Thomas Jacobsen

Thomas Jacobsen
Helmut Schmidt University / University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg | HSU · Department of Psychology

Dr. rer nat. habil., Dipl.-Psych.

About

206
Publications
57,724
Reads
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8,718
Citations
Introduction
The Experimental Psychology Unit provides teaching in Experimental (Allgemeine) Psychology and Biological Psychology. Our research is in auditory processing, language, excutive function and the Psychology of Aesthetics, frequently taking a cognitive neuroscientific approach.
Additional affiliations
September 2009 - present
September 2009 - present
Helmut Schmidt University / University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg
Position
  • Professor (Full)
June 2004 - June 2004
University of Helsinki
Position
  • Researcher
Education
February 2001 - July 2004
University of Leipzig
Field of study
  • Psychology
May 1994 - January 2001
University of Leipzig
Field of study
  • Psychology
April 1989 - April 1994
Freie Universität Berlin
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (206)
Article
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The unique contribution of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), intronic region 2 (STin2), and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) genes to individual differences in personality traits has been widely explored, and research has shown that certain forms of these polymorphisms relate to impulsivity and impulsivity-related disorders...
Cover Page
Individuen, die eine extreme über- oder unterdurchschnittliche Merkmalsausprägung, Fähigkeit oder Fertigkeit aufweisen sowie einen Beruf in gesellschaftlicher Peripherie und mit stark normverschiedenen Anforderungen ausüben gehören aus einsatzpsychologischer Sicht einer Extremgruppe an. Insbesondere die Aufträge und Aufgaben von spezialisierten sow...
Article
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Individuals with a tendency to experience more positive affect have been shown to preferentially attend to positive stimuli. Anecdotal evidence even holds that individuals perceive more beauty when positive affect prevails. In two studies, we investigated the role of dispositional affect in predicting the frequency and intensity of aesthetic experi...
Article
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Response conflict evoked by a distractor stimulus object in interference tasks is associated with longer reaction times and a pronounced ERP component referred to as the fronto-central N2. Increasing the proportion congruency (PC, i.e., the proportion of trials in which target and distractor are associated with the same response) is assumed to enha...
Article
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The present study’s aim was to examine whether interindividual differences in levels of expertise influence the aesthetic processing of materials. In particular, we elucidated experts’ conceptual structure of the aesthetics of different materials using a free list task and compared it to recent non-expert data. To this end, we asked 401 architects,...
Chapter
In this chapter, the functional neuroimaging study of aesthetic judgment of beauty, reported in Jacobsen and colleagues, is reviewed from the experimenters’ point of view. Based on a framework for the psychology of aesthetics, the multifactorial determination of aesthetic judgment is discussed, along with implications for experimental design in neu...
Article
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Background Aesthetic experiences elicit a wide range of positive emotions and have a positive impact on various health outcomes. In this context, savoring refers to a cognitive form of emotion regulation used to maintain and extend positive emotional experiences and is considered to contribute to health and well-being. Chronic pain has been linked...
Article
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Do we savour aesthetic experiences less when distracted by interrupted tasks, work rumination or stress? Evidence suggests that the ability to concentrate on the aesthetic experience is crucial for initiating a processing mode of conscious aesthetic reception that results in more positive emotions. When working memory resources are otherwise occupi...
Cover Page
In this article, we discuss the concepts of immersion and presence; and their implications for the development of virtual reality based operational training for military and police.
Article
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While body modifications have increasingly gained acceptance and popularity, how different subpopulations aesthetically appreciate tattoos remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the conceptual structure underlying tattoo aesthetics, focusing on the effects of internalized social norms and expertise. Using a timed free-listing task,...
Article
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Although statistical regularities in the environment often go explicitly unnoticed, traces of implicit learning are evident in our neural activity. Recent perspectives have offered evidence that both pre-stimulus oscillations and peri-stimulus event-related potentials are reliable biomarkers of implicit expectations arising from statistical learnin...
Article
The effects of lexical meaning and lexical familiarity on auditory deviance detection were investigated by presenting oddball sequences of words, while participants ignored the stimuli. Stimulus sequences were composed of words that were varied in word class (nouns vs. functions words) and frequency of language use (high vs. low frequency) in a fac...
