Thomas Hartung

Thomas Hartung
Johns Hopkins University | JHU · Department of Environmental Health Sciences

MD PhD

About

782
Publications
252,023
Reads
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35,244
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - December 2013
Johns Hopkins University
January 2009 - present
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Position
  • Managing Director
October 2002 - March 2009
European Commission

Publications

Publications (782)
Article
Full-text available
Alternative methods to animal use in toxicology are evolving with new advanced tools and multilevel approaches, to answer from one side to 3Rs requirements, and on the other side offering relevant and valid tests for drugs and chemicals, considering also their combination in test strategies, for a proper risk assessment. While stand-alone methods,...
Article
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Public awareness and discussion about animal experiments and replacement methods has greatly increased in recent years. The term 'the Three Rs', which stands for the Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of animal experiments, is inseparably linked in this context. A common goal within the Three Rs scientific community is to develop predictive non-...
Article
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Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the generation and detoxification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). This imbalance plays an important role in brain aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. In the context of Parkinson's disease (PD), the sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars com...
Article
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a frequent neurological complication in immunosuppressed patients. PML is caused by the JC virus (JCV), a neurotropic DNA polyomavirus that infects oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, causing inflammation and demyelination which lead to neurological dysfunction. The pathogenesis of PML is poorly unde...
Article
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The development of therapies for and preventions against infectious diseases depends on the availability of disease models. Bioengineering of human organoids and organs-on-chips is one extremely promising avenue of research. These miniature, laboratory-grown organ systems have been broadly used during the ongoing, unprecedented coronavirus 2019 (CO...
Article
This study assessed the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and lymphoid organs (thymus, spleen, and bone marrow) of Wistar rats treated with a mixture of chromium and benzene. Animals were assessed at three time-points (45, 90 and 135 days) following oral mixture exposure. The hypothalamus-pituitary system was examined in light and el...
Article
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In the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, traditional, complex and lengthy methods of vaccine development and production would not have been able to ensure proper management of this global public health crisis. Hence, a number of technologies have been developed for obtaining a vaccine quickly and ensuring a large scale production, such as m...
Article
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Myelin is of vital importance to the central nervous system and its disruption is related to a large number of both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. The differences observed between human and rodent oligodendrocytes make animals inadequate for modeling these diseases. Although developing human in vitro models for oligodendrocytes...
Article
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Neurodevelopment is uniquely sensitive to toxic insults and there are concerns that environmental chemicals are contributing to widespread subclinical developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Increased DNT evaluation is needed due to the lack of such information for most chemicals in common use, but in vivo studies recommended in regulatory guidelines ar...
Chapter
Myelination is considered a critical process in the development of the vertebrate brain. This process is susceptible and can be affected by exposure to developmental neurotoxicants or by numerous diseases (e.g., Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Studying human myelination has been very difficult due to the lack of in...
Article
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Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a major public health concern caused by complex genetic and environmental components. Mechanisms of gene-environment (G×E) interactions and reliable biomarkers associated with ASD are mostly unknown or controversial. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients or with clustered regularly inter...
Article
Science changes in waves, the so-called paradigm shifts or scientific revolutions. This concept was prominently elaborated by Thomas S. Kuhn more than 50 years ago in what remains one of the most cited science philosophy books of all time. Kuhn described how "normal science" experiences anomalies, which bring it to crisis and revolution from which...
Article
Full-text available
Originally developed to inform the acute toxicity of chemicals on fish, the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) has also been proposed for assessing the prenatal developmental toxicity of chemicals, potentially replacing mammalian studies. While extensively evaluated in primary studies, a comprehensive review summarizing the available evidence for...
Article
