of the study participants; the other half were K-3 c...