Article
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The congruency sequence effect (CSE) describes the performance difference of congruent trials (in which target and distractor stimuli are associated with the same response) compared to incongruent trials (in which target and distractor stimuli are associated with different responses) as a function of the preceding congruency level (congruent trials...
Article
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Aesthetic experiences have been distinguished from other experiences based on an aesthetic mode of processing that often entails concentrating working memory resources on the aesthetic stimulus. Since working memory is a limited-capacity system, there should be a trade-off between available resources and the aesthetic experience. To test whether th...
Article
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Do individuals modify their bodies in order to be unique? The present study sought to investigate need for uniqueness (NfU) subcomponents as possible motives for modifying one’s body. To this end, the study obtained information from 312 participants about their NfU (using the German NfU-G global scale and three sub-scales) and their body modificati...
Article
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Tactical breathing (TB) is used by military and law enforcement personnel to reduce stress and maintain psychomotor and cognitive performance in dangerous situations (Grossman and Christensen, in On combat: the psychology and physiology of deadly conflict in war and in peace, PPCT Research Publications, Belleville, 2008). So far, empirical evidence...
Preprint
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Evaluative beauty judgments are very common, but in spite of this commonality, are rarely studied in cognitive neuroscience. Here we investigated the neural and musical attributes of musical beauty using a naturalistic free-listening paradigm applied to behavioral and neuroimaging recordings and validated by experts' judgments. In Study 1, 30 Weste...
Article
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Performance in task switching experiments is worse when the current stimulus is associated with different responses in the two tasks (i.e., incongruent condition) than when it is associated with the same response (i.e., congruent condition). This congruency effect reflects some sort of application of the irrelevant task's stimulus-response translat...
Article
w/k Zwischen Wissenschaft & Kunst - A peer-reviewed online journal: The first round of the discussion on the Visual Aesthetic Sensitivity Test developed by Karl Otto Götz includes texts from Gerhard Stemberger, Herbert Fitzek, Nils Myszkowski, Riccardo Luccio, Thomas Jacobsen/Barbara E. Marschallek/Selina M. Weiler and Roy R. Behrens. Published in...
Article
Our theoretical model (Menninghaus et al., 2019) defines aesthetic emotions by reference to their role in aesthetic evaluation, and specifically as being predictive of aesthetic liking/disliking. Skov and Nadal (2020) dismiss the construct of "aesthetic emotions" as a "dated supposition" adopted from a "speculative" tradition and assert that there...
Article
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What is the origin of visual symbols? The artifacts that are viewed as the first visual symbols-or at least their prototypes-are the remains of stones and other objects with engravings and colorful markings. Our only access to the origin of this behavior that we share with our ancestors within the genus Homo is through skeletons, artifacts, and gen...
Article
Background: Modern working conditions require an increased amount of spatial mobility from employed personnel. Research suggests that different types of job mobility might exert negative effects on well-being and health, and additionally have different costs and benefits for the work and the social domain. Methods: Using data from 3191 members of t...
Article
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There are many existing classifications of material substances, almost all of them specifically geared towards and adjusted to particular applications. Although they are overlapping in aspects, no comprehensive classification, suitable for overarching purposes, was retrieved in a literature search. Thus, as an alternative to the existing approaches...
Article
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Visual attention can be adjusted to task requirements. We asked participants to switch between judging the symmetry of vertically presented three-letter strings and identifying the central stimulus (i.e., Eriksen task) to investigate anticipatory adjustment of attention. Our experiments provide evidence for anticipatory adjustment of visual attenti...
Article
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The Congruency Sequence Effect (CSE) denotes the common finding that distractor–target Congruency Effects are reduced after incongruent compared to after congruent trials. Although the CSE is widely attributed to attentional adjustment (i.e., increasing or decreasing the bias in attentional weights regarding processing the target or distractor), un...
Article
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This study investigated the need for uniqueness, visual aesthetic sensitivity, and their correlation. To investigate these variables, we asked 71 participants to complete the German adaptation of the Need for Uniqueness scale (NfU-G) and the Visual Aesthetic Sensitivity Test (VAST)—including the VAST-Revised (VAST-R). The NfU-G measures the need to...
Article
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Comments on article by Scherer et al. (see record 2018-16097-001). In their study, Scherer et al. explore the aesthetic experience of opera spectators using a 12-item fuzzy emotion questionnaire. Hence, they make a contribution to the emerging endeavors to conduct empirical aesthetic studies in the field. Laboratory studies of aesthetic appreciatio...