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Green chemistry seeks to design less hazardous chemicals, but many of the efforts to replace chemicals have resulted in so-called “Regrettable Substitutions”, when a chemical with an unknown or unforeseen hazard is used to replace a chemical identified as problematic. Here, we discuss the literature on regrettable substitution and focus on an oft-m...
Article
The 3Rs concept, calling for replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experimentation, is receiving increasing attention around the world, and has found its way to legislation, in particular in the European Union. This is aligned by continuing high-level efforts of the European Commission to support development and implementation of 3Rs meth...
Article
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Failure to adequately characterize cell lines, and understand the differences between in vitro and in vivo biology, can have serious consequences on the translatability of in vitro scientific studies to human clinical trials. This project focuses on the Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells, a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line that is comm...
Article
The Bacterial Endotoxin Test (BET) is a method for exclusion of endotoxin-related pyrogen contamination in pharmaceutical products, as an alternative to the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT). However, BET does not detect a broad range of biologically relevant pyrogens, and interferences can limit its practical use for different medical products. This work...
Article
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Background: Humans are exposed to tens of thousands of chemical substances that need to be assessed for their potential toxicity. Acute systemic toxicity testing serves as the basis for regulatory hazard classification, labeling, and risk management. However, it is cost- and time-prohibitive to evaluate all new and existing chemicals using traditi...
Article
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https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214750021000469 Abstract Alcohol consumption is associated with multiple diseases and might contribute to vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 infection. It can also catalyze exacerbations of mental and organic illnesses and predispose to behaviors with an increased risk of infection, severity of disease b...
Article
The haploinsufficiency of C9orf72 is implicated in the most common forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but the full spectrum of C9orf72 functions remains to be established. Here, we report that C9orf72 is a mitochondrial inner-membrane-associated protein regulating cellular energy homeostasis via its crit...
Article
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Microphysiological systems (MPS) designed to study the complexities of the peripheral and central nervous systems have made marked improvements over the years and have allowed researchers to assess in two and three dimensions the functional interconnectivity of neuronal tissues. The recent generation of brain organoids has further propelled the fie...
Article
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Due to regulatory bans and voluntary substitutions, halogenated polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants (FR) are increasingly substituted by mainly organophosphorus FR (OPFR). Leveraging a 3D rat primary neural organotypic in vitro model (rat brainsphere), we compare developmental neurotoxic effects of BDE-47—the most abundant PBDE co...
Article
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The whole blood pyrogen test invented 25 years ago, and its variant based on cryo-preserved blood one year later, brought momentum into the field of pyrogen testing, which, despite the broad application of the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, aka bacterial endotoxin test (BET), consumed several hundred thousand rabbits per year world-wide. The...
Chapter
Science changes in waves, the so-called paradigm shifts or scientific revolutions. This concept was prominently elaborated on by Thomas S. Kuhn more than 50 years ago, which remains one of the most cited science philosophy books of all time. Kuhn described how “normal science” experiences anomalies that bring it to crisis and revolution from which...
Article
Chemical respiratory sensitization is an immunological process that manifests clinically mostly as occupational asthma and is responsible for 1 in 6 cases of adult asthma, although this may be an underestimate of the prevalence, as it is under-diagnosed. Occupational asthma results in unemployment for roughly one-third of those affected due to seve...
Article
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COVID-19 pandemic mitigation strategies are mainly based on social distancing measures and healthcare system reinforcement. However, many countries in Europe and elsewhere implemented strict, horizontal lockdowns because of extensive viral spread in the community which challenges the capacity of the healthcare systems. However, strict lockdowns hav...
Article
The objective of this short paper is to call upon the scientific community to channel its attention to the duty and heedfulness of social justice issues. While recognized for decades the impact of social injustice on public health and its disproportionate effects on poorer communities, little has been done to systematically address it. Here, we pro...
Article
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Glioblastoma is a very aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, with very low survival rates and no curative treatments. The high failure rate of drug development for this cancer is linked to the high-cost, time-consuming, and inefficient models used to study the disease. Advances in stem cell and in vitro cultures technologies are promising, howe...
Article