Article
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Interference evoked by a distractor presented prior to a target stimulus is reduced when the distractor-target SOA is increased, suggesting inhibition of distractor-related activation. Distractor processing is also assumed to be (strategically) adjusted to the proportions of congruent and incongruent target-distractor combinations, yielding a large...
Article
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Electrophysiological recording in a temporal flanker task (i.e., distractors preceding the targets) has demonstrated that distractor processing is adjusted to the overall utility of the distractors. Under high utility, that is, distractors are predictive of the target/response, distractors immediately activate the corresponding response (as indicat...
Conference Paper
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Autor note: Dieser Artikel basiert auf der Bachelorarbeit des Erstautors [Sch18]. Eine Erst-veröffentlichung der Daten erfolgte in wt Werkstattstechnik online Jahrgang 108 (2018) [Wei18]. Sie sind in zusammengefasster Form im Abstractband des 51. DGP's Kongresses 2018 erschienen. Kurzzusammenfassung Die experimentale Durchführung legte den Fokus au...
Article
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Background Task switch protocols are frequently used in the assessment of cognitive control, both in clinical and non-clinical populations. These protocols frequently confound task switch and attentional set shift. The current study investigated the ability of adult ADHD patients to shift attentional set in the context of switching tasks. Method W...
Article
Objective: The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the event-related brain potential has been used to examine auditory monitoring in various mental disorders. Previous research with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients has revealed contradictory results. Enhanced as well as diminished MMNs have been obtained. Method: The multifeature...
Article
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This is the in-press version of an article that will soon be published in Psychological Review. It is the first comprehensive theoretical article on aesthetic emotions. Following Kant’s definition, we propose that it is the first and foremost characteristic of aesthetic emotions to make a direct contribution to aesthetic evaluation/appreciation. Ea...
Article
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Scientific disciplines as diverse as biology, physics, and psychological aesthetics regard symmetry as one of the most important principles in nature and one of the most powerful determinants of beauty. However, symmetry has a low standing in the arts and humanities. This difference in the valuation of symmetry is a remarkable illustration of the g...
Article
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Symmetry is an important cue for the aesthetic judgment of beauty. Using a binary forced-choice format in a cued mixed design, Jacobsen and Höfel (2003) compared aesthetic judgments of beauty and symmetry judgments of novel graphic patterns. A late posterior sustained negativity elicited by symmetric patterns was observed in the symmetry judgment c...
Article
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Switching between tasks associated with different requirements of stimulus selection may suffer interference from persisting attentional settings or processes of reconfiguration, possibly constituting a source of task switch costs (i.e., impaired performance in task switch trials compared to task repetition trials). To explore the processes involve...
Article
Einen Ansatz zur Unterstützung manueller Tätigkeiten stellen Exoskelette dar. Durch den Einsatz dieser Systeme lassen sich verschiedene biomechanische sowie arbeitsphysiologische Effekte erzielen. Verschiedene Faktoren haben hierauf Einfluss. In Studien mit einem Unterstützungssystem „Lucy“ hat sich gezeigt, dass mit physischer Unterstützung eine s...
Article
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People can experience different emotions when listening to music. A growing number of studies have investigated the brain structures and neural connectivities associated with perceived emotions. However, very little is known about the effect of an explicit act of judgement on the neural processing of emotionally-valenced music. In this study, we ad...
Article
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Evidence from behavioral and physiological studies suggests attentional weighting of stimulus information from different sources, according to task demands. We investigated the adoption of task-specific attentional sets by administering a flanker task, which required responding to a centrally presented letter while ignoring two adjacent letters, an...
Article
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It is a common experience-and well established experimentally-that music can engage us emotionally in a compelling manner. The mechanisms underlying these experiences are receiving increasing scrutiny. However, the extent to which other domains of aesthetic experience can similarly elicit strong emotions is unknown. Using psychophysiology, neuroima...
Article
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2017.04.006
Article
Aesthetic appreciation is looked at with respect to domain generality and domain specificity. Within the classic cognitive paradigm, modality- and domain-specific receptive processes are explored. These are then complemented with central processing structures. These reveal domain-specific as well as domain-general processing. Extending the classic...
Article
Why are negative emotions so central in art reception far beyond tragedy? Revisiting classical aesthetics in light of recent psychological research, we present a novel model to explain this much-discussed (apparent) paradox. We argue that negative emotions are an important resource for the arts in general rather than a special license for exception...
Article
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Based on psychophysics’ pragmatic dualism, we trace the cognitive neuroscience of stability and variability in aesthetic experience. With regard to different domains of aesthetic processing, we touch upon the relevance of cognitive schemata for aesthetic preference. Attitudes and preferences are explored in detail. Evolutionary constraints on attit...
Article
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This psychophysiological study is the first to examine the relationship between emotional tears and emotional piloerection (i.e., goosebumps). Although both phenomena have been related to peak states of being moved, details about their temporal occurrence and the associated levels of physiological arousal have remained unknown. In our study, we use...
Article
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Objects from the Middle Paleolithic period colored with ochre and marked with incisions represent the beginning of non-utilitarian object manipulation in different species of the Homo genus. To investigate the visual effects caused by these markings, we compared humans who have different cultural backgrounds (Namibian hunter–gatherers and German ci...
Article
Parallelistic features of poetic and rhetorical language use comprise a great variety of linguistically optional patterns of phonological, prosodic, syntactic, and semantic recurrence. Going beyond studies on cognitive facilitation effects of individual parallelistic features (most notably rhyme, alliteration, and meter), the present study shows th...
Article
While covering all commentaries, our response specifically focuses on the following issues: How can the hypothesis of emotional distancing (qua art framing) be compatible with stipulating high levels of felt negative emotions in art reception? Which concept of altogether pleasurable mixed emotions does our model involve? Can mechanisms of predictiv...
Article
Changes in room acoustics provide important clues about the environment of sound source-perceiver systems, for example, by indicating changes in the reflecting characteristics of surrounding objects. To study the detection of auditory irregularities brought about by a change in room acoustics, a passive oddball protocol with participants watching a...
Article
In choice reaction time (RT) tasks, performance is often influenced by the presence of nominally irrelevant stimuli, referred to as distractors. Recent research provided evidence that distractor processing can be adjusted to the utility of the distractors: Distractors predictive of the upcoming target/response were more attended to and also elicite...
Poster
How does theory of mind (ToM) processing affect aesthetic appreciation and aesthetic judgment of different kinds of artistic objects? When aesthetically appreciating a piece of visual art such as a painting, further elaboration on thoughts about the artist‘s mental state could enhance the depth and comprehensiveness of the beholder’s aesthetic expe...
Article
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To prevent deployment-related disorders, Chaos Driven Situations Management Retrieval System (CHARLY), a computer-aided training platform with a biofeedback interface has been developed. It simulates critical situations photorealistic for certain target and occupational groups. CHARLY was evaluated as a 1.5 days predeployment training method compar...
Article
Purpose: Effects of categorical phonotactic knowledge on pre-attentive speech processing were investigated by presenting illegal speech input that violated a phonotactic constraint in German called "g-deletion." The present study aimed to extend previous findings of automatic processing of phonotactic violations and to investigate the role of stim...
Article
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The present paper aims to elucidate the conceptual structure of the aesthetics of literature.Following Fechner's "aesthetics from below" (1876) and adopting a method introduced by Jacobsen, Buchta, Kohler, and Schroeger (2004), we asked 1544 German-speaking research participants to list adjectives that they use to label aesthetic dimensions of lite...
Article
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Symmetric structures are of importance in relation to aesthetic preference. To investigate whether the preference for symmetric patterns is unique to humans, independent of their cultural background, we compared two human populations with distinct cultural backgrounds (Namibian hunter-gatherers and German town dwellers) with one species of non-huma...
Presentation
In some aesthetic episodes, theory of mind (ToM) processing may be an important or even essential sub-process. Further elaboration on thoughts about the artist‘s mental state could enhance the depth and comprehensiveness of the beholder’s aesthetic experience when aesthetically appreciating artistic objects like paintings or natural landscapes. Suc...
Article
Full-text available
Emotion-related areas of the brain, such as the medial frontal cortices, amygdala, and striatum, are activated during listening to sad or happy music as well as during listening to pleasurable music. Indeed, in music, like in other arts, sad and happy emotions might co-exist and be distinct from emotions of pleasure or enjoyment. Here we aimed at d...