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IntroductionThe metabolomics quality assurance and quality control consortium (mQACC) evolved from the recognized need for a community-wide consensus on improving and systematizing quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) practices for untargeted metabolomics.Objectives In this work, we sought to identify and share the common and divergent Q...
Article
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Background The pandemic associated with the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus continues to spread worldwide. The most favorable epidemic control scenario, which provides long-term protection against COVID-19 outbreak, is the development and distribution of an effective and safe vaccine. The need to develop a new COVID-19 vaccine is pressing; however, it i...
Article
Full-text available
Reports from Wuhan suggest that 36% of COVID-19 patients show neurological symptoms, and cases of viral encephalitis have been reported, suggesting that the virus is neurotropic under unknown circumstances. This is well established for other coronaviruses. In order to understand why some patients develop such symptoms and others do not, we address...
Presentation
Full-text available
The COVID-19-inducing virus, SARS-CoV2, is likely to remain a threat to human health unless efficient drugs or vaccines become available. Given the extent of the current pandemic (people in over one hundred countries infected) and its disastrous effect on world economy (associated with limitations of human rights), speedy drug discovery is critical...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19-inducing virus, SARS-CoV2, is likely to remain a threat to human health unless efficient drugs or vaccines become available. Given the extent of the current pandemic (people in over one hundred countries infected) and its disastrous effect on world economy (associated with limitations of human rights), speedy drug discovery is critical...
Article
Full-text available
The global increases in life expectancy and population have resulted in a growing ageing population and with it a growing number of people living with age-related neurodegenerative conditions and dementia, shifting focus towards methods of prevention, with lifestyle approaches such as nutrition representing a promising avenue for further developmen...
Article
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Seven years after the last release, the European Commission has again collated and released data on laboratory animal use. The new report is the first to correspond to the requirements of the new Directive 2010/63/EU. Beside minor problems in reporting, the new reporting format is a major step forward, with additional new categories like severity a...
Article
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Cancer is a comparatively well-studied disease, yet despite decades of intense focus, we demonstrate here using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas that a substantial number of genes implicated in cancer are relatively poorly studied. Those genes will likely be missed by any data analysis pipeline, such as enrichment analysis, that depends exclusivel...
Article
At the 2019 annual meeting of the European Environmental Mutagen and Genomics Society a workshop session related to the use of read across concepts in toxicology was held. The goal of this session was to provide the audience an overview of general read-across concepts. From ECHA’s read across assessment framework, the starting point is chemical sim...
Article
Full-text available
The first microfluidic microphysiological systems (MPS) entered the academic scene more than 15 years ago and were considered an enabling technology to human (patho)biology in vitro and, therefore, provide alternative approaches to laboratory animals in pharmaceutical drug development and academic research. Nowadays, the field generates more than a...
Article
Full-text available
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are frequently used to treat depression during pregnancy. Various concerns have been raised about the possible effects of these drugs on fetal development. Current developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing conducted in rodents is expensive, time-consuming, and does not necessarily represent human path...
Article
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The transition from traditional 2D models to three-dimensional (3D) systems represents the most important innovation of the last decades. Numerous studies now employ 3D systems, spheroids and organoids, also based on pluripotent stem cells, for the study of drug toxicity. However, the still high cost of these systems limits their use in xenobiotic...
Article
Full-text available
Advances in the biological sciences have led to an ongoing paradigm shift in toxicity testing based on expanded application of high-throughput in vitro screening and in silico methods to assess potential health risks of environmental agents. This review examines progress on the vision for toxicity testing elaborated by the US National Research Coun...
Article
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Complementing the human genome with an exposome reflects the increasingly obvious impact of environmental exposure, which far exceeds the role of genetics, on human health. Considering the complexity of exposures and, in addition, the reactions of the body to exposures – i.e., the exposome – reverses classical exposure science where the precise mea...
Article
Full-text available
Reports from Wuhan suggest that 36% of COVID-19 patients show neurological symptoms, and cases of viral encephalitis have been reported, suggesting that the virus is neurotropic under unknown circumstances. This is well established for other coronaviruses. In order to understand why some patients develop such symptoms and others do not, we address...